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Yearbook U. S Dept of Agriculture. 1913 



Frontispiece 




Upper Figure: WoodThrush(Hylocichla Mustelina) 
Lower Figure' Hermit Thrush (Hylocickla Guttata Pallasi) 



t"r -.ac"£t: « witHt. 



gj Lg 

YEARBOOK 

OF THE 

UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF 
AGRICULTURE 



1913 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1914 



dl & 



[Chapter 23, Stat. L., 1895.] 

* * * * * 

[AN ACT Providing for the public printing and binding and the distribution of public 

documents.] 

* * * * * * 

Section 73, paragraph 2: 

The Annual Report of the Secretary of Agriculture shall hereafter be 
submitted and printed in two parts, as follows: Part One, which shall 
contain purely business and executive matter which it is necessary for 
the Secretary to submit to the President and Congress; Part Two, which 
shall contain such reports from the different Bureaus and Divisions, and 
such papers prepared by their special agents, accompanied by suitable 
illustrations, as shall, in the opinion of the Secretary, be specially suited 
to interest and instruct the farmers of the country, and to include a 
general report of t!je operations of the Department for their information. 
There shall be printed of Part One, one thousand copies for the Senate, 
two thousand copies for the House, and three thousand copies for the 
Department of Agriculture; and of Part Two, one hundred and ten 
thousand copies for the use of the Senate, three hundred and sixty thou- 
sand copies for the use of the House of Representatives, and thirty thou- 
sand copies for the use of the Department of Agriculture, the illustra- 
tions for the same to be executed under the supervision of the Public 
Printer, in accordance with directions of the Joint Committee on Print- 
ing, said illustrations to be subject to the approval of the Secretary of 
Agriculture; and the title of each of the said parts shall be such as to 
show that such part is complete in itself. 



ORGANIZATION OP U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



Secretary of Agriculture, David Franklin Houston. 
Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, Reverly T. Galloway. 
Solicitor, Francis G. Caffey. 

Attorney in Charge of Forest Appeals, Thomas G. Shearman. 
Chief Clerk, R. M. Reese. 
Appointment Clerk; R. W. Roberts. 
Special Agent on Exhibits, F. Lamson-Scribner. 
Office of Information, G. W. Wharton, Chief. 
Weather Bureau, Charles F. Marvin, Chief. 
Bureau of Animal Industry, Alonzo D. Melvin, Chief. 
Bureau of Plant Industry, Wm. A. Taylor, Plant Physiologist and Patholo- 
gist and Chief. 
Forest Service, Henry S. Graves, Forester and Chief. 
Bureau of Entomology, L. O. Howard, Entomologist and Chief. 
Bureau of Chemistry, Carl L. Alsberg, Chemist and Chief. 
Bureau of Soils, Milton Whitney, Soil Physicist and Chief. 
Bureau of Biological Survey, Henry W. Henshaw, Biologist and Chief. 
Division of Accounts, A. Zappone, Chief and Disbursing Clerk. 
Division of Publications, Jos. A. Arnold, Editor and Chief 
Bureau of Statistics (Agricultural Forecasts), Leon M. Estabrook, Chief. 
Office of Experiment Stations, A. C. True, Director. 
Office of Public Roads, Logan Waller Page, Director. 
Insecticide and Fungicide Board, J. K. Haywood, Chairman. 
Federal Horticultural Board, C. L. Marlatt, Chairman. 
Office of Markets, Charles J. Brand, Chief. 

3 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Report of the Secretary 9 

Bringing Applied Entomology to the Farmer. By P. M. Webster. . 75 

Factors of Efficiency in Farming. By W. J. Spillman 93 

Promising New Fruits. By William A. Taylor and H. P. Gould 109 

HealthLaws. By Francis G. Caff ey 125 

The American Thrushes Valuable Bird Neighbors. Prepared from 

data furnished by F. E. L. Beal 135 

What the Department of Agriculture is doing for the Housekeeper. 

By C. F. Langworthy 143 

Practical Tree Surgery. By J. Franklin Collins 163 

Supplementing our Meat Supply with Fish. By M. E. Pennington 191 

Economic Waste from Soil Erosion. By R. 0. E. Davis 207 

The Grain Sorghums. By C. R. Ball 221 

The Organization of Rural Interests. By T. N. Carver 239 

The Production of Beef in the South. By W. F. Ward 259 

Hemp. By L. H. Dewey 283 

The South American Meat Industry. By A. D. Melvin 347 

Appendix: 

Agricultural Colleges in the United States 365 

Agricultural Experiment Stations in the United States, their 

Locations and Directors 367 

State Officials in Charge of Agriculture 368 

Statistics of the Principal Crops 369 

Animals Imported for Breeding Purposes for which Certificates 

of Pure Breeding have been Issued 514 

5 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PLATES. 

Page. 

Wood thrush and hermit thrush Frontispiece. 

Plate I. Field laboratories and breeding cages 80 

II. Field laboratories 80 

III. Field laboratories 80 

IV. Field laboratory and breeding cages 80 

V. Camp laboratory on the New Mexico range 80 

VI. Collecting and distributing parasites of injurious insects 80 

VII. Banana apple 112 

VIII. McCroskey apple 112 

IX. Opalescent apple 112 

X. Lizzie peach 112 

XI. Flowers ana James grapes 120 

XII. Triumph persimmon 120 

XIII. Lue orange 120 

XIV. Boone chestnut 120 

XV. Robin (Planesticm migratorius) 136 

XVI. Properly treated injuries, showing normal healing, and untreated in- 
juries, showing normal progress of decay 168 

XVII. Removal of large limbs, showing proper and improper method 168 

XVIII. Long cavities through several openings and a short cavity excavated 

through one opening 168 

XIX. Detailed views of excavated, bolted, and cemented cavities 168 

XX. Cement cavity rilling, showing different types and successive stages 176 

XXI. A damaged cement fllling, types of uncemented cavities, and cross sec- 
tion showing method of attaching guy chain 176 

XXII. Views showing proper method of fastening guy chains and bolts and im- 
proper method of attaching wires 176 

XXIII. Fig. 1. — Erosion in pasture resulting from destruction of grass cover. Fig. 

2. — Erosion in Orangeburg clay loam 212 

XXIV. Fig. 1.— Erosion in Coastal Plain uplands. Fig. 2.— Erosion in Clarksville 

silt loam 212 

XXV. Fig. 1,— Erosion in clay loam with sandy subsoil. Fig. 2. — Bottom land 

ruined by sand brought down from near-by hills 212 

XXVI. Fig. 1. — Erosion in sandy loam. Fig. 2. — Erosion following abandonment 

retarded by natural growth of pine, shrubs, and grasses 212 

XXVII. Fig. 1.— Terraced slope. Fig. 2.— A well-terraced field 216 

XXVIII. Fig. 1. — Poorly kept and broken terraces. Fig. 2. — A system of Mangum 

terraces 2lfi 

XXIX. Fig. 1. — Plants of different varieties of sorghum from India. Fig. 2.— Field 
of kaoliang curing in the shock, Harbin, Manchuria. Fig. 3. — Five va- 
rieties of kaoliang 224 

XXX. Fig. 1. — Plants of two Abyssinian sorghums. Fig. 2. — Heads of four va- 
rieties of kafir 224 

XXXI. Fig. 1. — Seeds of grain sorghums. Fig. 2. — Plat of dwarf milo, showing 

pendant (goosenecked) heads 224 

XXXII. Fig. 1.— Three plants of Blackhull kafir, 5.5 feet high, selected for low stat- 
ure and high yielding power. Fig. 2. — Original plat of dwarf and early 

Blackhull kafir 224 

XXXIII. Fig. 1.— Plat of dwarf Blackhull kafir, August 31, 1911. Fig. 2.— A plat of 

Blackhull kafir, August 31, 1911 232 

7 



Illustrations. 



Plate XXXIV.. Fig. 1. — A plat of feterita, showing thin stand and uneven growth. 

Fig. 2. — Plat of selected Manchuria kaoliang 232 

XXXV. Fig. 1. — Milo seeds, hulled and unhulled, and a small branch of a 
head. Fig. 2.— Milo field in shock, Channing, Tex., September 18, 
1906. Fig. 3. — Field of milo as improved by selection, from 4 to 

4.5 feet tall, slender, without branches, heads mostly erect 232 

XXXVI. Fig. 1. — Breeding-cows on pasture in Mississippi. Fig. 2.— An Ala- 
bama beef herd on natural pasture 272 

XXXVII. Fig. 1.— Portion of a herd of breeding-cows on an Alabama farm. 

Fig. 2. — Tennessee steers in the feed lot 272 

XXXVIII. Fig. 1.— Wintering steers in the South. Fig. 2.— Short-horned calves 

raised on a tick-free farm in Tennessee 272 

XXXIX. Fig. 1.— A Mississippi raised bull calf. Fig. 2. — A yearling bull raised 

in Mississippi 272 

XL. Hemp, plant and fiber 304 

XLI. Details of hemp plant 304 

XLII. Different types of hemp and seed hemp 304 

XLIII. Seed hemp and maladies 304 

XLIV. Collecting seeds and retting stocks 320 

- XLV. Cuttinghemp 320 

XLVI. Breaking hemp 320 

XI.VII. Argentine cattle 352 

XLVIII. Export meat in Argentina 352 

XLIX. Live-stock transportation in Argentina 352 

L. Fig. 1. — Loading beefforexportinArgentina. Fig. 2. — Short-horned 

bull at Palermo stock show, Argentina 352 

LI. Prize cattle at stock show in Uruguay 360 

LII. Live stock in Uruguay 360 

LIII. Prize sheep at stock show in Uruguay : : 360 

LIV. Cattle in Brazil 360 

TEXT FIGURES. 

Fig. 1. Scarab of Usertesen I; 2758-2714 B.C., giving the King's name; Kheper- ka- ra. 75 

2. The common American dung beetle or tumble bug in act of rolling its ball 76 

3. A portion of the marriage scarab of Amenhotep III and Queen Tyi; 1414-1379 

B. C 76 

4. Facsimile of the totem of the Illinois Indians 77 

5. Comparative area of grain sorghum and corn in Kansas, 1904-1913 231 

6. Annual acre value per acre of grain sorghum and corn in Kansas, 1904-1913 232 

7. Comparative area of grain sorghum and corn in Oklahoma, 1904-1911 233 

8. Annual acre value of grain sorghum and corn in Oklahoma, 1904-1911 233 

9. Area of grain sorghum and corn in western Kansas, 1904-1913 234 

10. Annual acre value of grain sorghum and corn in western Kansas, 1904-1913 234 

11. Annual area of grain sorghum and corn in western Oklahoma, 1904-1911 235 

12. Annual acre value of grain sorghum and corn in western Oklahoma, 1904-1911 . . 236 

13. Cooperative creameries in the United States 244-245 

14. Cooperative cheese factories in the United States 246-247 

15. Farmers' cooperative elevators in the United States 248-249 

16. Farmers' mutual insurance companies in the United States 250-251 

17. Chinese character ma, the earliest name for hemp 288 

18. Map of the world, showing the location of hemp cultivation for fiber, oil, and 

drug, with the sources and dates of introduction 296 

19. Variation in market quotations of American, Russian, and Italian hemp, and 

also of a standard high grade of jute 338 

20. Importations and average import price of hemp for 33 years, together with 

changes in the rate of import duty 339 

21. Map showing areas of hemp cultivation and location of hemp spinning mills in 

the United States 340 



YEARBOOK OFTHE 

U.S.DEPARTMENT OFAGRICULTURE 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

MR. PRESIDENT: I respectfully present my report for 
the Department of Agriculture for the year 1913. I 
shall deal as briefly as possible with the business of the de- 
partment, point out the changes in organization that have 
been made, summarize the more important results and de- 
velopments, and indicate the recommendations submitted to 
Congress for action. 

Those interested in the details of the work of the several 
bureaus and divisions will find in the reports from the several 
officers full and detailed information. 

BUSINESS OPERATIONS. 

The scope of the activities of the department is constantly 
increasing. When the department was first organized and 
for a number of years thereafter its work was confined 
largely to matters directly affecting agriculture. Later, the 
Weather Bureau and the Forest Service were transferred to 
the department, and more recent legislation has charged the 
department with the enforcement of numerous regulatory 
laws, including those relating to meat inspection, animal 
and plant quarantine, foods and drugs, game and migratory 
birds, seed adulteration, insecticides and fungicides, the 
manufacture of vaccines and viruses, etc., many of which 
have only an indirect bearing on agriculture. Its activities 
now affect not only those living in rural communities but 
urban dwellers as well; so it can be said that the work of the 
department at the present time concerns directly or indirectly 
all the people. 

APPROPRIATIONS. 

To carry on the work of the Department of Agriculture 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1913, Congress appro- 
priated $16,651,496 for ordinary expenses, in addition to 

9 



10 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

which permanent annual appropriations, special appro- 
priations, and balances from prior years amounting to 
$8,303,412.68were available, making a total of $24,954,908.68. 
The total funds which have been or will be returned to 
the Treasury as unexpended balances of appropriations and 
miscellaneous receipts aggregate $3,132,303.82. Of this 
amount, there was received during the fiscal year ended 
June 30 last, from the sale of timber, for grazing, con- 
demned property, etc., $2,449,287.66, which has been depos- 
ited in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts and can not be 
used unless reappropriated by Congress. 

COMPARISON OF EXPENDITURES FOR VARIOUS LINES OF WORK. 

The present appropriations for work of a regulatory 
nature or only indirectly affecting agriculture constitute 
about three-fifths of the total funds of the department, or 
approximately $15,000,000, leaving two-fifths, or $9,000,000, 
available for scientific research, experiments, and demon- 
stration work directly affecting the farmer. While it would 
be difficult to segregate the funds which are used for purely 
demonstration work, because of its close relation in many 
instances to investigational work, it is safe to say that more 
than $1,000,000 is devoted to such work. 

APPROPRIATIONS RECOMMENDED. 

In the estimates for the next fiscal year I have recom- 
mended an increase in the appropriations for the department 
of $1,074,387. The principal items in this increase are: 

For extending the work of eradicating animal diseases, 
the enlargement of the work in feeding and breeding live 
stock, for dairying, and for enlarging and enforcing the 
meat-inspection law, $250,860. 

For the extension of investigations in connection with the 
introduction and breeding of new plants, the study and 
control of plant diseases, and the improvement of crop 
production with particular reference to cereals, $45,660. 

For the classification of agricultural lands and the survey 
of forest homesteads on the national forests, $143,577. 

For extending the investigations of the handling, shipping, 
and storing of poultry, eggs, and fish, which are carried on in 



Report of the Secretary. 11 

connection with the enforcement of the food and drugs 
act, $60,441. 

For enlarging the investigation of fertilizer resources, soil- 
fertility investigations, and investigations of the chemical 
and physical properties of soils, $24,420. 

For extending investigations in connection with insects 
attacking deciduous fruits, cereals, forage crops, and forest 
trees, $71,000. 

For the enforcement of the migratory bird law, $90,000. 

For increasing the accuracy of crop forecasts and esti- 
mates, $57,000. 

For extending the study of road management and investi- 
gations of road construction and maintenance, $113,550. 

For investigations of the marketing and distribution of 
farm products, $144,000. 

For the inauguration of live-stock and crop demonstra- 
tions in the sugar-cane and cotton areas of Louisiana, 
$50,000. 

A recommendation has been made for the discontinuance 
of the present method of congressional seed distribution and 
the substitution of constructive work in the securing and 
distributing of new and valuable seeds and plants. This 
work can be done at a decreased cost of $146,000. 

By reorganizations in the work of the Weather Bureau a 
saving of $37,340 can be effected, and yet the efficiency of 
the work can be increased. A decrease of the amount indi- 
cated has been recommended accordingly. 

IMPROVED ACCOUNTING SYSTEM. 

An important change in the system of handling the fiscal 
affairs and methods of accounting in the department was 
effected toward the close of the year. The change so far 
is proving very satisfactory, and is resulting in great economy 
in time and money. 

A further change has been made. The administrative 
audit of accounts, formerly made in the Division of Accounts 
and Disbursements, has been transferred to the several 
bureaus. This change was made necessary by a provision 
in the act of August 23, 1912 (37 Stat., p. 375). The head 
of each bureau is now held responsible for the accuracy of 
accounts arising in his bureau. 



12 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

Under the revised system of accounting the classification 
of expenditures according to their character, which was one 
of the features of the system inaugurated by the Commission 
on Economy and Efficiency, has been retained, but in a sim- 
plified form. The budget plan recommended by the com- 
mission is used to a considerable extent in preparing the 
annual estimates. The various supervising officers estimate 
the amounts which will be needed for the various items of 
expenditure, including salaries, travel, station and field 
expenses, equipment, apparatus, stationery, furniture, rent, 
freight, fuel, etc., and from these estimates the total funds 
which will be required for each line of work or activity are 
computed. 

PERSONNEL. 

The securing of men of the requisite training and experience 
in the various fields of agricultural science has been one of 
the serious problems which for some time has confronted 
the department. Two causes have tended to bring about 
this situation. One has been the low maximum salary 
which the department is permitted to pay to its scientific 
investigators as compared with the salaries paid by outside 
institutions and commercial concerns. The other has been 
the comparatively small number of strong, virile men who 
have been trained in scientific agriculture. Because of the 
great demand for such men in this country and abroad, the 
department is constantly losing men whom it ought to keep, 
and it is unable to find an adequate supply of just the right 
type of man to replace them. With the growing demands 
for men trained in the newer fields of rural economics, rural 
sanitation, marketing, cooperation, and similar subjects, 
the situation is becoming acute. 

Under the present law the maximum salary which can be 
paid is $4,000. Many of the leaders in the department are 
men who could command salaries in many cases more than 
twice what they are receiving, but who remain because of 
their interest in the work. It is only fair to such men that 
the department should be in a position to recognize their 
services to the country in a substantial way. 

The department has consistently maintained that its 
scientific work would be seriously handicapped by the crea- 
tion of fixed or statutory positions for its scientific investi- 



Report of the Secretary. 13 

gators, and that a system of fixed salaries would cause it 
to lose many men because of the great demand for their 
services on the outside. Authority is now vested in the 
Secretary to make promotions of employees engaged in 
scientific and technical work from time to time. Great care 
has been exercised to prevent abuse of this authority, and 
the plan has proved extremely satisfactory as well as econom- 
ical. Practically all of the clerical and subclerical employees 
of the department are on the statutory roll, and no par- 
ticular difficulty has been experienced under the system of 
fixed salaries. 

CHANGES IN PERSONNEL. 

There were 14,478 employees in the department on July 
1, 1913. Of these, 2,924 were employed in Washington and 
11,554 outside of Washington. Of the entire force, 1,812 
were engaged in scientific investigations and research, 1,323 
in demonstration and extension work, 687 in administrative 
and supervisory work, 6,021 in regulatory and related work, 
and 4,635 were clerks and employees below the grade of 
clerk. One thousand one hundred and thirty-four proba- 
tional appointments in the classified service (positions sub- 
ject to examination), 153 reinstatements, and 83 transfers 
from other departments were made during the past year. 
There were 2,699 promotions and 113 reductions in salaries. 
The resignations totaled 885; 227 appointments were ter- 
minated; 38 persons were removed from the service on 
account of misconduct; and there were 52 deaths. In the 
positions excepted from examination, chiefly agents and 
experts, there were 2,919 appointments made for temporary 
periods, 145 promotions in salary, and 115 reductions. Four 
hundred and twenty-four of these employees were separated 
from the service through removal, resignation, or death, and 
1,925 appointments terminated. 

EFFICIENCY RATINGS. 

The need in the department of a uniform system of effi- 
ciency ratings and registers for clerical and subclerical 
employees on the statutory roll on which to base promotions 
has been felt for a long time. After conference with the 
civil-service officials, such a system was inaugurated early 
in the summer. It is believed that this system will eliminate 



14 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

to a large extent the danger of making favoritism or any other 
consideration rather than merit the reason for promotion. 

The department is working in the closest possible relation- 
ship with the Civil Service Commission in the handling of its 
appointments. Because of the technical and scientific 
nature of much of the work of the department, it has been 
found difficult to secure the right kind of men from tho 
regular registers of the commission. It has therefore been 
necessary to hold special examinations from time to time. 

CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT. 

The foregoing changes were made to promote economy, 
the orderly handling of financial matters, and the develop- 
ment of individual efficiency in the business force. Other 
changes in organization have been effected which aim to 
develop better coordination among the several bureaus of 
the department and between the department and other 
Federal departments and the State agricultural agencies. 

REORGANIZATION OF THE WEATHER BUREAU. 

Following the report of a special committee charged with 
suggestions for the reorganization of the Weather Bureau, 
changes have been brought about which reduce expense, 
eliminate certain duplications between Federal departments, 
and restore that bureau strictly to its field of scientific use- 
fulness, from which at one time it had somewhat departed. 
Under this reorganization it will conduct its work wholly 
in the interests of agriculture, commerce, and navigation, 
and will plan its research work with a view to improving 
its services to these three important interests. 

THE STATIONS AND SUBSTATIONS. 

One of the first steps will be the gradual reorganization 
of the stations and substations. This will include the 
elimination of stations and substations which are not needed, 
the limiting to forecasting of the work of stations which are 
not well located for carrying on climatological work pre- 
viously assigned to them, the discontinuance of the issuance 
of complete maps from stations in territories where these 
maps have not proved of interest or particular value, and the 
confining of the work of certain stations to special crop 



Report of the Secretary. 15 

service. In this plan certain river, rainfall, and snowfall 
stations will be discontinued and changes will be made in the 
location of other stations to effect telegraphic, cable, and 
telephonic economies. 

COOPERATION WITH THE HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE. 

Cooperation between the Hydrographic Office of the Navy 
Department and the Weather Bureau in the matter of the 
publication of marine meteorological charts has been effected. 
The Weather Bureau will discontinue the publication of 
marine meteorological charts and will hereafter supply to the 
Hydrographic Office for publication on the pilot charts all 
necessary meteorological data, and the Hydrographic Office 
will reciprocate by supplying these charts to all Weather 
Bureau stations requiring them. 

CHANGE OF PLAN AT MOUNT WEATHER. 

One of the most important recommendations is that the 
extensive work in meteorology, observation of terrestrial 
magnetism, study of solar and astrophysical problems, and 
aerial observations, hitherto carried on at Mount Weather, 
near Bluemont, Va., be discontinued, and that it be made 
a simple meteorological station for the taking of climatologi- 
cal records. The committee, in a complete report on the 
subject, found that the property at Mount Weather was 
purchased prior to 1903 and building operations begun early 
in the summer of that year. A committee of scientists from 
the bureau reported against the use of this property for 
aerial research in 1903, and within the past year other com- 
mittees reported that solar radiation, upper-air research, 
and dynamic meteorology could better be carried on at other 
locations. For this reason the department has determined 
to discontinue the research work at this observatory and 
operate it simply for the taking of climatological records. 
This can be done by the man who will protect the property, 
at a total cost of about $1,000 per year. This will make 
available approximately $12,600, which can be expended 
to far greater advantage for scientific research. 

LINES OF WORK. 

The work of the Weather Bureau will be strengthened 
by increased attention to the matter of special crop warnings, 
designed to give growers of special crops an opportunity to 



16 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

take protective measures. This is particularly important 
for the southern fruit crops, which are subject to damage 
by unexpected frosts. The bureau will also develop its work 
of giving flood warnings to districts along waterways which 
are subject to sudden rises. 

The forecasting and warnings service will be improved by 
the assignment of assistant forecasters to certain centers so 
that the evening forecasts for these districts can be made 
at the center. 

The scientific work will include special attention to studies 
of storm, hurricane, frost, and cold waves, normal monthly 
storm tracts, the magnetics and thermodynamics of the 
atmosphere, solar radiation, quantity and quality of day- 
light, light intensity and sun and shade temperatures, tem- 
perature in relation to plant growth, evaporation, water 
requirements of crops, precipitation and snowfall, rivers and 
floods, and motions of the lower atmosphere — a study which 
is of growing importance, especially to aviators and engineers. 

REORGANIZATION OF THE BUREAU OF STATISTICS (AGRICUL- 
TURAL FORECASTS). 

It is proposed that the name of the Bureau of Statistics be 
changed to "Bureau of Agricultural Forecasts," as indicating 
more clearly the nature of its work. The figures compiled 
and published by the bureau are simply estimates or fore- 
casts of crop prospects or production based upon the most 
careful use of all information attainable from thoroughly 
•reliable sources. Much of the work of a purely statistical 
nature hitherto carried on by this bureau has now been 
assigned to other branches of the department or to other 
Federal departments to which it more properly belongs. 

COOPERATION WITH POST OPMCE DEPARTMENT. 

In the preparation of forecasts of production the depart- 
ment has entered into a cooperative arrangement with the 
Post Office Department which it is believed will make the 
figures of the estimates and forecasts still more reliable. 
Through this arrangement it is hoped that a system can be 
effectively inaugurated whereby the rural postmasters and 
rural route mail carriers will assist in collecting actual figures 
of total acreage and also gather complete figures of live stock. 



Report of the Secretary . 17 

FIELD FORECAST AGENTS AND CROP SPECIALISTS. 

•With a view to increasing the accuracy of its forecasts the 
bureau proposes to employ a number of specially qualified 
field forecast agents and crop specialists, to be obtained 
through rigid civil-service examination. The field forecast 
agents will be assigned to States in which agricultural pro- 
duction is not large and will spend their entire time in investi- 
gation of actual crop conditions within their territories. 
Crop specialists who have hitherto been used in gathering 
information on special crops, such as tobacco and cotton, 
will be employed to gather similar data on other important 
agricultural products. The system of collecting information 
through county, township, and individual voluntary corre- 
spondents will be retained, improved, and strengthened. 

SIMULTANEOUS PUBLICATION OF FORECASTS. 

It was found upon investigation that details of individual 
State forecasts must be in the hands of the farmer with the 
least possible delay if he is to gain from them any advantage 
in the marketing of his own products. By simple and 
effective cooperation with the Weather Bureau this result 
has been achieved effectively and at a purely nominal cost. 
Under this plan the important details of forecasts for each 
State are telegraphed to the central weather station in that 
State. The weather station immediately prints copies of 
these figures, which show the forecast for that State com- 
pared with 10-year averages. The information is mailed 
without delay to all newspapers and agricultural and com- 
mercial publications within that State and reaches them 
within 24 hours, thus quickly reaching the actual producer. 
By this method the farmers in States distant from Washing- 
ton get the State forecast, which, it has been found, is an 
even more important factor in the disposal of their products 
than the forecast.of total production in the country, without 
the long delay which would follow if these State forecasts were 
mailed from Washington. 

COMMITTEE OF COOPERATION. 

In order to coordinate certain phases of the work of the 
Bureau of Agricultural Forecasts with other branches of the 
department, and also to prevent duplication of work and 

27306°— TBK 1813 2 



18 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

lack of harmony in statistical matters between the depart- 
ment and other Federal departments, a committee of coopera- 
tion has been established. 

COOPERATION IN SOIL-SURVEY WORK. 

With the view of making soil surveys more valuable to the 
farmer, a new basis of cooperation has been established with 
the States through their experiment stations, agricultural 
colleges, and agricultural bureaus. Under this plan the 
department will give precedence in conducting detailed soil 
surveys to those States which cooperate with the department 
in the matter and which request that such surveys be made. 
During the past year 19 States have appropriated money 
for soil surveys in cooperation with the department. If the 
request for soil surveys on the part of cooperating States 
absorbs all the department's funds for such work, no projects 
will be undertaken in noncooperating States. It is believed 
that where the soil surveys are made at the special request of 
the State agricultural agency and in districts where the State 
is actively engaged in extension work, the State authorities 
will be willing and able to help the farmer to gain the greatest 
possible benefit from the department's reports and soil- 
survey maps. 

A second phase of cooperation in soil-survey matters ha!s 
been the work of the department in limiting its so-called 
reconnoissance surveys largely to land classification of the 
national forests and to undeveloped areas of the country 
where detailed information is not immediately needed; work 
has been done in 10 States covering 30 projects. 

COOPERATION IN LEGAL WORK. • 

Through cooperation with the Department of Justice 
arrangements have been effected during the year by the 
Solicitor for the more expeditious and economical handling 
of criminal cases and highly technical cases under the food 
and drugs act and the insecticide act. Hereafter the Solicitor 
will report criminal cases to the Department of Justice in the 
form of criminal informations, which, if approved by the 
United States attorneys, may be immediately filed. This 
will economize the time of the Department of Justice and 
expedite action in the courts. A similar system for handling 



Report of the Secretary. 19 

all cases under the penal statutes committed to this depart- 
ment for administration will be recommended. 

In the trial of the cases under these acts the points of issue 
frequently call for a complete understanding on the part of 
the legal representative of the Government of highly techni- 
cal questions of chemistry and food or drug technology. The 
department, therefore, has made arrangements whereby in 
cases involving intricate technical questions the Solicitor and 
his assistants will assist the United States attorneys in the 
actual trials. In this way there will be placed at the disposal 
of the Department of Justice the more intimate knowledge 
which necessarily must be obtained by the Solicitor in prepa- 
ration of the case than can be acquired by the United States 
attorneys through correspondence or in the restricted time 
at their command. 

There is now under consideration a scheme of cooperation 
between the Department of the Interior and this department 
with respect to the handling of litigation involving claims to 
lands within the national forests, with a view to determining 
whether, and if so, to what extent, there may be duplication 
of work. The ultimate purpose is to recommend such change 
in the procedure as may be necessary to eliminate such dupli- 
cation. 

CHANGES AFFECTING THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE FOOD AND 

DRUGS ACT. 

MEATS AND MEA1 POOD PRODUCTS. 

The decision of the Attorney General, and subsequent 
action by the Secretaries of the Treasury, Agriculture, and 
Commerce, in rescinding regulation No. 39 placed meats and 
meat food products under the provisions of the food and 
drugs act as well as under the meat-inspection law. Prior 
to that time meats and meat food products had been exempt 
from the operation of the so-called pure-food law. Placing 
all these products under the provisions ot this act called for 
the establishment of new machinery and certain reorganiza- 
tions in the Bureau of Chemistry, and made necessary close 
cooperation between that bureau and the Bureau ot Animal 
Industry. The general effect of the change was to give the 
Federal Government control over meat and meat food 
products in interstate commerce in all stages of their transit, 



20 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

instead of largely limiting their control to these products 
while they were actually within the jurisdiction of a federally 
inspected meat establishment. 

COOPERATION WITH THE STATES. 

It has long been recognized that inconsistencies between 
the food and drugs act and the food, drug, and dairy laws of 
the different States, as well as lack of uniformity in State 
legislation, have greatty hindered the prevention of fraud, 
adulteration, and misbranding in food and drugs and have 
made it difficult to induce manufacturers to improve their 
products. It is wasteful for the Federal food and drug 
authorities and the State authorities to work at cross pur- 
poses, and the department is making every endeavor to bring 
about effective cooperation. To this end, the Secretary in- 
vited all the State food and drug officials to attend a con- 
ference with representatives of the department to determine 
ways and means of bringing about better coordination of 
functions and closer cooperation. This conference was held 
on November 13 and 14 and attended by 23 food commis- 
sioners and 26 other State officials, representing 33 States, 
including Porto Rico and the District of Columbia. It was 
unanimously agreed by those attending the conference that 
effective cooperation was desirable, and agreements were 
reached as to specific measures which would aid in bringing 
this about. The conference made clear the necessity of 
establishing within the department an organization to be 
charged with the dissemination of information concerning 
the sanitary conditions of food production, violations of the 
law, new forms of sophistication, and new methods for their 
detection. The establishment of such an organization it is 
expected will do much to prevent duplication of research and 
investigation and make food and drug control far more 
effective. It is hoped also that with increased cooperation 
will come effective control through State agencies of condi- 
tions under which food factories manufacture their products, 
and better control of such foods as milk, eggs, oysters, and 
fish, which can be contaminated with micro-organisms and 
may communicate disease. Under the conditions of the 
Federal law the department can exercise no policing control 
over the actual factories and dairies, and detection of con- 



Revort of the Secretary. 21 

tamination resulting from unclean or undesirable conditions 
is most difficult in the finished product. Many of the meas- 
ures recommended at the conference call for changes in 
existing Federal statutes, and the State officials have ap- 
pointed a number of committees to prepare reports and 
practical suggestions as to measures that will tend to unify 
State and Federal work in this field. • 

COORDINATION IN INSPECTION WORK. 

The effective administration of the food and drugs act 
has been hindered to some extent by the fact that the food 
and drugs laboratories and the food and drugs inspectors 
were acting independently of each other in the same terri- 
tory. With two sets of absolutely independent officials in 
the same territory, each reporting directly to Washington, 
there could be little coordination. To avoid this, the United 
States will be divided into a few general inspection districts, 
each in charge of a competent official, and all laboratories 
and inspectors working in that territory will be under the 
same immediate direction. Certain of the smaller branch 
laboratories outside of Washington will be closed, because 
the same work can be done more economically and effec- 
tively in the larger laboratories, which have specializing chem- 
ists and a more complete scientific equipment. The food 
and drugs inspectors similarly will be grouped in the larger 
centers and will cover their territory by traveling from 
these centers. 

CONSTRUCTIVE WORK. 

This redivision also will make it possible for the different 
branch laboratories, instead of devoting their time almost 
wholly to the policing functions, to give attention to inves- 
tigational work which has for its aim constructive improve- 
ment in the manufacture and handling of foods and the 
better use of agricultural products. 

Special emphasis should be placed upon this constructive 
work, and it should be the policy not merely to cause vio- 
lators of the law to be punished, but to prevent the recur- 
rence of violations by so perfecting processes of manufac- 
ture that only lawful products will reach the consumer. 
Saving of waste and economical utilization of products are 
becoming more and more important; the Government must 



22 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

conduct such investigations, since they are usually so costly 
that only the larger industrial corporations can undertake 
them independently. The results obtained by the Govern- 
ment are published for the use of all. The results of private 
investigation are either kept secret or patented, and thus 
give an opportunity for monopoly. The constructive work 
in this way may be -made to supplement the regulatory 
activity. Punishment under the law will become less and 
less frequent and necessary when the manufacturer has been 
taught how to send a safe product to market. The con- 
sumer will profit not only from the increased quality of the 
food but by the lessened cost of production. 

HEALTH AND THE FOOD AND DRUGS ACT. 

That the food and drugs act is purely economic in one 
phase and hygienic in the other is not always clearly under- 
stood. The wording of the act does not make this distinc- 
tion clear. Thus, the word "adulteration" is used for the 
offense of substituting a less valuable though wholesome 
article in whole or in part for a more valuable one, and also 
for the addition of a deleterious substance to a food, or the 
sale of a food which is filthy and decomposed. Obviously 
the first is an offense against the consumer's pocket. The 
others may injure his health. In the past relatively more 
attention has been paid to the economic than the hygienic 
phase of the act. The most important hygienic task is the 
proper control of such foods as milk, eggs, oysters, and fish, 
which may communicate disease. In this connection the 
cleanliness of food factories or sources of perishable foods 
which can become infected is most important. The depart- 
ment must combat unsatisfactory conditions in food sources 
mainly through education, and the policing function in the 
case of factories and dairies must be discharged largely by 
the States. It is believed, however, that the department 
can render assistance in encouraging the States to carry out 
this work for themselves. 

FOOD AND DRUG STANDARDS. 

The establishment of legal standards for judging foods 
would render the food and drugs act more effective, less 
expensive in its administration, and supply needed legal 



Report of the Secretary. 23 

criteria. Under present conditions it is necessary in the 
individual prosecution to establish by evidence a standard 
for each individual article. This procedure is very expen- 
sive, and sometimes its cost is out of proportion to its value. 
Moreover, it may result in lack of uniformity in different 
jurisdictions. With legal standards established, the con- 
trol of foods would be more uniform and measurably less 
expensive. The lack of such standards is to-day one of the 
greatest difficulties in the administration of the food and 
drugs act. These standards, however, should be in the form 
of definitions, because numerical standards furnish recipes 
for sophistication. The standards, moreover, should be suf- 
ficiently flexible to permit improvements in production. 
Other serious limitations in the food and drugs act result 
from that act's definition of "drug." It is impossible to 
control cosmetics containing injurious drugs, and remedies 
for obesity and leanness, or to prevent the use of wood alco- 
hol in remedies for external application. The list of inju- 
rious drugs which must be declared upon the label is now 
limited, and authority should be given to require statements 
of other drugs and the new habit-forming or dangerous com- 
pounds which chemists are constantly producing. 

FURTHER CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION NEEDED. 

Still further changes in organization seem requisite. The 
Department of Agriculture, like other large institutions 
dealing with complex problems, has tended to develop into 
highly specialized groups, with" somewhat arbitrary bound- 
ary lines, which have been defined more by the methods 
employed than by the object sought. Such arbitrary divi- 
sional lines, separating branches of work aiming at a com- 
mon result, produce a certain amount of jealousy and 
assumed conflict of interest and lost motion, leading even- 
tually to stagnation. In the department it has become evi- 
dent that existing divisional lines are beginning to militate 
against a desirable flexibility, and have in some cases 
allowed too little latitude in carrying out important projects. 
When in the past the department's work was on a purely 
divisional basis, there was little need for coordination. This 
divisional basis was changed about 12 years ago into the 



24 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

present bureau system. The new plan for a time worked 
well, because the field was then a very broad one and was 
not covered fully by any single bureau or division. As the 
work has grown and different divisions have approached 
the same field, definite handicaps have developed. 

What is needed is a basic plan of cooperation, coordina- 
tion, and broader grouping of the services of the department, 
according to the purposes in view, each with a larger number 
of small units, the development of a common feeling, and 
team work all along the line. Experience demonstrates that 
small units alone, each more or less interconnected with 
other units, will yield the greatest results, both in research 
and in its application. 

To capitalize fully the results of research and to make the 
knowledge gained by the department of service to the peo- 
ple, the department manifestly must put itself in the best 
possible position to reach with its information the people 
who must change that information into productive action. 
To do this it must see that its policing or regulatory func- 
tions do not interfere with the gathering of its information, 
nor with the constructive rather than the preventive use of 
these data. It therefore must have a plan whereby not only 
friction is completely eliminated, but whereby it is placed in 
a position to use to the fullest extent all outside agencies 
which can carry its information more directly to the people 
it seeks to serve. Probably this will best be accomplished 
by having in the department an organization involving five 
or six main groups, such as a research service, a rural organi- 
zation service, a State relations service, a weather service, a 
forest service, a regulatory service, and others as new con- 
ditions or special occasion might warrant. . With a view to 
the establishment of some such system the department in its 
estimates has submitted the following clause for the ap- 
proval of the Congress: 

The Secretary of Agriculture is hereby authorized and directed to pre- 
pare a plan for reorganizing, redirecting, and systematizing the work of the 
Department of Agriculture as the interests of economical and efficient 
administration may require; such plan shall be submitted to Congress in 
the Book of Estimates for the fiscal year 1916; and the estimates of expenses 
of the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year 1916 shall be prepared 
and submitted in accordance therewith. 



Report of the Secretary. 25 

NEW FIELDS OF WORK. 

Heretofore the Department of Agriculture has, of necessity, 
concerned itself mainly with problems of production. It 
must give no less attention to these problems for a long time 
to come; they are still urgent. Increased tenancy, absentee 
ownership, soils still depleted and exploited, inadequate 
business methods, the relative failure to induce the great 
majority of farmers to apply existing agricultural knowledge, 
and the suggestions of dependence on foreign nations for 
food supplies, warn us of our shortcomings and incite us to 
additional efforts to increase production. 

The situation is one about which many have become pes- 
simistic, but, of course, there is no ground for thinking that 
we have yet approximated the limit of our output from the 
soil. As a matter of fact, we have just begun to attack the 
problem; we have not even reached the end of the pioneering 
stage, and have only in a few localities developed conditions 
where reasonably full returns are secured. With a popula- 
tion of less than 95,000,000 living on more than 3,000,000 
square miles it is unreasonable to speak as if our territory 
had been much more than pioneered. The population per 
square mile in the Union does not exceed 31, and ranges 
from seven-tenths of 1 in Nevada to 508 in Rhode Island. 
It is less than 76 per square mile in any State in the Union, 
except in eight Eastern States and in Ohio and Illinois; less 
than 50 in any Southern State; less than 43 in any State west 
of the Mississippi except Missouri; less than 25 in the great 
States like Texas, Washington, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Kan- 
sas, and California; less than 10 in the Dakotas, Oregon, and 
Colorado, and less than 5 in most of the Rocky Mountain 
Commonwealths. 

Look at it from another point of view. According to the 
best statistics available it appears that the total arable land 
in the Union is approximately 935,000,000 acres; that only 
about 400,000,000 of this is included in farms and improved; 
that over 100,000,000 is unimproved, and not included in 
farms; and the remainder is unimproved lands included in 
farms. But there is another thought. What about the 
efficiency of the work on the land now under cultivation? 
What part of it may be said to be reasonably efficiently cul- 



26 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

tivated ? What part of it is satisfactorily cultivated and is 
yielding reasonably full returns ? The opportunity for 
guessing in this field is unlimited, but according to -the best 
guesses I can secure, it appears that less than 40 per cent of 
the land is reasonably well cultivated and less than 12 per 
cent is yielding fairly full returns, or returns considerably 
above the average. 

We have unmistakably reached the period where we must 
think and plan. We are suffering the penalty of too great 
ease of living and of making a living. It is not singular that 
we should find ourselves in our present plight. Recklessness 
and waste have been incident to our breathless conquest of 
a nation, and we have had our minds too exclusively directed 
to the establishment of industrial supremacy in the keen race 
for competition with foreign nations. We have been so bent 
on building up great industrial centers by every natural and 
artificial device that we have had little thought for the very 
foundations of our industrial existence. 

MARKETING. 

In dealing with the problems of production, the depart- 
ment has directed its attention mainly to the problem of the 
individual farmer, and the broader economic problems of rural 
life have received relatively little attention. It is now becom- 
ing clear that we must definitely and aggressively approach 
these newer and, relatively speaking, urgent problems. We 
have been suddenly brought face to face with the fact that in 
many directions further production waits on better distribu- 
tion and that the field of distribution presents problems which 
raise in very grave ways the simple issue of justice. That 
under existing conditions in many instances the farmer does 
not get what he should for his product; that the consumer is 
required to pay an unfair price; and that unnecessary bur- 
dens are imposed under the existing systems of distribution, 
there can be no question. 

Just what part of the burden is due to lack of systematic 
planning, or inefficiency and economic waste, or to unfair 
manipulation, one can not say. As difficult as are the prob- 
lems of production, they are relatively simple as compared 
with those of distribution, and there is danger not so much 
that nothing will be done, but that pressure will be brought 



Report of the Secretary. 27 

to bear on the department to take action everywhere before 
it is prepared to act intelligently anywhere. The depart- 
ment has given assistance here and there in the past; it is 
prepared to give further assistance and information now, and 
it has shaped its projects and instituted more systematic 
investigations, which should have results of great practical 
value to individuals and to communities. 

This extension of activity has been made under the act of 
Congress approved March 4, 1913, which confers the broad 
authority indicated : 

To enable the Secretary of Agriculture to acquire and diffuse among the 
people of the United States useful information on subjects connected with 
the marketing and distribution of farm products. 

Let us look at the matter briefly and consider some of the 
problems that must be attacked in this field. The depart- 
ment has arranged its marketing investigations under five 
important subdivisions: 

First. Marketing surveys, methods, and costs, including 
especially available market supplies in given production 
areas, demand at consuming centers, cold and other storages, 
marketing systems and prices, and costs of wholesale and 
retail distribution of farm products. 

Second. Transportation and storage problems, having in 
mind the elimination of waste and the. study of problems 
connected with surplus market supplies; terminal and transfer 
facilities, including freight congestion, car supply, deteriora- 
tion in transit, extension of the practice of precooling of 
perishable products, and other special services. 

Third. City marketing and distribution investigations, 
involving a study of the uses and limitations of farmers', 
municipal, wholesale, and retail market houses; systems of 
city distribution; the promotion of direct dealing between 
producers and consumers by parcel post, express, and freight. 

Fourth. Study and promulgation of market grades and 
standards. A consideration of sizes and suitability of pack- 
ages and containers, methods of preparation of perishable 
products, and the ultimate establishment, so far as practicable, 
of official market grades and standards for farm products. 

Finally, cooperative production and marketing investiga- 
tions. The department, as has been said, has already ap- 
proached the field of marketing through various agencies. 



28 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

It has established standard cotton grades and has practically 
completed its standard corn grades. It has given much 
attention to cold-storage problems and to the packing and 
handling of perishable fruits. It is aware of the existing 
chaos and of the consequent wastes — waste resulting from 
faults on the part of the farmer in the growing and handling 
of his products; waste resulting from the machinery of distri- 
bution, including physical equipment and physical handling; 
waste resulting from the manipulation of those middlemen 
who perform no clearly useful and necessary service; and 
waste resulting from ignorance on the part of the consumer 
and of the producer of the character of the product which is 
placed on the market. The producer of any product is 
entitled to receive an exact price for the specific product 
which he offers and the consumer is entitled to receive just 
the commodity he thinks he is paying for. 

A failure in either direction involves clear injustice and 
greatly hampers production and crop improvement. Let me 
illustrate by reference to two vitally important crops — cotton 
and corn. 

Several different standards of cotton classification are now 
in use. Some markets have adopted the official grades and 
use them. Others have adopted them, but do not trade on 
them. Liverpool has one set of grades, New York another. 
The former is a great market for both spots and futures ; the 
latter almost purely a future market. Atlanta has its own 
. grades : Augusta's are different. Savannah, handling largely 
the same character of cotton as the two foregoing, trades on 
Liverpool grades, using Liverpool middling as a basis. At- 
lanta middling is equal to Liverpool good middling. In other 
words, at the present time the same grade name is applied 
to two qualities that differ in market value as much as $2.50 
per bale. 

The adoption and application of one uniform standard 
would result in a great simplification of all cotton transac- 
tions, doing away with the complex method of figuring 
buyer's limits. It would not be sufficient to have uniform 
grades, but the grade selected as the basis grade should be 
the same in all markets. 

The local buyer knows the market cotton grades; the 
farmer does not. Too frequently the local buyer secures 



Report of the Secretary. 29 

the cotton at practically a flat-rate basis on lower grades, 
grades the cotton himself, and sells it for what it is worth. 

There is not only no incentive for placing a good product 
on the market, but as a matter of fact a penalty attaches to 
the cotton grower who takes the pains to improve his 
product. 

Uniform standards throughout the cotton belt would re- 
sult in the rapid building up of a body of common knowledge 
on the part of the farmers, students in agricultural colleges, 
and others interested in the universal set of grades. We 
might hope to educate cotton farmers in sufficient detail to 
enable them to use one set of grades, but it would be difficult, 
if not impossible, to teach them grading based on a number 
of diverse standards, as one can never tell to what market a 
given lot of cotton is to go. It would be necessary to have 
knowledge of practically all grades in use. 

If in addition these grades were used on the exchanges and 
the terms of the contract employed were modified, many of 
the evils complained of by the producer and the consumer in 
the marketing of cotton would disappear. 

Practically the same results would follow and the same 
evils would be removed if standard grades for corn were uni- 
versally adopted. Definite standards for the grading of 
commercial corn and the uniform application of such stand- 
ards in all markets under suitable Government supervision 
would be of direct value to our corn growers, in that such 
standardization would encourage the marketing of dry corn 
of better quality. Heretofore it has been the common prac- 
tice to pay practically the same price for all corn delivered 
at country stations, regardless of its water content or of its 
soundness. Farmers have not been slow to grasp the situa- 
tion, and under such a system have naturally made but little 
effort to market corn in a dry and sound condition. The 
system has placed a premium on poor and careless farming at 
the expense of good farm methods and practices. 

Under a definite system of grading and the elimination of 
such terms as "reasonably dry" and "reasonably clean," the 
farmer, as well as the grain dealer, will be able to know and 
fully understand the requirements for the different grades 
With a knowledge of the grade requirements the farmer who 
markets dry corn of gpod quality will be in a position to 



30 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

demand a premium for such corn. It will not be necessary 
for him to accept a No. 4 price for corn which he sells under 
a grade designation of No. 3. He will then have some en- 
couragement to exercise greater care in the harvesting, stor- 
ing, and marketing of his corn; he can likewise ascertain in 
advance of sale with a fair degree of accuracy the grade of 
his corn while in the crib, and thus not market it until it is 
sufficiently dry to meet the requirements of a higher grade. 
The way will be open for real progress in the movement for 
the production of more com of better quality, and farmers 
who grow corn primarily for market will have an incentive 
to grow earlier maturing varieties, which will contain less 
moisture when marketed and can be sold at a premium. 
Likewise, the country shipper will be in a position to pay a 
premium for good corn, in that he, in turn, will have the 
assurance of the same definite system of grading regardless 
of the market to which he ships. 

COOPERATION. 

Several things stand out very clearly at this stage of our 
knowledge. All this waste must be eliminated. In simple 
justice the producer must be paid specifically for what he 
produces and for nothing else, and the consumer must receive 
what he thinks he purchases and must be willing to pay a 
fair price for a good product. It is clear that before the 
problems of marketing, the individual farmer, acting alone, 
is helpless. Nothing less than concerted action will suffice. 
Cooperation is essential. The same business sense and the 
same organizing genius which have placed this Nation in the 
front rank in industry must be invoked for agriculture. 
Reflection suggests this; experience demonstrates it. All the 
successful attempts in the marketing of any produce any- 
where in the world have come through organized effort. 
The individual farmer has neither adequate information nor 
the facilities. 

There are dangers here, of course. Cooperation can not 
result in an organization which shall attempt to establish a 
closed market and to fix prices. We shall doubtless con- 
demn this as strictly in one field of industry as in any other 
and it would be as unnecessary as it would be unfortunate. 
The aim should be an economic arrangement which shall 



Report of the Secretary, 31 

facilitate production, lead the producer to standardize and 
to prepare his product for the market, and to find the readiest 
and best market for his product. Such action will result in 
gain to the producer as well as to the consumer. Further- 
more, it is desirable that such concerted action shall proceed 
from below upward. It must concern itself with the over- 
coming of a specific economic difficulty in this field of pro- 
duction and distribution. It should associate itself with 
some particular product which is capable of being standard- 
ized. Experience shows that the best results are secured 
only when the members of such a cooperative society are 
those who are bona fide producers. 

Many enterprises in the United States claiming to be of a 
cooperative nature have existed and do exist. They are of 
all sorts and descriptions; some are truly cooperative, others 
are clearly exploited. Some operate on principles that are 
sound; others on principles that are obviously bad. A form 
helpful to one undertaking is not necessarily the best for 
another, and one successful in one community under certain 
conditions can not necessarily be expected to succeed under 
other conditions in another community. 

Here, again, the need is for information, and the depart- 
ment, acting in cooperation with the General Education 
Board, has devised machinery and instituted investigations 
into this field of cooperative effort at home and abroad. 
There are many facts to be ascertained. We desire to know 
and to estimate the various sorts of enterprises afoot in 
order to be able to give the people information concerning 
the principles and practices of the best forms of cooperation. 

At the earliest practicable moment the department will 
disseminate the information, and if circumstances warrant 
and funds are available will assist in making such demonstra- 
tions as may be practicable. 

RTTBAL CREDITS. 

There is a general impression that our financial arrange- 
ments do not satisfactorily cover the rural communities and 
that there is need of better credit arrangements for farmers. 
The interest is widespread. It is manifested in many letters 
received at the department, by articles in periodicals, by the 
action of various States, and by the thought of Congress in 



32 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

providing for a commission of inquiry abroad. It is signif- 
icant that the -commission provided for by Congress was 
accompanied by delegates from practically every section of 
the Union. The results of the inquiries of this commission 
are not yet published, but they will doubtless be available 
in the very near future. For a long time economists have 
known of the foreign arrangements, but their writings have 
reached comparatively few people. The report of the com- 
mission and the public interest in its trip abroad will give 
wide publicity to its findings. It was apparent to the depart- 
ment that a knowledge of foreign arrangements should be 
supplemented by a study of home conditions, and through 
cooperation with the General Education Board a survey of 
home conditions was undertaken, and much valuable infor- 
mation has been secured. 

It is clear that conditions vary widely in the United 
States, that farmers do not equally need better credit arrange- 
ments, and that all sections are not similarly circumstanced. 
In fact, from some sections come requests not so much for 
capital at lower rates as for information as to how to invest 
capital. 

There is considerable variation of the interest paid by 
farmers on long and short time loans, both as among States 
and as among different sections in the same area. In the 
older States of the corn belt, such as Iowa and Illinois, the 
usual rate on farm-mortgage loans appears to average a little 
over 5i per cent, whereas in such States as Montana, Colo- 
rado, and Oklahoma in the West, and Florida in the South, 
the annual charge on similar loans appears to be 8£ per cent 
or more. Similar variation is apparent in rates to farmers 
on short-time loans on personal or collateral security. These 
vary from an average of less than 7 per cent in States like 
Illinois to an average rate of 1 1 per cent or more in Okla- 
homa, Colorado, and Montana. Furthermore, the inter- 
est on long-time loans in northern Minnesota exceeds by 3 
per cent the usual charge in southern Minnesota. In States 
like Illinois, where the conditions are more uniform, the vari- 
ation is slight, ranging from 5£ to 6 per cent between northern 
and southern Illinois. In the case of short-tim,e loans there 
are greater variations, ranging from 8£ to 14£ per cent or 



Report of the Secretary. 33 

more in Colorado and Oklahoma and from 6J to about 8 per 
cent in Illinois. 

It is not easy to explain just how these variations arise 
or to decide whether we may more nearly equalize the op- 
portunities for credit in the various sections, and if so, how. 
There is no one single complete explanation. Many factors 
enter: Climatic conditions, soil conditions, stability of indus- 
try, methods of farming, distances from markets, distances 
from centers of large wealth, and the nature of financial 
agencies through which capital is secured all play a part 
in determining the availability of capital and the rate of 
interest. 

But when all necessary allowance has been made for these 
fundamental factors, the fact remains that the rural com- 
munities are not as efficiently served as they should be by 
existing financial arrangements. It is not improbable that 
they can not be as completely served as urban communities 
are, but improvements can be made. Certain provisions 
of the pending currency bill have been inserted with the 
definite view of remedying the defects. What further action 
should be taken presents a difficult and complex problem. 
Whether the legislation should be exclusively State or exclu- 
sively Federal, or partly State and partly Federal, and 
whether different agencies should be devised to meet the 
demand for short-time and for long-time loans are some of 
the points to be decided. 

Long-time loans are needed for permanent investments, 
such as the purchase price of a farm or for the erection of 
buildings. In this country the usual method employed in 
securing capital for such purposes is through farm mort- 
gages. Abroad, in France and Germany, separate financial 
machinery by means of which capital is rendered available 
at low rates for permanent purposes has been devised. 
Bankers in this country realize the wisdom of giving definite 
encouragement to farmers who borrow money for productive 
improvements, and the farmer realizes the importance of 
securing capital for such purposes. Here is presented one 
of the important problems in connection with rural credits, 
in some respects the most important. It is wise economy 
to encourage the extension of credit for safe productive use, 

27306°— ybk 1913 3 



34 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

and no less wise to discourage the use of capital along non- 
productive or speculative lines. There is no doubt that much 
capital has been wasted through misdirection and much conse- 
quent difficulty presented in the projection of a new scheme. 
The need of encouraging the placing of capital in the hands 
of the farmers at reasonable rates for productive purposes 
is made evident by the rapid increase of tenancy in various 
sections. We no longer have abundant free homesteads 
that afford farms and homes for immigrants, as in the earlier 
days. The rapid increase in farm values and the difficulties 
in securing land have given impetus to the growth of the 
renting system. It is this tendency especially that suggests 
the importance of devising farm loans on terms such as will 
enable the producers to make the necessary payments on the 
interest and principal, so far as possible, from the returns 
of the land itself. The plan of issuing farm debentures has 
been advocated where the bond issues are blanketed on 
farm mortgages, and where the latter are issued for long 
periods of time, running from 10 to 60 years, with the amor- 
tization feature attached. Such a plan has operated with 
success abroad. Some organizations in this country have 
met with apparent success in this direction. A land-mort- 
gage bank organized as a private stock company and embody- 
ing features of the French Credit Foncier has been operated 
for some time in Illinois. This company lends money on 
farm mortgages and issues debentures, which are sold to the 
investing public. The plan most in use by it is to have each 
thousand-dollar mortgage carry a uniform semiannual pay- 
ment of $43.26, which covers 6 per cent for interest and 
enough on the principal to extinguish the loan in 20 years. 
Each loan is limited to 50 per cent of the value of the farm, 
and all mortgages are restricted to lands within the State. 
It would appear that this plan can probably be used safely 
only where farming has reached a stage of relative perma- 
nency and where the conditions are fairly uniform. Under 
other conditions the investing world may not be willing to 
look with favor upon blanket debentures unless the finan- 
cial standing of the institution issuing the securities inspires 
great confidence. In such regions investors appear to prefer 
a direct lien on the specific farms regarding which they pos- 
sess definite information, and here the problem becomes one 



Report of the Secretary. 35 

of directing effort toward the widening of the market for 
such mortgages by providing for their resale and repurchase 
through well-organized and responsible agencies. 

In addition to this improvement in facilities for long-time 
loans through the widening of the market for farm securities, 
there is another line of effort which may yield favorable 
results in improving credit conditions. This will involve 
the drawing more effectively on existing local capital through 
better opportunities of investment. An interesting example 
is the familiar building and loan association. The activities 
of such associations in urban communities are well known. 
Attempts have been made so to modify such organizations 
as to adapt them to the needs of the farmers. This is true 
especially in Ohio, where there are 650 building and loan 
associations, of which more than 500 furnish loans to farmers 
aggregating more than $12,000,000. These are found in 
82 out of 88 counties in the State. In each of the 82 counties 
these associations extend loans to farmers at a usual rate 
of 6 per cent. The loan contracts are reported by the State 
department as varying from 1 to 16 years, but in nearly 
all instances the farmers prefer 2 to 5 year contracts with 
interest payable quarterly or semiannually. This experience 
may suggest that there is opportunity for the formation of 
farmers' associations that will stimulate thrift, mobilize 
local capital, and tend to the increase of owned farms. 

What has been stated is, of course, tentative, and is not 
intended by any means to exhaust the subject. Enough has 
been said to emphasize the thought that the improvement 
of rural credit facilities may be solved through several ap- 
proaches and not by any single agency, and that the full 
solution of the problem involves the general improvement 
of agricultural conditions, greater permanency, and greater 
uniformity. 

This second problem is how to improve conditions under 
which farmers may get short-time loans. Here again we 
encounter special conditions and special needs. All sections 
again are not equally circumstanced. The small farmer 
with little credit, or the farmer who is just getting himself 
established, is the one to whom attention would naturally be 
directed. The operations of many of them, taken singly, are 
too small to engage the attention of those who have capital 



36 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

to lend, and in many cases the situation is so precarious as 
to prevent favorable consideration of requests for loans. 

It is, of course, requisite that a credit foundation exist; 
that there should be the usual combination of character and 
security, but even where these conditions are satisfied the 
situation is still unsatisfactory. The suggestion of the for- 
mation of farmers' credit unions merits serious consideration. 
The aim of such organizations is not to supply a new banking 
system but rather to establish a credit foundation or to 
utilize a collective good will which does not exist so long as 
the farmer acts individually. In this field Europe has 
developed beyond us. To what extent their institutions can 
be followed here needs serious study. It is probable that the 
unlimited liability feature of some of their schemes will not 
appeal to American farmers in most sections of the Union. 
Nevertheless, in those parts of the country where the system 
of merchants' advances to farmers has brought a great many 
borrowers into the relation where their individual liabilities 
to the lenders is already unlimited, it would not seem to be 
revolutionary to encourage the establishment of local cooper- 
ative credit societies and to transfer the features of unlimited 
liability of the borrower to a group of producers. 

The main thing is to develop, either through individual or 
group action, a credit foundation and a form of security which 
will attract existing capital, partly perhaps through existing 
agencies. 

In taking action in this field of rural credits it would seem 
desirable that we bear certain guiding principles in mind. 
There does not seem to be any real demand or need for action 
which would do more than provide as adequate financial 
machinery for the rural districts within practicable limits as 
is provided for other sections. There does not appear to be 
need for unique legislation or for legislation which shall aim 
to give the farmer credit on easier terms than other members 
of society secure. What is needed is the creation of condi- 
tions and machinery which shall enable him on similar credit 
foundations to secure money at the same rates as those that 
prevail for other classes. Present conditions do not seem to 
justify proposals to give any class, of people capital provided 
by all the people through any device at lower rates of inter- 
est than economic conditions normally require or than those 



Report of the Secretary. 37 

at which other classes secure it under similar conditions. 
Certainly the American farmers themselves will examine 
every method of improvement suggested within the fields 
of self-help before seeking special provision for agricultural 
industry through national loans or other devices. 

OTHER RURAL ORGANIZATION PROBLEMS. 

Even though the problem of how the farmer can best sell 
his produce and can improve the conditions under which he 
can secure the necessary capital were solved, there would 
still remain vital things to be accomplished before rural life 
can be made fully efficient, profitable, healthful, pleasurable, 
and attractive, and before a larger disposition to remain on 
the farm develops. Good roads are prerequisite for better 
marketing, for better schools, and for more comfortable rural 
living. Better sanitation and hygiene in the home, in the 
school, and in the community are just as vital for the rural 
community as for the urban. Many agencies are attacking 
these problems. It is highly important that the local politi- 
cal machinery shall be more fully vitalized and become more 
efficient in its care of community welfare. 

Much of the work of the improvement of rural conditions 
lies outside the field of immediate effort of the Department of 
Agriculture, but it is attacking directly more of these prob- 
lems than is commonly recognized and will leave nothing 
undone' to contribute directly to their solution. It is clear 
that much time and great patience are essential and that 
some of the results desired will come early in the future, many 
of them as by-products of the work of the various agencies. 

The department is giving special attention to the subject of 
farm management with the view of rendering to the farmer 
service similar to that rendered to the business man and the 
manufacturer by efficiency experts and engineers. 

It is proposed especially to emphasize the enforcement of 
the food and drugs act, so far as the law permits, for the 
better protection of all the people, rural as well as urban. 
Much of this work must of necessity take the form of con- 
structive education; that is, of placing in the hands of the 
people and of their officials information necessary for pro- 
tection, and of giving them cooperative assistance. 



38 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

This work could be very much extended if the States, in 
addition to efficient, well-organized State health boards, had 
machinery extending into each community in charge of full- 
time experts. 

An intimation of the work the department is doing to 
protect health may be conveyed by reference to its study of 
insects which carry disease throughout the country. 

RELATION OF INSECTS TO HEALTH. 

In the case of a number of these insect pests, they inti- 
mately affect agriculture. A striking example is malaria, 
which prevents the proper agricultural development of enor- 
mous areas of fertile land in the United States and greatly 
reduces the efficiency of plantation labor. The work regard- 
ing malarial mosquitoes carried on during the year consists 
in determining the insect losses which occur and the formu- 
lation of plans of control suitable for plantation conditions. 

The house fly, known to carry typhoid fever and other dis- 
eases of men, has been studied for some time. Recently this 
study has centered on the discovery of effective and econom- 
ical methods of destroying flies in their breeding places. The 
chief breeding place of the fly is the manure heap, and it has 
been realized that a method must be discovered which will 
kill the fly and yet not lessen the value of the fertilizer. Sat- 
isfactory progress has been made, and an announcement con- 
cerning new methods probably will be issued before the end 
of the year. An investigation of the stable fly, which is an 
important enemy of live stock and also is suspected of carry- 
ing infantile paralysis and other diseases, has been in progress. 
Studies have been made of the Rocky Mountain spotted-fever 
tick with a view to the eradication of this pest in a locality in 
Montana where an especially virulent phase of the disease 
existed. Still another investigation had to do with the pos- 
sibility that pellagra is transmitted by insects. This has not 
yet been demonstrated. If insect transmission is proven, 
however, another important malady will be added to the list 
of those which may best be dealt with by controlling the 
insect carrier. 

THE WOMAN ON THE FARM. 

The woman on the farm is a most important economic fac- 
tor in agriculture. Her domestic work undoubtedly has a 
direct bearing on the efficiency of the field workers, her han- 



Report of the Secretary . 39 

dling of the home and its surroundings contributes to the cash 
intake, and, in addition, hers is largely the responsibility for 
contributing the social and other features which make farm 
life satisfactory and pleasurable. On her rests largely the 
moral and mental development of the children, and on her 
attitude depends in great part the important question of 
whether the succeeding generation will continue to farm or 
will seek the allurements of life in the cities. 

According to the testimony of many who are thoroughly 
familiar with conditions, the needs of the farm woman have 
been largely overlooked by existing agricultural agencies. 
Endeavor has been largely focused on inducing the field work- 
ers to install effective agricultural machinery and to employ 
the best methods of crop production. The facts that the 
woman's work and time have a real monetary value and that 
her strength is not unlimited have not been given the consid- 
eration they deserve. As a result, on many farms where there 
is always money enough to buy the latest agricultural appli- 
ance there is seldom a surplus to provide the woman in her 
productive work with power machinery that will lighten her 
physical labor, running water that will relieve her of the 
burden of carrying from the pump all water used in the house- 
hold, or kitchen equipment and household devices that will 
save her time, increase her efficiency, and enable her to make 
important monetary saving. 

HOME MANAGEMENT. 

The department believes that intelligent help to women in 
matters of home management will contribute directly to the 
agricultural success of the farm. It purposes, therefore, to 
ask Congress for means and authority to make more complete 
studies of domestic conditions on the farm, to experiment 
with labor-saving devices and methods, and to study com- 
pletely the question of practical sanitation and hygienic pro- 
tection for the farm family. 

The farmer's wife rarely has access to the cities where labor- 
saving devices are on competitive exhibit, nor does she often 
meet with other women who are trying these devices and gain 
from them first-hand information. It seems important, 
therefore, that the department, cooperating with the proper 
State institutions, should be ready to give the farm home 



40 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

practical advice. Some work has already been accomplished 
in studying the problems of nutrition and advising the women 
in the country as to the economical use of various foods and 
methods of using these foods to obtain variety in diet. Ap- 
parently, there is need also for advice on general diets that will 
be healthful and varied, because the farm home usually has 
but a limited number of foods at its disposal and has not the 
opportunity to add novelties to the diet, such as the city 
woman finds in her convenient store. 

FIELDS IN WHICH HELP IS DESIRED. 

To ascertain the fields in which farm women desire specific 
assistance, a letter of inquiry was addressed to the house- 
wives of 55,000 progressive farmers in all the counties of the 
United States. This letter asked no questions and left every 
woman free to discuss any need which occurred to her. She 
was invited to take the matter up with her neighbors and 
make a reply which represented not merely her personal need 
but the recognized need of the women of her community. 
Replies to this letter have been received in great numbers. 
Time has been lacking for a complete analysis of these letters, 
but from those which have been read so far it is evident that 
women want help in practically every phase of home man- 
agement, from the rearing and care of children to methods 
of getting the heavy work, such as washing, done by coopera- 
tive agencies. Many women seek means of increasing the 
precious personal income which they receive from poultry, 
butter making, or the garden in their care. Many asked the 
department to suggest new handicrafts or gainful home occu- 
pations, and others seek better means of marketing the pre- 
serves, cakes, or fancy work that they now produce. 

The overwork of farm women and their fear of the effect 
of overwork on their children is the text of many of these 
letters. The difficulty of securing domestic help, due 
seemingly to the fact that daughers of farmers no longer take 
positions as home makers, has added to the farm housekeep- 
er's burden. Many ask the department to prove to the men 
that their work is worth something in dollars and cents. 
Still others express a realization that their own lot is hopeless 
and self-sacrificingly ask that better things in the way of 
education, cheaper schoolbooks, improved schools, lectures, 



Report of the Secretary. 41 

libraries, and museums be provided for their children. Many 
request that the department establish a woman's bureau, and 
issue weekly or other publications designed for women and 
dealing with matters of cooking, clothing, home furnishing, 
education of children, care of the sick, etc. 

POPULARIZING THE DEPARTMENT'S WORK. 

The realization that information of great value to the peo- 
ple is being gathered by the department's specialists more 
rapidly than it could be circulated led to a revision of the 
system of publication and to the establishment of a special 
information service. 

NEW CLASSIFICATION OP PUBLICATIONS. 

It is fully realized by the department that the printed page 
or written statement, or even the institute address, can never 
be as effective in getting the farmer to understand and adopt 
practical methods as the man-to-man cooperative work of the 
demonstration service. Unfortunately, however, it is impos- 
sible at present to reach every farmer even once a year by 
word of mouth, and it will always be impossible to send direct 
messages to him to communicate new discoveries without 
delay. In planning the new system of publications and the 
information service the aim has been to reach with the least 
delay the largest possible number with the printed message 
and to place it in their hands in a form which will approximate 
as nearly as possible the work of the demonstration agent. 

Accordingly, on July 1, 1913, a new plan of publication work 
was adopted, constituting a decided change in the character 
and classification of the department's publications, the object 
being to draw a sharp line between the strictly scientific and 
popular publications, so as to prevent the waste arising from 
the miscellaneous distribution of the scientific bulletins and 
to make a wiser distribution of the popular publications. 
The confusion which has always existed as the result of a 
multiplicity of series of publications has been eliminated, 
so that instead of having no less than 40 different series 
there are at present but 4, namely, (1) departmental bul- 
letins, in which the popular and semitechnical results of in- 
vestigations are published, and of which 50 have already 
been issued; (2) the serial publications (including the Journal 



42 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

of Agricultural Research, for the strictly scientific papers, 
and the experiment Station Record); (3) the Farmers' 
Bulletins, which are to be reduced in size and designed to 
give specific directions for doing things, with the object of 
making them more popular and useful; and (4) annual re- 
ports and other congressional publications, including the 
Yearbook and Soil Surreys, all of which are to be reduced 
in size and made more readable. 

The demand for information which the people have a right 
to obtain from the department was never as great as it is 
to-day, and the new classification affords an economical 
and satisfactory way of meeting the requirements of all who 
are interested in our work. 

INFORMATION FOB THE PEOPLE. 

The edition of any single bulletin or publication neces- 
sarily is limited, and in consequence can reach but a small per- 
centage of the population that could make use of it. In ad- 
dition, it was found that there was much valuable material 
which, to be useful, ought to be gotten into the hands of 
the people within a few days or hours, and which if subjected 
to the necessary delay of formal printing would be of little 
service. The Office of Information was therefore established 
for the purpose of preparing brief popular statements of facts, 
which are to be supplied to the country. This office gathers 
these facts from the printed material and from the typewrit- 
ten report and by direct interview with the specialists. 
This material is then prepared in simple news form, mimeo- 
graphed, and given to the papers, particularly in the special 
districts to which it applies. It is also issued in the form of 
a weekly letter, which is sent to more than 50,000 crop cor- 
respondents and progressive farmers. The notice may take 
the form of warnings against frauds in seeds and foods, 
notices of quarantine against plants or animals, advice as 
to means of combating crop or animal pests, or general in- 
formation as to the handling of various crops. The several 
publications to which they are sent apparently are finding 
that these notices are of interest and value to their readers. 
The material sent out by this office is limited entirely to 
making known the facts of discovery and the official rulings 
of the department. 



Report of the Secretary. 43 

RELATIONS WITH THE STATE AGRICULTURAL 
INSTITUTIONS. 

Reference has been made to proposed changes in legislation 
making for. closer relations with agricultural institutions 
within the States, especially the agricultural colleges and 
experiment stations. It is self-evident that no very sharp 
line of distinction can be drawn between the functions of the 
Federal Government and those of the agricultural colleges 
and stations. 

Certain guiding principles, however, may be proposed, and 
if these are observed there need be no fear of conflict. As 
might be expected in a country growing as rapidly as ours, 
where conditions affecting agriculture are so changeable, 
relations between the institutions within the States and 
between the State institutions and the Federal department 
have not always been as satisfactory as might be desired. 
As the work progresses it becomes more and more evident 
that the Department of Agriculture has well-defined func- 
tions, such as those controlling regulatory matters where 
interstate commerce is concerned, broad questions of admin- 
istration affecting the conservation of soils, waters, and for- 
ests, studies of meteorology in its relation to commerce, and 
other problems of this nature. The Federal Government is 
also concerned with research problems, especially those 
affecting regulatory matters and the broader administrative 
questions already discussed. Its research work, therefore, 
should lie in regional rather than in local'fields. The Fed- 
eral Government accumulates a large amount of information 
which it should place in the hands of the people, especially 
the people on the farms and in the farm homes. The States 
are concerned with educational matters, with research, and 
with the extension of the results of research. 

COORDINATION OF ACTIVITIES. 

As the Federal Government makes appropriations for this 
type of work within the States and is also making appro- 
priations to the Federal department direct, it is proper that 
all the agencies coordinate their activities in such fashion as 
will bring the best results and preserve the integrity of the 
institutions involved. Unquestionably these relations can 



44 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

be brought about without compulsion of law. They may 
be accomplished voluntarily by the men in the various 
institutions directing the work. 

In order that a proper understanding of relations might 
be secured, several conferences have been held with the 
executive committee of the Association of Agricultural Col- 
leges and Experiment Stations. As a result of these con- 
ferences there developed certain views which have been 
formulated in the following memorandum. This memoran- 
dum was signed by all the members of the executive com- 
mittee and was approved by me. 

The executive committee of the Association of American Agricultural 
Colleges and Experiment Stations desires to express to the honorable Sec- 
retary of Agriculture its great gratification at the attitude of his depart- 
ment in its effort to bring about a closer and more efficient relationship 
between the work of the department and that of the colleges and experi- 
ment stations. 

(1) The executive committee heartily indorses the suggestion of the 
Secretary that as a means of inaugurating and perpetuating an intelligent 
and sympathetic cooperation of these agencies there be established a per- 
manent committee on the general relations of the department and the 
colleges, said committee to be made up of representatives from both the 
department and the association. 

RESEARCH. 

(1) The executive committee cordially agrees with the point of view of 
the Secretary that the primary function of the Federal department is to 
undertake the study of problems that are more particularly regional, inter- 
state, and international in character, and that upon the stations- should 
rest the responsibility of investigating the problems that arise wifhin their 
respective States 

This general policy is not to debar a union of effort by the department 
and a given station in the study of a problem whenever it becomes evident 
that such cooperation is necessary or will tend to a more successful outcome. 

(2) Whenever the department finds it desirable to study a problem within 
a given State, harmonious relations and an intelligent understanding would 
undoubtedly be promoted by a consultation between the department and 
the State's station prior to its inauguration. In case a station is unable to 
cooperate in the work or does not desire to do so, it should lend sympathetic 
and advisory support. 

(3) Unqualified approval is given to the proposal of the Secretary that 
in order to assist in the carrying out of the policy of cooperation there be 
organized a joint committee on correlation of research, to be made up of 
representatives from the department and the college and station association, 
one function of said committee to be the preparation for early publication 
by the department of a list of scientific projects to be undertaken by both 
the department and the stations. This committee should also be empow- 



Beport of the Secretary. 45 

ered to assist in any feasible way in correlating the work of the National 
and State research agencies in such manner as shall promote efficiency in 
securing results. 

(4) Equally emphatic approval is given to the plan of holding group 
conferences between the scientific specialists of the department and the 
stations. It would seem desirable and perhaps necessary that owing to 
financial conditions within the association and stations the necessary ex- 
penses of such conferences should be met from a fund administered by the 
department. 

(5) It seems to be mutually agreed that in order to make available to 
students of science the research work of the department and stations and 
to promote its standing in the scientific world there should be published 
by the department a journal of agricultural research, such journal to con- 
tain only those contributions from the department and stations as are 
viseed by the committee selected for that purpose. 

EXTENSION. 

The executive committee approves the policy of unifying the adminis- 
tration of the extension service and is desirous of assisting in securing 
Federal legislation to that end on the basis of the following principles and 
conditions: 

(a) That the extension service shall be administered wholly under the 
immediate direction of the college of agriculture.' State leaders of exten- 
sion service shall be appointed by said colleges and shall be recognized as 
college officials. 

(6) That extension-service projects maintained by Federal funds shall 
be entered upon only after mutual approval by the department and the 
colleges. 

(c) That the funds to be applied to the maintenance of the extension 
service shall be secured through congressional appropriations made to the 
Federal departments to be distributed to the several States as provided 
by law, on the basis of the fundamental provisions embodied in the Lever 
bill (H. R. 1692). 

(d) It is understood that the appropriations made for extension service 
by the several States shall be under their control. 

(e) It is further understood that the (Federal) moneys appropriated to ex- 
tension service shall all be expended under the plans and agreements 
mutually approved by the department and colleges, and that no outside 
cooperative arrangement for maintaining extension service shall be made 
with any corporation or commercial body, excepting as a corporation or 
commercial body may wish to donate funds to be administered in extension 
service exclusively by the colleges of agriculture in consultation with the 
department. 

Carrying out the recommendations set forth in this memo- 
randum, steps have been taken to organize several commit- 
tees. The purpose of these committees will be to bring 
about closer relations with the State institutions and the de- 
partment. 



46 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

There will be a committee on relations, a committee on pro- 
jects and correlation of work, and a committee on publica- 
tion of research. 

As a further result of the conferences and memorandum, 
the principles set forth with reference to extension have been 
embodied in a bill providing for such work, which was in- 
troduced by the Hon. Hoke Smith in the Senate and the 
Hon. Asbury F. Lever in the House. This bill, it is believed, 
will furnish the necessary machinery for bringing about the 
closest relationship between the department and the several 
States in the matter of extension service. It will enable the 
department to coordinate more clearly its work and so to 
handle it as to have the agricultural colleges as the means by 
which it is conducted. 

PROPER ADMINISTRATION OF HATCH AND ADAMS ACTS. 

In connection with the administration of the Hatch and 
Adams Acts, attention is called to another important matter 
which should have consideration. Efficient station work 
demands an atmosphere of fairness and justice and reasonable 
security to the staff. It furthermore requires stability of 
policy and the highest possible measure of continuity in work 
and in personnel. Money spent on discontinued or inter- 
rupted projects is usually very largely wasted. The director of 
the station, as the guiding head, is mainly responsible for the 
success of the station. A good station and a good director go 
together. The station director deserves to be sustained and 
supported by the governing board in carrying out the general 
policy after it is approved by them. A change in the director 
is inevitably a temporary shock to the work, often interrupts 
projects, causes changes in the policy and personnel, and 
creates an era of uncertainty; hence, a change is not justified 
except when clearly indicated by incompetence or inability. 
In the discharge of its functions in administering the Federal 
funds and in seeing that they are properly used, the De- 
partment of Agriculture should not fail to take cognizance 
of so important and vital a change as that of director. 

The Adams Act directs that the Secretary of Agriculture 
shall each year ascertain and certify to the Secretary of the 
Treasury as to each State and Territory, whether it is comply- 
ing with the provisions of this act and is entitled to receive a 



Report of the Secretary. 47 

share of the annual appropriation. It authorizes the Secre- 
tary to withhold certification, thus suspending payment, and 
to report the matter to Congress. While the right of the col- 
leges to direct the stations within their States and select the 
members of the station staff is recognized, radical changes 
in the personnel or policy of the station, except for good and 
valid reasons, should, it is believed, be held to be unwarranted 
interference of the governing board with the conduct of the 
station. Such action fails to recognize the cardinal principles 
of efficient administration and places an institution in a posi- 
tion of inability to properly employ the Federal funds. It is 
believed that such a condition does not warrant the Federal 
Government in continuing to advance funds to the college or 
its experiment station, and should lead to the withhold- 
ing of funds until conditions favorable to their effective use 
are restored. 

REVIEW OP ESTABLISHED WORK. 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE NATIONAL FORESTS. 

The largest task of the department in forestry is the ad- 
ministration of the national forests. The department is also 
developing the science of forestry and getting it into actual 
practice on private as well as public lands. This is being 
accomplished through demonstration of practical forestry 
on the national forests, cooperation with States in developing 
State forest organizations, and assistance to States in pro- 
tection of forests on the headwaters of navigable rivers, 
experimental work to determine the best methods of forestry, 
research in problems of utilization of forest products and 
saving of waste, and general educational work. 

The primary objects of the national forests are to protect 
the public timber, to produce a continuous supply of timber 
on lands not required for agriculture, and to protect the 
sources of water used for navigation, irrigation, water power, 
domestic supplies, and other purposes. 

CLASSIFICATION OF FORESTS. 

The department is classifying the national forest lands to 
segregate those chiefly valuable for agriculture and to estab- 
lish permanent boundaries of the areas required for the pro- 
duction of timber and for water protection. Every consider a- 



48 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

tion, not only of development of the States but of protecting 
and increasing the use of the resources of the forests, makes 
it desirable to further the agricultural development of land 
in the forests suited to farming. The department is making 
rapid progress in the classification work and aims to segre- 
gate the larger bodies of agricultural land within two years. 
At the same time the establishment of the permanent bound- 
aries of the areas to be used for forest production and pro- 
tection of watersheds will enable the concentration of the 
expenditures in protection, improvements, and reforestation 
where they will yield permanent results. 

Similar work should be done outside the national forests. 
Public lands valuable only for forest purposes— that is, for 
growing timber and protecting water flow — are now exposed 
to fire and trespass and often endanger the forests under 
protection. Legislation is called for to provide that these 
lands be classified and added to the national forests. 

BUSINESS ASPECTS. 

In administering the national forests the department is 
handling a very large business enterprise. The forests will 
be made self-supporting as rapidly as possible. Earnings 
are increasing. The increase for 1913 over 1912 was over 
$300,000, or 15 per cent. Many forests already return more 
than their operating cost, and their number will rapidly grow 
under the present vigorous timber-sale policy. Most of the 
timber is still far from a market, often requiring the construc- 
tion of from 20 to 75 miles of railroad by purchasers. With 
improved conditions the heavily timbered forests will soon 
yield returns sufficient to meet the deficit on forests held 
primarily for watershed protection. 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

The first great task is to protect the forests from injury 
and destruction by fire. The inflammability of the forests, 
the long dry seasons, the lack of means of transportation 
and communication, and the carelessness of many individu- 
als make this work peculiarly difficult. From 2,000 to 3,000 
fires a year are started on the forests. Our efforts must be 
to reduce the number by removing all preventable causes 
of fire, and to be equipped to handle promptly every fire 
that starts. The timber alone is worth about $1,000,000,000. 



Report of the Secretary. 49 

The money spent on protection, a little over 2 cents an acre, 
is cheap insurance. 

THE TIMBER POLICY. 

The national forests must be made to grow all the timber 
that they can; they must supply the needs of the public 
at as low cost to the public as possible; and they must be 
so managed as to protect the public against timber monopoly 
through private control of stumpage or of the manufacture 
of lumber. 

Full production means that lands now unstocked or par- 
tially stocked must be reforested and that those now covered 
by a mature stand must be cut over, with provision for the 
starting of a new crop. The most pressing immediate need 
is, next to fire protection, which both safeguards the present 
stand and promotes reforestation on a great scale, the work- 
ing over of forests where most of the crop is ripe. Sales of 
timber are being aggressively pushed and the cut is rising 
yearly. The timber is sold on terms and conditions which 
safeguard the public against the evils of speculation and mo- 
nopoly. Full value for the public timber sold for commercial 
use is obtained and must be obtained if the Government is 
not to subsidize those business enterprises which buy the 
timber. 

THE GRAZING POLICY. 

The objects of regulated use of the range for grazing are 
full use of the resource without injury to timber growth and 
water flow, the encouragement of the live-stock industry, 
and healthy upbuilding of the West through widely diffused 
participation in the range privilege by small owners. The 
success which has been attained in restoring the productivity 
of ranges depleted by the unregulated competition of former 
days, in working out methods of use satisfactory both to the 
stock industry and to the public, in making new range avail- 
able and learning how to use all kinds of range to best 
advantage, and in developing the industry along lines which 
contribute to home building and diffuse prosperity shows 
what true conservation means. 

WATER POWER. 

There are very great power possibilities within the national 
forests. Already there are 76 developed projects and 30 

27306°— YBK 1913 4 



50 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

under construction. As the market for power increases 
there will be a much greater demand than at present, and 
the Government should make the power sites available 
under terms which will not only encourage the investment of 
capital but fully insure the interests of the public. The 
chief defect of the present law, under which the department 
is working, is the statutory provision permitting the granting 
only of a revocable franchise. This law should be changed 
to allow for the use of land for power purposes, with such 
provisions as may be needed to protect the investor and the 
using public. 

MISCELLANEOUS USES. 

No use of the forests by the public should be refused if 
some more important use is not at stake. On the contrary, 
these 167,000,000 acres of our country should be made to 
yield the largest net total of benefits that can be got out of 
them. The land can be occupied and is being occupied for 
a great variety of purposes by a multitude of individuals. 
When the object sought involves an exclusive privilege, a 
special-use permit is issued. More than 15,000 such permits 
are in force. A vastly greater number of persons visit the 
forests for purposes which require no permit, such as camp- 
ing, fishing, hunting, prospecting, and similar objects. The 
number of such persons last year exceeded 1,500,000. 

Recreational use of the forests is already of very great 
importance, and will be much greater a few years hence than 
it is now. The value of the forests as playgrounds must be 
recognized and so provided for that the public will always 
find full opportunity open for such use. To the extent that 
the law permits, this is being done. Full development of 
recreation use calls for legislation to permit the department 
to grant term permits for the occupancy of land for the con- 
struction of hotels, summer cottages, and similar purposes, as 
permits may now be granted for the development of mineral 
springs. 

Recreation use of the forests must be surrounded with 
safeguards to keep the water supplies of cities uncontam- 
inated, and must be controlled to the extent which the pre- 
servation of natural beauty against vandalism and unsightly 
conditions involve. As public playgrounds the national 
forests will increasingly have a value for the people of the 



Report of the Secretary. 51 

country, the importance of which it is impossible to over- 
state. As protectors of water supplies for domestic use their 
value will also steadily rise. Already over 1,200 cities and 
towns draw their supplies from national forest watersheds. 
Protection both of regularity and of purity of. such supplies 
is an imperative public duty. There is lacking at present 
adequate authority to prevent water contamination by 
campers, prospectors, and others. Legislation to enable 
the department to cooperate with cities and towns in safe- 
guarding the public health through sanitary regulation of the 
use of watersheds is an urgent need. 

IMPROVED HIGHWAYS. 

There has been a steady movement for better roads during 
the past 20 years, with the result that to-day about 24 States 
have highway commissions or some other State highway 
agency. A few of these are engaged in educational work, 
but most of them are expending State money in the con- 
struction and maintenance of roads. So rapid has been the 
growth of this work that, while the total annual expenditure 
of the States for this purpose amounted to but $2,000,000 
10 years ago, it has grown to $43,000,000 in 1912. The 
results 'are in evidence in the form of thousands of miles of 
well-constructed roads in the States which have been most 
liberal in providing State funds, in a higher standard of 
supervision, and in more strict accounting for the financial 
•handling of the work. 

FEDERAL AID IX ROAD BUILDING. 

With the growing interest in road construction and road 
maintenance it becomes evident that the relation of the Fed- 
eral Government to this work should be defined. It is be- 
lieved that the Federal Government should take the lead in 
investigational and experimental work, having for its object 
the securing of facts necessary for the most economical 
methods of road building and road maintenance under the 
widely varying conditions existing in the United States. 
There is need for a central agency which can do the highest 
type of investigational work and can furnish the best infor- 
mation on all problems of road construction and road main- 
tenance — an agency, in short, which shall be able to say the 



52 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

last word on matters pertaining to the construction and main- 
tenance of roads and to road administration. The depart- 
ment has laboratories for testing and research work, issues 
numerous publications of an educational character, and 
employs a group of the best highway and engineer experts 
obtainable. It has actively aided the States and communi- 
ties with suggestions or advice and has made demonstrations 
of its methods as opportunity has offered. The function of 
the department has heretofore been primarily educational, 
and as such it has been recognized to be of great value. 

IMPROVEMENT OF POST ROADS. 

Recently Congress took a step of great importance and sig- 
nificance. Under conditions specified it made an appropria- 
tion of a half million dollars, "to be expended by the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture in cooperation with the Postmaster 
General in improving the condition of roads to be selected 
by them over which rural delivery is or may hereafter be 
established," and provided that such improvements should 
be made under the supervision of the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture. It made this appropriation contingent on the appro- 
priation of double the amount of money for such improve- 
ment by the State or the local subdivision thereof in which 
such improvement was to be made. As the regular appro- 
priation for the Office of Public Roads is approximately 
$300,000, it will be seen that the Department of Agriculture 
has been charged with the supervision of an expenditure for- 
roads of about one and three-quarter million dollars. The 
time has been too short to determine fully the value of the 
experiment authorized by Congress, and it has been recom- 
mended that it be continued with an increased appropriation. 

COOPERATION WITH THE STATES. 

The principle of cooperation with the States embodied in 
the action of Congress referred to is undoubtedly a helpful 
and wise one. It has heretofore characterized the relations 
of the department with the States in its educational or dem- 
onstrational work. It is believed that if Federal aid is to be 
further extended in the construction and maintenance of 
highways any legislation to that end should incorporate this 
principle. It seems desirable that the Federal Government 



Report of the Secretary. 53 

should deal with the State as the lowest unit through an 
expert highway commission as its agency. This policy would 
eliminate the difficulties of the Federal Government in deter- 
mining local issues, as well as the danger of undue centralized 
Government control. In order to stimulate self-help and to 
prevent undue inroads on the Federal Treasury, wherever 
Federal aid is extended for construction and maintenance 
it should be furnished on condition that the States provide 
an appropriation at least double that voted by the Federal 
Government. This would furnish an automatic check. The 
plans should probably provide for maintenance as well as 
construction, in order to prevent the possibility of the con- 
struction of roads many of which may wear out before the 
bonds placed upon them are paid. What roads should be 
improved is a matter of great moment. Unmistakably the 
roads of greatest economic and social importance are those 
over which the products from the farms can be taken to the 
nearest railway station and which minister to the other eco- 
nomic and social needs of the community. It would be de- 
sirable that no Federal funds should be expended on any 
project until a scheme of road construction and maintenance 
within a State had been developed and previously agreed 
upon by the proper representatives of the State and of the 
Federal Government. That any money which may be ap- 
propriated by the Federal Government should be apportioned 
on the basis of a number of factors — such as total population, 
farm population, area, taxable valuation, and mileage — needs 
no detailed comment. 

LEGAL WORK. 

Expansion of the department's field of activity during the 
year has resulted in a material increase in the legal work of 
the department, both in advice upon fundamental questions 
underlying the administration of recent acts of Congress and 
in the preparation of cases for report to the Attorney General 
under the penal provisions of these statutes. 

The provision of the agricultural appropriation act for the 
fiscal year 1914 regulating interstate and foreign commerce 
in worthless, contaminated, dangerous, and harmful viruses, 
serums, toxins, and analogous products and committing to 
the Secretary of Agriculture the administration of the act 



54 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

adds another statute in the execution of which important 
legal questions arise. 

Arrangements were perfected during the year for a more 
expeditious and economical handling of the criminal cases 
under the food and drugs act and under the insecticide act. 

There were transmitted to the Department of Justice 1,048 
cases — 652 for criminal prosecution and 396 for seizure of 
goods under section 10. Twelve hundred and fifty cases, 
including some reported in previous years, were terminated 
during the year — 848 criminal and 402 civil. Fines amount- 
ing to $23,463.50 were imposed in 596 of the criminal cases, 
and decrees of condemnation and forfeiture were entered 
in 365. The courts have evinced a disposition to impose 
severer penalties for violations of this act than in the past. 
Eight hundred and sixty-seven notices of judgment were 
prepared. 

In cooperation with the Interior Department 1,184 cases 
involving claims to lands within the national forests under 
the homestead, timber and stone, mineral, lieu selection, 
and other general and special land laws of the United States 
were handled. As a result of the adjudication of a part of 
these cases, 73,000 acres of valuable timbered lands were 
retained in the forests. 

Four hundred and thirty-six cases of trespass on national 
forests were handled, resulting in the payment into the 
Treasury of the United States of $27,764.91. 

As in previous years, the enforcement of the 28-hour law 
has proceeded vigorously and effectively. There were re- 
ported to the Attorney General 1,037 apparent violations of 
the statute, 406 more than in the previous fiscal year. Pen- 
alties aggregating $61,695 were recovered. 

The Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has held that 
connecting carriers are bound to make reasonable inquiry 
as to the length of time live stock have been previously con- 
fined in cars without food, rest, and water. This ruling 
will have a marked effect in the attainment of the purposes 
of the act. 

The department reported to the Attorney General 92 
apparent violations of these laws. In 93 cases, including 
some reported in the previous year, fines aggregating $10,275 
were imposed. 



Report of the Secretary. 55 

The department reported 81 apparent violations of the 
meat-inspection law to the Attorney General. Convictions 
were secured in 64 cases, including a few reported in the pre- 
vious year, resulting in the assessment of fines to the amount 
of $3,315. In seven cases sentences of imprisonment from 
3 to 30 days were imposed. 

Increased activity of the department in the matter of 
enforcing those provisions of the Penal Code regulating inter- 
state commerce in game and wild birds resulted in the sub- 
mission to the Attorney General of 154 cases, 73 of which 
resulted in convictions and fines amounting to $3,557. 

ENFORCEMENT OF THE INSECTICIDE ACT. 

In the enforcement of the insecticide act the department 
has to do with two classes of insecticides, lead arsenates, 
Paris greens, and fungicides: First, those which enter inter- 
state commerce or are sold or manufactured within the Dis- 
trict of Columbia or the Territories ; and, second, those offered 
for import into the United States at its various ports of entry. 

The analyses and testing of official samples and the investi- 
gational work necessary to be undertaken have two general 
objects in view: (1) To secure data on which to base an 
action under the insecticide act; (2) to develop scientific 
information with a view to assisting manufacturers in respect 
to process of manufacture, packing, labeling, and shipping 
their products so that they will be in harmony with the law. 

Efficient enforcement of the act is being obtained by means 
of prosecutions, and through hearings and correspondence 
many minor faults in labels have been adjusted without resort 
to the courts. Signal service has been rendered manufac- 
turers of insecticides, Paris greens, lead arsenates, and fungi- 
cides in bringing to their attention scientific information 
relative to correcting faulty methods of manufacture, faulty 
methods of analysis, and faulty methods of test, thereby 
aiding them to place better products on the market, with 
more correct labels and of more certain standard. 

THE FEDERAL LAW PROTECTING MIGRATORY BIRDS. 

The act of Congress of March 4, 1913, authorized the de- 
partment to adopt suitable regulations and to fix close seasons 
for migratory game and insectivorous birds according to 
zones. The preparation of the regulations was instrusted 



56 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

to a committee of three members of the Biological Survey, 
and after due publication the regulations were adopted and 
approved by the President on October 1 . Under these regu- 
lations two zones were established and five forms of close 
seasons prescribed — a daily close season extending from 
sunset to sunrise for all migratory birds; an annual close 
season of 8| or 9 months for game birds ; a 5-year close season 
for certain game birds in danger of extermination; a per- 
petual close season for insectivorous birds; and a perpetual 
close season for birds on two of the great navigable rivers. 

The reception of these regulations by the public has been 
very gratifying. Except in a few localities they have been 
welcomed. The chief objections have been to the prohibi- 
tion of shooting after sunset and of hunting on the Mississippi 
and Missouri Rivers. Their effect has been to standardize 
the seasons for hunting, to crystallize public sentiment 
against spring shooting and in favor of a reasonable open sea- 
son in autumn, and to arouse general interest in the protec- 
tion of our migratory birds. 

The enforcement of the law presents problems even more 
novel and difficult than the preparation of the regulations. 
On account of the limited appropriation made by Congress, 
it is necessary to depend chiefly on cooperation with local 
authorities. The United States has been divided into 13 
districts, each of which will be in charge of an experienced 
inspector and a limited force of wardens. The inspectors are 
employed by the department, and the wardens are selected 
from experienced men on the State forces, but receive only a 
nominal salary from the department. Through cooperation 
with other branches of the Federal service and with local 
authorities much may be accomplished. In the few weeks 
that the regulations have been in effect the field force has 
been partially organized in half of the districts, and some 
interesting results have already been obtained. 

FEDEBAL PLANT QUARANTINE ACT. 

The purpose of the Federal quarantine act of August 20, 
1912, is to enable the Secretary of Agriculture to regulate the 
importation of nursery stock and other plants and plant prod- 
ucts, and to enable him to establish and maintain quarantine 
districts for plant diseases and insect pests and to quarantine 



Report of the Secretary. 57 

against diseased or insect-infested plants or plant products of 
foreign countries. The act is being effectively administered 
by a Federal horticultural board appointed from the Bureaus 
of Entomology and Plant Industry and the Forest Service of 
this department, in cooperation with the State, Treasury, and 
Post Office Departments and with horticultural inspectors of 
the several States. 

All nursery stock offered for entry into the United States 
comes under two classes: (1) That from countries having an 
official inspection and certification system and from which 
commercial importations are permitted, and (2) that from 
countries which have no system of inspection and certifica- 
tion and from which importations are limited as to amount 
and permitted only for experimental or scientific purposes. 
The examination, certification, and other conditions govern- 
ing importations are now well understood by importers. 
The Federal act has greatly stimulated foreign countries to 
do better inspection and to provide suitable legislation to 
meet our requirements. The result of this is now evident 
in the much greater freedom from infestation or disease of 
nursery stock offered for entry. Few instances of serious 
infestation have been found during the year, which is a 
marked contrast with conditions prior to the enactment of 
this legislation. 

Under the provisions of the act permitting foreign quar- 
antines four have been promulgated-^ against the white-pine 
blister rust of Europe and Asia, the potato wart of portions of 
Canada and several European countries, the Mexican fruit fly 
of Mexico, and the pink boll worm of cotton of Egypt. 

Under the provisions of the act providing for domestic 
quarantines four have been promulgated — against the Medi- 
terranean fruit fly in Hawaii, the gipsy and brown-tail moths 
in New England, the date-palm scale insects in certain 
counties of California, Arizona, and Texas, and the pink boll 
worm of cotton in Hawaii. These domestic quarantines 
provide for the movement of the quarantined articles under 
a system of inspection and certification, necessitating a con- 
siderable force of inspectors, particularly in the case of the 
Mediterranean fruit fly and the gipsy moth and brown-tail 
moth quarantines. The State inspection service of Cali- 
fornia and the inspection service in New England under the 



58 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

appropriation for moth control have been used in cooper- 
ation with this department for the effective enforcement of 
these two quarantines. 

CONSTRUCTIVE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION WORK IN 
CROP PRODUCTION. 

The constructive research and demonstration work bearing 
directly upon practical agriculture comprises activities that 
are exceedingly numerous and widely varied in character. 
There is practically no regulatory work to divert attention 
from the problems which are of direct and immediate im- 
portance to the farmer. 

CROWN-GALL OF PLANTS. 

Among the distinct achievements in the pathological field 
is the staining of the crown-gall organism in the tissues of 
the crown-gall tumor, which is the conspicuous symptom 
of this widespread and destructive disease which attacks a 
very wide range of crop plants. Important and significant 
results have also been obtained with regard to the relation 
of the crown-gall organism to animal tumors, which it is 
believed will be helpful to investigators of cancer in man 
and the lower animals. 

As the result of an incidental investigation made in China 
by one of our agricultural explorers under instructions from 
the forest pathologist, it has been definitely established that 
the destructive chestnut-bark disease which is causing so 
much damage to the chestnut forests in the eastern United 
States was in all probability brought to eastern America 
from the Orient. 

POTATO DISEASES. 

The prevalence to a destructive extent of several new dis- 
eases of the potato has greatly disturbed the potato industry 
in some of the most important potato-producing districts 
of the Rocky Mountain region. The leaf-roll, curly-dwarf, 
rosette, and mosaic diseases, which were until recently un- 
known in this country, are receiving the attention of the 
pathologists in charge of this line of work. 

ARTIFICIAL RIPENING OF DATES. 

It has been proved that the artificial ripening of dates can 
be effectively and cheaply done by merely subjecting the 



Report of the Secretary. 59 

full-grown, though immature, fruit to a warm and humid 
atmosphere. This discovery of a simple, effective, and 
inexpensive method of ripening has greatly simplified the 
profitable production of some of the choice varieties, such as 
Deglet Noor, which do not come to full maturity on the tree 
in the date orchards of the Southwest. An improved method 
of rooting small date offshoots has been sufficiently devel- 
oped to indicate that the propagation of choice varieties of 
dates can be much accelerated, with the result that in future 
when choice varieties are introduced or originated stock of 
them can be made available to planters in much less time 
than is possible with the Old World methods. 

COTTON AND CORN STANDARDS. 

The increased demand from the public for sets of cotton 
grades indicates a marked increase of interest in cotton grades 
standardization. The importance to all legitimate interests 
of accomplishing as early as possible the universal adoption 
and use of uniform standards has become clearly evident. 

As a result of the studies conducted for several years in 
connection with the marketing, handling, transporting, stor- 
ing, and grading of grain, tentative grades for commercial 
corn have been formulated. Both producers and dealers 
have, recently shown much interest in the subject, and it is 
believed that the general adoption and use of uniform grades 
in both our domestic and export trade would constitute a 
long and important step forward in American agriculture. 

FOREIGN PLANT INTRODUCTION AND EXPLORATION. 

Agricultural exploration work has been vigorously prose- 
cuted during the year in Siberia and northern China, where 
search is being made for trees and plants capable of enduring 
low temperatures and light rainfall. A preliminary explora- 
tion of the regions in western South America has been made. 
This has resulted in the securing of a unique collection of pota- 
toes, which includes some varieties likely to be of distinct 
value in potato breeding. 

FARM MANAGEMENT INVESTIGATIONS. 

Important results have been obtained in the study of the 
cost of producing farm products, the factors which affect the 
profitableness of farm enterprises, and the best way of organiz- 



60 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

ing these enterprises so as to obtain the greatest net income. 
These studies have also made possible the devising of suitable 
methods of farm cost accounting for farmers' use. Survey 
records on over 2,000 farms have been secured which give 
a complete analysis of the farmer's business and show the 
relative efficiency of labor under different farm conditions. 

The systematic study of the organization of farms and of 
individual farm enterprises has brought a more intimate 
knowledge of the detailed practices and the limiting factors 
governing these practices in the farm business, and has made 
it possible to meet with greater efficiency the increasing 
demand for plans and specifications for the organization and 
administration of farms. 

FARM DEMONSTRATION. 

The effort to aid the farmer through the demonstration 
method to improve his practice by adopting better methods 
has received increased attention. 

Some of the most effective and most conspicuous results 
are found in the boys' demonstration work in the South, 
where 480 members of the boys' corn clubs in the various 
Southern States produced yields of over 100 bushels of corn 
to the acre. The work of the canning and poultry clubs, 
through which the girls of the farm are encouraged to pre- 
serve in a form suitable for home use or sale such products as 
tomatoes and other vegetables and fruits that can be profit- 
ably produced for local consumption on many farms has 
yielded very satisfactory results. 

In the Northern States a good beginning has been made in 
farm demonstration work during the year. This work is 
prosecuted for the most part in cooperation with the agricul- 
tural colleges through county agents, who devote their entire 
time to the study of local agricultural conditions and needs 
and act as counselors and advisers to farmers, encouraging 
the adoption of improved methods and where advisable the 
introduction of new crops. While the organization and estab- 
lishment of this work in the North and West is too recent to 
indicate in any very definite way what may be expected to 
result from it, a summary of the work of the agents in the 
30 counties longest established discloses that more than 6,500 
farms have been visited and more than 1,800 farmers' meet- 



Report of the Secretary. 61 

ings addressed, with an attendance exceeding 130,000. 
Cooperative work has been carried on directly with nearly 
2,400 farmers, many of whom are being encouraged to select 
and test carefully their seed corn. More than 235,000 acres 
of corn have been planted with tested seed. Several hun- 
dred farmers are following instructions in the growing of 
alfalfa, clover, and potatoes, and much orchard pruning and 
spraying have been done as a result of the advice and instruc- 
tion of the agents. These agents have made plans for the 
operation of nearly 200 farms, and have organized 65 farmers' 
clubs, with a membership of nearly 1,500 farmers. 

In the boys' and girls' club work in the North and West 
six State cooperative agents have been employed, who have 
had the assistance of five collaborators in the conduct of club 
work. The present enrollment in this work amounts to about 
60,000 boys and girls, who are systematically organized into 
boys' corn clubs, girls' canning clubs, potato clubs, sugar- 
beet clubs, vegetable-garden clubs, etc. The average yield per 
acre of all the corn-club members reporting this year was 
74.5 bushels, with a net profit of $25.55 per acre ; 426 made 
100 bushels or more, and 1,078 made over 60 bushels per acre. 

SEED DISTRIBUTION. 

The distribution of drought-resistant field seeds in the 
Great Plains area and other dry-land sections of the country 
has apparently been productive of excellent results. This 
distribution, which consisted of improved varieties and 
strains of field crops adapted to the regions of light rainfall, 
was made in such a way as to provide the farmer with seeds 
sufficient for an area — usually an acre — adequate to make 
a practical test of the adaptability of the crop to his condi- 
tions. Should it prove superior to the one he is already 
growing, his initial harvest in most cases will provide him 
a sufficient supply of seed for a considerable acreage the 
next year. The beneficial results from this distribution of 
such field seeds as alfalfa, feterita, kafir, milo, millet, Sudan 
grass, and other forage crops, and certain cereals suggest 
the advisability of radically changing the seed distribution 
so as to accomplish the purpose for which it was originally 
established, namely, the introduction into practical farming 
of new and valuable crops needed in the improvement and 
development of agriculture. 



62 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

ANIMAL DISEASES, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, AND DAIRYING. 

The department is working in various ways to foster and 
promote stock raising and to encourage the production of a 
sufficient and wholesome supply of animal food for the people. 

In the control and eradication of animal diseases the 
department is working in cooperation with State and local 
authorities. After 15 years of effort sheep scab, which was 
formerly prevalent throughout the West, has been so nearly 
eradicated that only a few comparatively small areas remain 
in quarantine. The stamping out of cattle mange has 
likewise been nearly completed. 

TICK ERADICATION. 

The greatest undertaking of this character has been the 
extermination in the South of the ticks which spread the 
disease of cattle known as Texas fever. Until recent years 
the southern part of the United States has been under the 
blight of these ticks, the infected area extending from 
Virginia to Texas and including southern California. After 
seven years of effort more than one-fourth of the territory 
originally infected has been freed from ticks and released 
from quarantine, and the work is being pushed vigorously 
and with good progress in much of the remaining area. The 
territory released now amounts to 196,395 square miles, 
being greater than the combined areas of South Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. At first this work 
was done against some opposition because of the lack of 
knowledge of its benefits, but the purposes and advantages 
are now so well understood that it is meeting with the hearty 
cooperation of the people of the affected region. The most 
effective means of destroying the ticks is by dipping the 
cattle in an arsenical solution. The success of this work is 
now only a matter of time and money, and with adequate 
appropriations the extermination of the ticks can be com- 
pleted before many more years have passed. When this 
is accomplished a large area which has heretofore produced 
only a small proportion of what it is capable of raising under 
favorable conditions will become available for beef growing. 

THE FOREIGN MEAT SITUATION. 

In anticipation of the increased entry of foreign meat, 
the department dispatched two of its specialists, one to 



Report of the Secretary. 63 

South America and the other to Australia (the principal 
sources of probable imports), to ascertain whether the 
Governments there maintain adequate supervision of their 
meat industries. The purpose was to safeguard our people 
from foreign meat that might be a carrier of disease or that 
might have been slaughtered under conditions that would 
not be permitted in the United States. The only countries 
of South America that are in a position at the present time 
to ship meats to the United States are Argentina and 
Uruguay. Both of these countries are conducting a Federal 
inspection by veterinarians of all animals slaughtered for 
meat which is intended for export. The inspection is quite 
competent. There are some minor differences between the 
systems of inspection there and in the United States, but 
on the whole the inspection is planned largely after that- 
conducted here, and these minor differences will be overcome. 
A report on Australia has not yet been received. Rigid 
regulations governing the admission of foreign meat and meat 
products have been established and are being effectively 
enforced. 

DAIRYING. 

The department is also working for the increase and im- 
provement of the supply of milk and other dairy products, 
both by means of research and by the dissemination of 
information. 

Within the past year noteworthy results have been 
obtained in the research laboratories with regard to certain 
problems connected with the pasteurization of milk, on the 
cause of deterioration of storage butter, on the causes of 
flavor in cheese, and with regard to other facts relating 
to the bacteriology and chemistry of milk, butter, and cheese. 

NEW METHODS OF INSECT CONTROL. 

The efforts of the department in the matter of insect 
control have been marked by the discovery of new methods 
in the handling of the gipsy-moth problem in the forests of 
New England and by a very satisfactory increase and spread 
of the introduced foreign parasites of the gipsy moth and 
brown-tail moth. Further field experiments of a thoroughly 
practical nature in the control of the alf alf a weevil, an insect 
which has threatened enormous losses in the West, have 



64 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

shown such good results that alfalfa growers in the infested 
territory have secured a fairly good crop of hay throughout 
the season, while some of the best alfalfa growers in that part 
of the country now insist that they can secure a larger annual 
yield than they were able to do before the pest appeared. 
Demonstrations of the possibility of control of the destructh^e 
bark beetles of the western forests have shown that threatened 
outbreaks can be suppressed in an almost perfect manner 
and at extremely little cost. The threatened introduction 
of the Mediterranean fruit fly from Hawaii into the Western 
States has received careful attention, and at the present 
time measures are in force which will probably effectually 
protect the fruit industry of the Pacific States from this pest. 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

The States have in recent years greatly increased the 
appropriations to these stations to supplement the Federal 
funds. The total income of the stations in 1912 was 
$4,068,240, of which $1,440,000 was received from the 
National Government. In the same year $1,000,000 was 
expended for buildings for the stations and about $500,000 
for permanent equipment. 

THE INSULAR STATIONS. 

Gratifying success has been attained in the growing of 
cereals and vegetables in various parts of Alaska, and the 
evidence accumulates that there may be considerable agri- 
cultural development in that Territory whenever better trans- 
portation facilities and the broader utilization of its other 
natural resources bring in sufficient population to give a reli- 
able market for the products of the soil. 

In Hawaii a soil survey is nearing completion and local 
agricultural industries have been encouraged through the 
results of scientific investigations, demonstration farms, 
and associations for cooperative marketing. 

The Porto Rico station is giving special attention to the 
utilization of lands which are unprofitable under the present 
systems of cultivation. Efforts to aid in the development of 
the citrus industry are being continued. In 10 years the an- 
nual exports of citrus fruits have increased in value from 
$230,000 to more than $1,100,000. Coffee is receiving much 



Report of the Secretary. 65 

attention, and it has been shown that by better methods of 
cultivation and fertilizing the crops can be more than doubled. 
In Guam there is increased interest in agriculture on the 
part of the natives as the result of the station's work. Efforts 
are being made to improve the live stock of the island by the 
introduction of pure-bred stock. A large number of tropical 
and subtropical fruits, vegetables and forage plants are 
being tested. 

IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE. 

The studies of irrigation methods and appliances now 
carried on in all the irrigated regions and in a number of the 
humid States are bringing information which will enable 
the farmers to reduce greatly the waste of water and thus 
extend the benefits of irrigation to a much larger area. The 
securing of competent settlers on the great areas of land in 
the West now coming under the ditch is still the most urgent 
problem in that region. The department is therefore doing 
all it can to bring to the actual or intending settlers who are 
unacquainted with irrigation practices such information as 
will enable them to undertake this work with success. 

Examinations and surveys of about a million acres of land 
needing drainage have been included in the work of the de- 
partment during the past year. In this way interest in drain- 
age reclamation is being stimulated over wide areas. 

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

The rapid development of agricultural education in the 
United States, which has been so marked a feature of recent 
educational progress, is continuing. This has been especially 
apparent during the past year in the better support given 
to the agricultural colleges, in the establishment of additional 
agricultural courses in universities and colleges of private 
foundation, in the increasing number of States giving finan- 
cial aid to secondary instruction in agriculture, in the atten- 
tion given to the training of teachers of agriculture for sec- 
ondary and elementary schools, in the larger attendance of 
students at all sorts of colleges and schools in which agri- 
culture is taught, and in the great popularity of certain forms 
of elementary instruction in agriculture, such as children's 

27306°— YBK 1913 5 



66 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

gardens in cities, boys' corn clubs, girls' garden and canning 
clubs, and other juvenile agricultural-club work. 

The department has continued to maintain a center of 
information on the various phases of this broad educational 
movement. 

THE CROP OUTLOOK. 

This statement as to crop yields is in a large measure an 
estimate. This fact should be constantly kept in mind 
in connection with the summary here submitted. 

CROPS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

From the best information at hand it appears that the 
production of crops in the United States in 1913 was mate- 
rially below the average, the yield per acre of all crops com- 
bined being smaller than in any year of the past decade, 
with the exception of 1911. This shortage was caused by a 
severe drought, accompanied by excessive heat during the 
summer months, in an important portion of the agricultural 
district of the United States, and particularly in Kansas, 
Oklahoma, Missouri, and adjacent States. 

Inasmuch as crop production in 1912 was unusually large, 
a greater proportion than usual has been carried into the pres- 
ent crop year, which should mitigate somewhat the effects 
of the shortage of this year's crops. 

The corn crop, the most valuable farm product of this 
country according to the estimates, fell below 2,500,000,000 
bushels, which is smaller than any crop since 1903 and about 
660,000,000 bushels smaller than the record crop of 1912. 
The estimated yield per acre is 23 bushels, compared with a 
yield of 29 bushels in 1912 and an average yield of about 27 
bushels. In only 9 of the past 47 years has the yield per acre 
been less than 23 bushels. 

Wheat production, with an estimated total of 753,000,000 
bushels, notwithstanding the general crop shortage, is the 
largest ever recorded in this country. The crop was prac- 
tically matured before the drought became effective. The 
largest previous estimate was for 1901 (like this year, a 
short-crop year), with 748,000,000 bushels. The production 
in 1912 was estimated at 730,000,000 bushels. In yield per 
acre, this year's estimate of 15.2 bushels has been exceeded 



Report of the Secretary. 67 

five times in the past 47 years. The estimated average yield 
for the past 10 years was 14.2 bushels. 

The oat crop, estimated at 1,122,000,000 bushels, although 
nearly 300,000,000 bushels smaller than last year's record 
crop, is the third largest in our history, the crop of 1910 
holding second place. There has been a steady expansion of 
area in this crop. The yield per acre, however, was slightly 
below the 10-year average. 

The hay crop, estimated at 63,460,000 tons of cultivated 
hay, is nearly 13 per cent smaller than the large crop of 1912. 
In yield per acre the estimate is 1.31 tons, compared with a 
10-year average of 1.43 tons. The lowest yield per acre in 
the past decade was 1:10 tons in 1911, and the highest 1.54 
tons in 1903 and 1905. Rather liberal rains in the late sum- 
mer and fall have produced good pastures. 

The production of cotton has not yet been estimated. 
Present indications are that the yield per acre will be slightly 
below the average; but, as the acreage is large, the total pro- 
duction, which will probably exceed 13,000,000 bales, will rank 
perhaps fourth or third in size. 

The acreage devoted to the five crops mentioned — corn, 
wheat, oats, hay, and cotton — comprises about 90 per cezit 
of the area in all crops, and therefore has a predominating 
effect upon the general average condition of all crops. 
Nearly all of the minor crops were materially smaller this 
year than in 1912, and the per acre yields below their average. 
The potato crop is estimated at 328,000,000 bushels, as 
compared with 420,000,000; tobacco, 903,000,000 pounds, 
compared with 963,000,000; barley, 173,000,000 bushels, 
compared with 224,000,000; rye, 35,000,000 bushels, com- 
pared with 36,000,000; flaxseed, 19,000,000 bushels, com- 
pared with 28,000,000; buckwheat, 14,000,000 bushels, com- 
pared with 19,000,000; sweet potatoes, 56,000,000 bushels, 
compared with 55,000,000 — in each case comparison being 
with 1912. 

The yields per acre of all crops combined compared with 
their 10-year average yields in those States which fared most 
favorably in crop production this year were, if 100 is taken 
to represent the average: Arizona, 116; Minnesota, 115; 
Florida, 111; Wisconsin, 110; Virginia, 107; South Carolina, 



68 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

106; Nevada, 105; Oregon, 105; Georgia, 104; and North 
Carolina, 104. 

Similarly, the yields per acre of all crops combined com- 
pared with their 10-je&r average yields in those States which 
suffered most severely in shortage were, on the same basis: 
Kansas, 61; Oklahoma, 62; Missouri, 71; Nebraska, 78; 
Illinois, 80; South Dakota, 82; Kentucky, 83; New Mexico, 
84; Tennessee, 88; and California, 88. The shortage in Cali- 
fornia is due largely to a freeze of exceptional severity to 
citrus crops and to drought in the spring of 1913. 

To the producers the lessened crop production this year is 
largely compensated by the increased prices received for 
their produce, for, although the total crop production is 
approximately 12 per cent smaller than last year's produc- 
tion, the average level of prices of crops on November 1 is 
about 13 per cent higher than last year. 

CEOPS OF THE WORLD. 

Distinctive features of "world" crops in 1913 as com- 
pared with 1912 are increased areas sown to wheat, oats, 
barley, rye, and corn. The wheat acreage has probably 
yielded a record outturn; barley, oats, and rye are bountiful 
crops, but corn will probably give the poorest result in 20 
years. Comprehensive figures for all countries are not 
available, but the 12 countries which ordinarily produce over 
80 per cent of the world's wheat crop have officially returned 
their aggregate acreages in 1913 compared with 1912 as 
follows: Wheat, 240,622,000 against 236,685,000 acres; oats, 
123,235,000 against 119,027,000 acres; barley, 50,830,000 
against 48,219,000 acres; and rye, 97,516,000 against 
95,293,000 acres. The increase in the wheat area was almost 
exclusively in the United States «.nd the Russian Empire; 
cultivation retrograded notably only in Hungary, Roumania, 
and British India, due chiefly to meteorological causes. 

The wheat yields of the 12 countries in 1913 aggregated 
3,398,638,000 bushels, compared with 3,259,600,000 bushels 
in 1912. The estimated increase of over 150,000,000 bushels 
in the yield of these countries this season, if finally realized, 
indicates that the 1913 world crop will surpass all previous 
records, the total yield of 1912 (3,764,000,000 bushels) having 
been the maximum up to that date. 



Report of the Secretary. 69 

The 1913 world oat crop, though not a record, will rank 
among the largest ever grown. The yield in 1912 totaled 
4,582,000,000 bushels, of which the 12 countries produced 
3,750,000,000 bushels. Preliminary official estimates make 
the outturn of the 12 countries for the present season 
3,629,000,000 bushels, the shortage being entirely in the 
United States. 

A noteworthy feature of the rye crop of the countries in 
question is the deficiency in 1913 of the principal rye-produc- 
ing country, Russia, which reports a crop of only 895,000,000 
bushels, against 1,044,000,000 bushels in 1912. In the Ger- 
man Empire, the other principal rye-producing country, the 
returns indicate a yield in Prussia alone of 375,512,000 
bushels, or a 44,000,000-bushel increase over the crop of the 
preceding season. Increased outturns in other countries are 
likely to counteract the shortage in Russia. 

Preliminary estimates of the 1913 output of barley in such 
of the twelve countries as report upon this crop aggregate 
1,009,821,000, against 1,031,897,000 last year. There is a 
deficiency, compared with the previous year, of 50,000,000 
bushels in the United States and a slight falling off in Prussia, 
but an increase in the yields of Russia, Hungary, Spain, and 
France. 

The tremendous shortage in the 1913 world corn crop, 
consequent upon a crop failure in parts of the United States, 
is coincident with deficient yields in Russia. In other coun- 
tries of southern Europe the prospect is for a bounteous 
harvest. 

SUMMARY OF THE MORE IMPORTANT FEATURES. 

When the Department of Agriculture was first organized, 
and for many years thereafter, its work was confined to mat- 
ters directly affecting agriculture. Congress has, however, 
more recently enacted legislation charging the department 
with the enforcement of numerous regulatory laws, including 
those relating to meat inspection, animal and plant quaran- 
tine, food and drugs, game and migratory birds, seed adul- 
teration, insecticides, fungicides, etc., many of which only 
indirectly affect agriculture. Its activities, therefore, now 
concern, directly or indirectly, all the people. 



70 • Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

To carry on the work of the department during the last 
fiscal year, Congress appropriated $16,651,496 for ordinary 
expenses, in addition to which permanent annual appropriar- 
tions, special appropriations, and balances from previous 
years amounting to $8,303,412.68 were available, making a 
total of $24,954,908.68. The total of funds which has been 
or will be returned to the Treasury, together with miscella- 
neous receipts, aggregate $3,132,303.82. Of this amount 
there was received from the sale of timber, grazing permits, 
condemned property, etc., $2,449,287.66, which has been 
deposited in the Treasury. About three-fifths of the appro- 
priation, or about $15,000,000, was expended for regulatory 
work, and the remainder, or about $9,000,000, for scientific 
research, experiments, and demonstrations directly affecting 
the farmer. 

An important change in the system of handling the finan- 
cial affairs of the department was effected toward the close 
of the year, which is very satisfactory and results in a saving 
of time and money. 

Several changes in the organization of the department have 
been effected with the object of developing more complete 
coordination of the work of the several bureaus and between 
the department and other Federal departments and State 
and other agencies interested in agricultural development. 

The Weather Bureau stations and substations will undergo 
gradual reorganization and elimination; this bureau will 
cooperate with the Hydrographic Office in the publication of 
various meteorological charts; the research work at Mount 
Weather will be discontinued and only climatological records 
made there; the bureau will give more attention to special 
crop warnings arid the forecast service and will include in its 
scientific work studies of storms, hurricanes, frosts, and cold 
waves. 

The soil-survey work has been made more valuable by the 
establishment of cooperation with the States, including their 
experiment stations, colleges, and agricultural bureaus. The 
department will give precedence in conducting soil surveys 
to those States which cooperate with it. During the year 
19 States have appropriated money for soil surveys under 
the new plan of cooperation. 



Report of the Secretary. 71 

The decision of the Attorney General and subsequent 
action of the Secretaries of the Treasury and Commerce in 
rescinding Regulation 39 placed meats and meat products 
under the pure-food law. This necessitated new machinery 
and some reorganization in the Bureau of Chemistry and 
made necessary close cooperation with the Bureau of Animal 
Industry. The general effect was to give the Federal Gov- 
ernment control over meat and meat products in interstate 
commerce and in all stages of transit instead of restricting its 
jurisdiction to the Federal-inspected meat establishments. 
Other changes in the bureau are designed to coordinate and 
improve its work, including the establishment of food and 
drug standards. 

The new fields of work upon which the department has 
entered include the study of marketing farm products, rural 
organization, rural credits, rural hygiene and sanitation, the 
condition of woman on the farm, the popularization of the 
department's work, and the development of closer relations 
with the State agricultural institutions along the lines of the 
plan submitted to the executive committee of the Association 
of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations at its recent 
meeting in this city. 

The national forests are rapidly being made self-supporting, 
many of them already returning more than the operating 
cost. There are great power possibilities within the national 
forests, 76 projects being already developed and 30 under 
construction. As the market for power increases, there will 
be a much greater demand, and the Government should 
make power sites available under such terms as will encourage 
the investment of capital and fully insure the interests of 
the public. The recreational use of the forests should be 
encouraged. 

The trend of the movement for better roads is in the direc- 
tion of State and Federal participation, and to-day 34 States 
have some form of highway commission. 

The department is cooperating with the Postmaster Gen- 
eral in the improvement of selected roads, for which Congress 
appropriated $500,000 conditioned upon the raising of double 
that amount by the States in which such roads are located. 
Construction is now under wav on some of these roads. 



72 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

Fines aggregating $23,463.50 were imposed in 596 cases 
for violations of the food and drugs act; there were 436 
cases of trespass on the national forests, the fines for which 
amounted to $27,764.91; penalties amounting to $61,695 were 
recovered for violations of the 28-hour law; violations of 
the live-stock quarantine acts resulted in fines aggregating 
$10,275; violations of the meat-inspection law resulted in 
the assessment of fines aggregating $3,315; convictions in 

73 cases for violations of the game laws resulted in fines 
amounting to $3,557; and fines for violations of the insecti- 
cide and fungicide act amounted to $1,100. 

An efficiency system has been established in the depart- 
ment affecting all employees, under which advancement 
will depend wholly upon merit. 

A budget or project system for handling all work of the 
department has been inaugurated, which will make possible 
the determination of the relative cost of different kinds of 
work and eliminate duplication. 

The work of the extermination of the tick, which is the 
cause of Texas fever in cattle, has been pushed vigorously 
in the South, the territory now released aggregating 1 96,395 
square miles. The most effective means of destroying ticks 
is by dipping cattle in an arsenical solution. 

In anticipation of the increased entry of foreign meat, two 
department specialists were dispatched — one to Australia 
and one to Argentina — to ascertain whether these Govern- 
ments maintained adequate supervision of their meat indus- 
tries. At the present time the only countries in South 
America in a position to ship meats to the United States 
are Argentina and Uruguay. Both of these countries are 
conducting federal inspection by veterinarians of all animals 
slaughtered for export, and the inspection was found quite 
competent. A report has not yet been received on Australia. 

The production of crops in the United States in 1913 was 
materially below the average, the yield per acre of all crops 
combined being smaller than in any year of the last decade 
except 1911. The corn crop was a little below 2,500,000,000 
bushels, the average yield being 23 bushels per acre; the 
wheat crop, estimated at 753,000,000 bushels, is the largest 
yield recorded for this country. The oat crop was 



Report of the Secretary. 73 

1,122,000,000 bushels; the hay crop, 63,460,000 tons; and 
the cotton crop probably 13,000,000 bales. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

That authority be given to codify existing legislation 
affecting the department in order to more clearly define its 
duties and functions, and to prepare and submit to the next 
Congress a plan for reorganization with a view to broadening 
the work, unifying its efforts, promoting harmony and econ- 
omy, and adjusting its relations with the States. 

That legislation be enacted for effectively conveying exist- 
ing agricultural information to the farmer. The methods 
recommended are embodied in a bill submitted simulta- 
neously in the two Houses of Congress by Hon. Hoke Smith 
and Hon. A. F. Lever. 

That the food and drugs act be amended to permit the 
establishment of legal standards for judging foods and for a 
broader definition of a " drug." 

That if Federal aid is to be further extended in the con- 
struction and maintenance of highways, any legislation to 
that end should incorporate the principle of cooperation 
with the States on the condition that the States provide an 
appropriation at least double that provided by the Federal 
Government; that no Federal funds should be expended 
until a scheme of road construction and maintenance within 
a State had been developed and agreed upon ; and that any 
money appropriated by the Federal Government should be 
apportioned on the basis of a number of factors. 

That the name of the Bureau of Statistics be changed to 
the Bureau of Agricultural Forecasts, as indicating more 
clearly the nature of its work. 

That the present broad authority for investigating the 
marketing and distribution of farm products be continued 
without change and that additional funds be provided. 

That provision be made for the establishment of grading 
standards for various farm products and for the promulga- 
tion of the standards already established by the department 
for cotton and corn grades. 

That special consideration be given to the problem of 
devising better rural credit facilities. 



74 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

That the law be changed to permit the granting of term 
licenses on the national forests for the construction of hotels 
and summer cottages, and for similar purposes, with the view 
of promoting the recreational use of the forests. 

That authority be given the department to cooperate with 
cities and towns in the safeguarding of the public health 
through sanitary regulations of the use of national forest 
watersheds. 

That authority be given for the classification and addition 
to the national forests of public lands valuable only for forest 
purposes which are now exposed to fire and trespass and 
which often endanger the forests under protection. 

That the law governing the development of water power 
within the national forests be modified to permit develop- 
ment under terms which will not only encourage the invest- 
ment of capital, but will fully insure the interests of the public. 

That means and authority be granted to make more com- 
plete studies of domestic conditions on the farm, including 
the question of practical sanitation and hygienic protection 
for the farm home as well as labor-saving devices. 

That certain modifications be made in the laws relating to 
the publications of the department to permit the more effi- 
cient utlization of its printing fund. 

That 'increases aggregating $1,074,387 be made in the 
appropriations of the department for the next fiscal year. 

That the salary limit of scientific workers in the depart- 
ment be raised. 

Respectfully submitted. 

D. F. Houston, ' 
Secretary of Agriculture. 
Washington, D. C, December 1, 1913. 



BRINGING APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY TO THE 
FARMER. 

By F. M. Webster, 

In Charge of Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations, 

Bureau of Entomology. 

THE term "farmer," as used in this article, is intended to 
indicate the husbandman who grows cereals and forage 
crops, as distinguished from his colleagues, the horticulturist, 
the truck grower, the cotton planter, and the sugar planter. 
The grower of cereals and forage crops was the pioneer of the 
wooded valleys of the East and of the boundless prairies of 
the West, residing, with his family, in isolated localities, cop- 
ing, unassisted, with the agricultural problems of his day and 
condition, and doing battle, single-handed, against the ene- 
mies of his crops, whether floods, droughts 
insects, or what not. fr\%$ t P 

The object of the wi'iter is to trace the y yy |_J ^ 
application of entomology to agriculture, VlQ _ ^^^ 0l Usei . 
pointing out some of the many obstacles tesen i; 2758—2714 b. 
that have confronted the farmer in the task c - * v |°f the , Kin e' s 

■ • . name, Kheperkara. 

of freeing himself from popular supersti- 
tions regarding insects, while at the same time coming 
gradually into his own in the matter of profiting from the 
evolution and development of one of the younger sciences. 

ANCIENT MISCONCEPTIONS REGARDING INSECTS. 

The conceptions, or rather .misconceptions, of the ancients 
with regard to insects were enveloped in superstition and 
religious veneration. Records of the sacred beetle of Egypt 
go back at least as far as the year 5000 B. C., and probably 
even farther. (Fig. 1.) It was the habit of this insect to 
lay its eggs singly in excrement and to roll this about until it 
assumed the shape of a ball, in precisely the same way as 
our own well-known tumble bug (fig. 2), which may be seen 
on sunny days pushing its ball and burying it in the warm 
earth, just as its larger Egyptian relative buried hers in the 
banks of desert sand. In the course of time the egg hatched 
and the beetle emerged alive out of the sand. It is supposed 

75 



76 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 




Fig. 2.— The common American dung beetle 
or tumble bus tn act of rolling its ball. 
'Life size. (Original.) 



that the Egyptians, not knowing of the burial of the egg, 
believed that the beetle had the power of reviving itself after 
death, and this supposed belief has frequently been offered 
in explanation of the sacred character which was attributed 
to this insect. It has also been observed that immediately 
after the inundation of the Nile Valley there are as many 
beetles as there were before the inundation, which probably 
gave rise in the Egyptian mind to the idea that these crea- 
tures had a perpetual life. 
This belief in the spontane- 
ous development of animal, 
life from the earth or from 
decaying matter prevailed to 
a greater or less extent even 
as late as the early settle- 
ment of the Atlantic coast 
region of the United States. 
So tenaciously do the leg- 
ends of our forefathers cling to us that even now, in the 
beginning of the twentieth century, if the common opinion 
were expressed, it would be an almost unanimous condem- 
nation of all insects as being equally horrid, disgusting, 
and detestable, with the possible exception of the honey 
bee. Many individuals have as little true knowledge of the 
origin and development of these creatures as the ancient 
Egyptians had of the life history of their 
sacred beetle. Possibly Queen Tyi, reigning 
about the year 1414 B. C, knew as little of 
the bee whose image (fig. 3) adorned the mar- 
riage scarab — or what might in this day be 
termed the "marriage certificate" — of herself 
and her husband, Amenhotep III. An even 
earlier occurrence of this figure is found upon 
the scarab of Thothmes II, covering the period from 1516 to 
1505 B. C. 

Many insects have been named after Greek gods and god- 
desses. According to La Hontan, 1 one of the Indian tribes 
of Illinois had a native moth (fig. 4) inscribed upon its totem 

i La Hontan is not credited with overmuch truthfulness. However, the Indians, espe- 
cially the Pueblo and other Indians of New Mexico and Arizona, have a surprising knowl- 
edge of insects and their importance. 



Fig. 3.— A portion 
of the marriage 
scarab of Amen- 
hotep III and 
Queen Tyi; 1414 — 
1379 B. C. 



Bringing Applied, Entomology to the Farmer. 77 

pole — indicating that moth to be the far-away progenitor of 
the tribe. Figure 4 is a copy of an illustration in Baron 
La Hontan's "New Voiages to North America," 2d edition, 
Vol. II, p. 87, 1735, and described by him as a "butterfly 
argent on a beech leaf." The latest link in this legendary 
chain, binding the mystic ages of the past to our own time, 
may be found in our own nurseries, in the belief of the children 
that a ladybird alighting of its own will upon them indicates 
the immediate acquisition of new garments, and in the more 
gruesome but equally well known "ticking of the- death- 
watch," so called. 

There remains in these ancient records enough of fact to 
give us excellent reason for believing not only that the crops 
of the early Egyptian farmer suffered from 
insect attack, but that those of our Aryan 
ancestors probably suffered equally as they 
tended their flocks and cultivated their 
fields on the plains of central Asia four or 
five thousand years ago. Despite supersti- 
tion and misconception, the actual economic 
element in entomology is inevitably as old 
as agriculture itself. 

EARLY RECORDS OP INSECT DEPREDA- 
TIONS IN AMERICA. 

As illustrating the transitional stage of „ 

, . _ . „ , b , 1 , j. ii ■ FtQ - *■— Facsimile of 

this branch of knowledge, the following ex- the totem of the im- 
cerpts from old and only comparatively nob Indians. After 
reliable manuscripts may be given: In the 
year 1638-39 John Jossleyn, "gentleman," visited New Eng- 
land, coming again in 1663 and remaining until 1671. He 
reported that in the cornfields of the natives there occurred 
a "bugg that lieth in the earth and eateth the seed, that is 
somewhat like a maggot, of a white color, with a red head, 
about the bigness of one's finger, and one inch or an inch and 
a half long." Very evidently this was what we now know 
as the white grub. 

Mr. William Wood, who visited this country in 1629, re- 
maining until 1633, stated that the Indians exceeded the 
English husbandmen in keeping their fields clean of weeds 
and of "undermining worms." This will give something of 




78 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

an idea of insect depredations in the cornfields of the abo- 
rigines, and will indicate which insects were probably the 
first to attack the cornfields of the earliest farmers of the 
United States. 

It was not until after this time that Dr. Francesco Redi, 
court physician to Francis the Second, published the results 
of his extensive experiments on the generation of insects. 
This record appeared in 1668, reached a fifth edition in 1688, 
and conclusively disproved the theory of the generation of 
insects in dead matter. Up to this time, as stated by Redi, 
the "generation of these living creatures was considered by 
all schools to have been by chance; that is, spontaneously, 
without paternal seed." 

It is not to be supposed that the grain fields of the early 
farmers escaped with less insect injuries than the cultivated 
fields of the Indians, though during the first hundred years 
of agriculture in America we have only fragmentary records 
of the ravages of insects. These records are very incom- 
plete and are such as have of necessity been gleaned from old 
manuscripts, diaries, and similar documents. Not only are 
these incomplete, but they appear to have related only to 
the most disastrous outbreaks, leaving unnoticed a vast 
amount of injury of which we have, therefore, no record 
whatever. Some of these fragments of entomological his- 
tory are as follows: In 1632 "the worms made extensive 
ravages on the grain;" 1646 and 1649 were "caterpillar 
years;" in 1666 "the Indian corn was eaten by worms." 
And as showing that other destructive insects as well as 
these were probably present, it is to be noted that the canker- 
worms in 1658 to 1661 made great havoc with the apples in 
the vicinity of Boston. At that time cutworms and army 
worms were frequently termed "canker-worms." 

By this time ordinary insect outbreaks appear to have 
become so common as to be thought unworthy of record, 
and we have nothing more until the year 1743, when it is 
stated that "millions of devouring worms in armies threat- 
ened to cut off every green thing. Hay very scarce; £7 to 
£8 a load." While this particular record applies to New 
England, it certainly does not cover the entire area of dev- 
astation, as John Bartram, during July of that year, made 
a journey from Philadelphia to Oswego, N. Y., and records 



Bringing Applied Entomology to the Farmer. 79 

the occurrence of worms, which he says have done much 
mischief by destroying the grass and even corn for two sum- 
mers. He also observes that the worms ate off the blades 
not only of corn but also of long white grass, so that the 
stems of both stood naked 4 feet high. He observes that 
they seem to be periodical, like the locust and caterpillar. 

During the year 1749 we are told that in July grasshop- 
pers appeared in myriads, the observer stating: "I reckon 
my poultry, about a hundred, eat 10,000 grasshoppers every 
day. The inhabitants of Nahant, Mass., formed a line and 
with bushes drove the grasshoppers into the sea by millions. " 
In 1762 a terrible drought appears to have occurred, and, 
owing to a very late spring, corn could not be planted at the 
proper season. Statement is made that " when at last the 
corn was planted millions of worms appeared to eat it up" 

For upward of a hundred years our records are very in- 
complete, although there are indefinite references in exist- 
ence to show that this is not owing to a lack of insect depre- 
dations in the fields of the farmer. 

In 1770 there appears to have been a widespread outbreak 
of our common army worm, which, it is stated, extended 
from Langston, N. H, to Northfield, Mass. These ate wheat 
and corn and disappeared as if by magic, leaving nothing 
but the bare stalks of these crops. It seems that the farm- 
ers, in order to protect their fields, drew ropes over them, 
brushing the worms from the stalks, which expedient, we are 
told, only retarded the devastation, the crops being finally 
doomed to destruction. Trenches were dug in the fields in 
advance of the moving armies of worms, but the worms soon 
filled the ditches, and the millions that were in the rear went 
over on the backs of their fellows in the trenches and took 
possession of the interdicted food. Holes were sometimes 
made in the bottoms of these ditches, one every 2 or 3 feet, 
into which the worms fell and were then killed by the farmers 
going over the fields and plunging bars or sticks of wood into 
these holes. It seems, however, that only a few farmers were 
able to save enough corn for seed the following year. Just 
11 years afterward, in 1781, the same pest is again recorded. 
It seems also to have reappeared in 1790. Trapping by 
means of ditches and holes is used in present-day methods of 
control, but the worms are killed by pouring kerosene into 
the holes. 



80 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

PRIMITIVE STATE OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

Beyond the crude measures already indicated, which, as 
will be seen, were at the most but slightly effective, there was 
nothing that the farmers were able to do to save their crops. 
An appeal was apparently made for information which would 
aid them in destroying these pests, but no relief appears to 
have been received. Indeed, this probably was the beginning, 
at least in this country, of the unjust prejudice which has since 
prevailed against scientific agriculture, otherwise termed 
"book farming." The Angoumois grain moth, an insect 
accidentally introduced into the United States, committed 
very serious ravages upon grain, both in the field and.in store, 
in the State of North Carolina. The ravages of this pest reach 
as far back at least as the year 1728. In 1796 M. Louis A. G. 
Bosc, who was sent out to this country by the French Gov- 
ernment, and resided for some time at Wilmington, N. C, 
found these moths so abundant there as to extinguish a can- 
dle when he entered his granary at night. Although the insect 
is entirely different from the Hessian fly — the one attacking 
the seed and the other the plant, the one being a moth or miller 
and the other a fly — yet, in going over the earlier agricultural 
journals of the country, these two insects are so confused as 
in many case to render it impossible to decide to which one 
the discussions relate. If such misconceptions were to be 
found among the more educated classes, such as might be 
represented by Col. Langdon Carter, of Virginia, who wrote 
on the grain moth in 1768, where was the ordinary farmer 
to go for information that would help him in his troubles ? 
The few entomologists of that time were almost wholly ab- 
sorbed in obtaining specimens of insects and in describing 
them in scientific journals. These entomologists, almost 
without exception, knew as little about agriculture as the 
farmer did about entomology; consequently there was diver- 
sity where there should have been community of thought and 
labor. The foregoing will serve not only to indicate the 
primitive state of " entomology in the early history of the 
country, but also to account for many of the earlier miscon- 
ceptions among farmers relative to the occurrence of de- 
structive insects. 



Yearbook U. S. D.;pt. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate I. 




Field Laboratories and Breeding Cages. 

Pig. l. — Interior of the first field-station laboratory to be established for the exclusive inves- 
tigation of grain and forago insects: located at Tower City, N. ]>ak. Fig. 2. — Investi- 
gation of Hessian 11 \- in grain fields at Tower City, N. Dak., field station, showing the Held 
breeding cages within which various experiments with Hessian fly are carried out. Fig. .';. — 
The entomological laboratory at Greenwood, Miss., illustrating tho utilization of a small 
dwelling for this purpose, on the outskirts of Ureenwood. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate II. 




Field Laboratories. 



Fig. 1.— The lalwratorv at Tempe, Ariz. Fig. 2.— Laboratory building and out-of-door breed- 
ing cage, built especially for this purpose, located at Nashville, Tenn. 1 ig. 3.— Laboratory 
at Uagerstown, Md., showing the utilization of half of a double bouse for this purpose. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate III. 





Field Laboratories. 

Fig. 1.— Laboratory on Kensington Avenue, Salt Lake City, Utah. A difTerent form of build- 
ing but also easily convertible into a modern cottage. The staff of this field station is show n 
in front and the principal investigation at this point is with the alfalfa weevil. Fig. 2.— 
Laboratory built by a private individual at Elk I'oint, S. Dak., and leased to the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. This building admits of being easily converted into a small cottar e 
in case it should at any time bo no longer desired for laboratory purposes. Fig. 3. — Labora- 
tory at Wellington, Kans., a private cottage leased to the Department of Agriculture. 
Fig. 4.— Out-of-door breeding cage in connection with the Wellington station. This arrange- 
ment gives to the interior conditions as near to those out of doors as it is possible to obtain. 



Yearbook U, S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate IV. 




Fie. 1. 
dc 



Field Laboratory and Breeding Cages. 

Laboratory at Brownsville, Tex. This consists of the cavalry barracks of the ahan- 
med Fort Brown, transformed into an entomological laboratory, thus combining the 
pursuits of war and peace. Fig. 2.— Showing insectary and breeding cages connected with 
the laboratory at Brownsville, Tex. Fig. 3. — Illustrating the out-of-door breeding cage at 
La Fayette, Ind., and other equipment at that point for the close study of cereal and forage 
insects under as nearly natural conditions as possible. All such experiments are checked 
by others carried out' in the field. Fig. 4.— The out-of-door breeding cage at Columbia, 
S . C, where experiments similar to those in progress at La Fayette, Ind., are being carried out. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate V. 




Camp Laboratory on the New Mexico Range. 

Fig. 1.— An improvised insectary for the careful study of the range caterpillar and the intro- 
duction of and experimentation with its parasites. Fig. 2. — Camp near Koehler, N. Mex., 
established in the midst of a 100,U0O-acre cattle range, for the investigation of the range 
caterpillar. Fig. 3.— Hibernating cages used in connection with studies of the range 
caterpillar. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate VI. 




1'ijdimkm 




Collecting and Distributing Parasites of Injurious Insects. 

Fie 1 — Illustrating the artificial propagation of certain parasitic insects, at Glendalc, Cal.. 
ff,'r dis ril.ulion to and colonization at distant points. Fig 2.-1 cssmts who collected 
Ifalfa stems for the Bureau of Entomology III the field, of Italy FiK,3.-Selecting out the 
stems containing parasites of alfalfa weevil and preparing them for shipment to the L ite 
States. Fig. 4.— Liberating the imported parasites of alfalfa weevil in the alfalfa fields in 
U tali. 



Bringing Applied Entomology to the Farmer. 81 

FIKST EFFORTS FOR THE PROTECTION OF PLANTS FROM 

INSECTS. 

The first efforts looking toward the protection of cultivated 
plants from insect attack consisted largely, if not indeed en- 
tirely, in the treatment of garden vegetables with soot, ashes, 
lime, and later, perhaps, white hellebore, but the use of these 
evidently did not extend beyond the garden and afforded 
no relief whatever to the grower of grains and forage crops. 
The spread of the Colorado potato beetle eastward from the 
West probably did much to introduce Paris green as an 
insecticide, but its use was confined largely to the truck 
grower and gardener. To the broad acres of the grower of 
grains and forage crops it afforded no relief whatever. Still 
later the work on the cotton worm of the South brought 
kerosene emulsion into practical use, but even this gave no 
assistance to the grower of grains and grasses. Although 
the spraying of trees and shrubs was begun a little later and 
virtually began a new era for the fruit grower, yet this, too, 
left the ordinary farmer with his problems of insect control 
practically unsolved and himself rather in the r61e of an 
amused though skeptical spectator. . 

BEGINNINGS OF THE APPLICATION OF ENTOMOLOGY TO 
GRAIN GROWING. 

Nevertheless, the efforts toward the control of the Colorado 
potato beetle, the western migratory locust, 1 and the cotton 
worm in the South, although not directly applicable to grain 
growing or to the individual activities of the farmer, were not 
without their effect upon him. The same may be said of the 
work of the writer in the lower Mississippi Valley during the 
years 1886 to 1890, looking toward the control of the buffalo 
gnat. This pest occurred in such overwhelming numbers as 
to destroy thousands of head of live stock, and even to kill 
the mules drawing street cars in the city of Memphis, Tenn. 
While it had nothing to do with the cultivation of grains, it 

i The western migratory locust was the first insect pest to receive attention in the United 
States with a view to its destruction over wide areas. This outbreak occurred during the 
years 1873 to 1876, inclusive, and covered more or less completely the States oi Idaho, Mon- 
tana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kan- 
sas, Colorado, Oklahoma, and Texas, or a territory embracing about 2,000,000 square miles. 
Congress made an appropriation of $25,000, covering the expenses of the Entomological 
Commission, to investigate the outbreak. 
27306°— YBK 1913 6 



82 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

did affect the farmer in that in many cases it swept his horses 
and mules out of existence just at the time in the spring 
when he needed them most. A study of the cause of these 
outbreaks revealed the fact that relief lay in completing the 
levees of the Mississippi River between Cairo and the mouth 
of the Red River; for as these gnats develop only in running 
water, the overflow from the river into the bayous for miles 
inland provided the most favorable conditions for their devel- 
opment, and from these breeding places they Were carried 
great distances to farms by the winds. The levees were 
completed, and since that time it is doubtful if a single head 
of live stock has been destroyed by these pests. 

It was only gradually that the farmer came to seek help 
from entomology. Up to the year 1884, when the writer 
was appointed a special agent of the old Division of Ento- 
mology, the Department of Agriculture received scant funds 
for the purpose of aiding the farmer by bringing applied ento- 
mology within his reach. About all that the department em- 
ployees could do under these conditions was to write letters 
in reply to such requests for information as came to them. 

Before the advent of experiment stations — and there were 
few of these prior to 1888, and even for some time afterwards, 
because many of the men who are now prominent in station 
work had yet to be educated — letters addressed to members 
of university faculties complaining of the ravages of insects 
and asking relief brought the farmer little consolation. The 
replies he received to his appeals for relief were usually ex- 
pressed in a language that he did not understand. More- 
over, they were usually written by men who had little or 
no practical knowledge of agriculture. Thus the breach 
already existing between the farmer and the scientist was 
continually widened and in many cases there was fostered 
an absolutely intolerant feeling on the part of each for the 
other. The real practical value of applied entomology to the 
average farmer at that time was perhaps best measured by 
the frequently used illustrations of Cupid with an insect 
net chasing butterflies. The measures for reaching the 
farmer and helping him in his troubles were far from being 
satisfactory. He was still very much a disinterested specta- 
tor. Nor was the fault entirely with the scientist, for the 
farmer himself has been hard to reach. Indeed, at that time 



Bringing Applied Entomology to the Farmer. 83 

the writer could easily place in three classes the farmers to 
whom he was endeavoring to bring entomological aid. The 
first class, much the largest in number, consisted of those 
who looked upon the whole matter as a case of one person 
(the author) holding down and continuing to hold down a 
good job; the second, those who considered it a case of 
"the blind leading the blind;" and the third, much the 
smallest class, those who really understood the aid which the 
Government was trying to extend to them, and fully appre- 
ciated it. An instance or two will serve to illustrate this 
last-mentioned class: The author had spent an hour with a 
certain farmer in his wheat field. At the end of that time the 
farmer remarked that he had been growing wheat all his life, 
or at least for more than 50 years, and yet in that one hour, with 
a trained observer, he had been led to see things which he 
not only had never seen before, but of the very existence of 
which he had never dreamed. He further admitted that 
because he had not known what was going on in his own fields 
he had been losing money during all of those years. A million- 
aire banker and farmer once took the writer to his 18,000- 
acre farm to investigate what was, to him, an entirely new 
insect, but which had practically ruined hundreds of acres 
of his corn. It so happened that this was the western 
corn rootworm, which, while its work is exceedingly obscure 
and connections between worm and adult difficult for the 
farmer to observe and understand, is withal one of the easiest 
of all corn insects to manage by a simple rotation of crops. 
After spending a day in the cornfield he stated that had he 
known a year earlier what he had learned in that one day 
it would have saved him $10,000, and he estimated that 
the information would save him that amount annually in the 
future. However, another case of a similar nature turned out 
somewhat less happily. In this case the farmer was almost 
equally wealthy and carried out with equal faithfulness the 
recommendation for the rotation of crops, the ground where 
the corn had been destroyed being seeded the following spring 
to oats. Moreover, the experiment, so far as the destruction 
of the corn rootworms was concerned, proved equally effec- 
tive. Yet the next year, as the writer was walking the streets 
of a near-by town, a heavy hand was laid on his shoulder and 
the owner of the hand — the farmer in question — accused him 



84 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

bluntly of not having known what he was talking about, 
because "the same thing that had destroyed the corn had 
turned into a worm an inch long and destroyed the oat crop !" 
This man said quite frankly that unless the writer could 
furnish better information, the sooner the Government got 
rid of him the better. When the farmer had been convinced 
that the corn rootworm of one year could not possibly 
develop into the army worm of the next, the difficulty was 
somewhat smoothed over. However, the average farmer 
is still almost invariably distrustful of one who has not been 
brought up on a farm or who has merely had the training of a 
university, and it is still with no little difficulty that he 
can be reached by either Government or State entomologists 
unless he is first convinced that they have a practical knowl- 
edge of agriculture. That he is not without excuse for this 
state of mind has already been shown. 

After a lapse of over 30 years, and in an adjoining county, 
a soil expert has recently been employed with the primary 
object of examining the soils and giving the farmers advice 
as to what elements are lacking and how their soils can be 
best improved. In carrying out his work this expert has 
encountered a most astonishing condition with reference to 
corn culture, as, in very many instances, instead of chemical 
defects in the soil it has been found that failures in pro- 
ducing satisfactory crops of corn have not been due to soil 
defects at all but to the ravages of this same western corn 
rootworm. At the present time the writer, by aiding this 
soil expert, is making every effort to enlighten the farmers, 
now largely of another generation, as to the actual cause of 
their failures and the thoroughly practical measure, a simple 
rotation of crops, that will enable them to overcome it. By 
this means it is expected that, with the aid of two sciences 
instead of one, practical results will be obtained that will 
bring about a saving of thousands of dollars to the farmers 
of this county. 

THE INTRODUCTION OF ENTOMOLOGICAL FIELD STATIONS. 

The latest and most practical development in the work of 
bringing, applied entomology to the farmer is found in the 
entomological "field stations," so called, which have been 
established in various parts of the country. When ento- 
mology was first applied directly to farming problems, ento- 



Bringing Applied Entomology to the Farmer. 85 

mological workers, both State and National, were few and 
widely separated. Cooperation, except in rare cases, was 
impossible, and each investigator devoted himself to the 
study of such insects as occurred in his immediate neighbor- 
hood. No other course, indeed, was open to him. It was 
frequently the case, however, that the insect which he was 
investigating was not confined to his own locality, or even to 
his own State, but was distributed over a wide area, and 
existed under widely varying conditions of soil and climate. 
Thus, when the results of his investigations were published, 
farmers in whatever section of country the pest occurred at 
once attempted to put into practice the recommendations 
which the entomologist had made for the control of the insect 
and which were necessarily applicable only to that section 
of the country in which the investigations had been made. 
When, as might be expected, the results of the application of 
these recommendations were in some cases not all that could 
be desired, the entomologist got the blame, in spite of 
the fact that it had been obviously impossible for him to 
carry on investigations in more than one place at a given time. 
It was to meet this need for local investigation and experi- 
mentation in the broad, interstate investigations that 
these field stations were established, the first effort in 
this direction being made in the spring of 1905, when an 
entomological laboratory for the exclusive study of cereal 
and forage insects was located at Tower City, N. Dak. The 
interior of this laboratory is shown in Plate I, figure 1, while 
the field equipment, consisting of field cages in which were 
carried on investigations of the Hessian fly in its attacks 
upon spring wheat, may be seen in Plate I, figure 2. At that 
time it was doubted in some quarters that this insect did 
attack spring wheat, but that it does do so was fully demon- 
strated by the aid of these rather primitive facilities, as was 
also the fact that durum wheat is practically immune to its 
attacks. In the same year a laboratory was established at 
Richmond, Ind. The laboratories at that time each con- 
sisted of but a single room in a dwelling house, the work 
done therein being supplemented by more or less extensive 
field experiments. The principal work done at Richmond 
was in studying the spring grain-aphis, or "green bug," for 
which work Congress had made a special appropriation. 



86 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

DEVELOPMENT OF ENTOMOLOGICAL FIELD STATIONS. 

Since that time we have far outgrown these primitive 
arrangements, and a small dwelling house is often leased 
entire, such as the one at Greenwood, Miss. (PI. I, fig. 3), or 
Tempe, Ariz. (PI. II, fig. 1). As the work expanded, more 
room in these laboratories became necessary, and more com- 
modious quarters were therefore obtained, as seen in the 
laboratory at Nashville, Tenn. (PI. II, fig. 2), or the one at 
Hagerstown, Md. (PI. II, fig. 3), where the half of a double 
house is utilized for this purpose, and by the one at Wellington, 
Kans. The last is shown in Plate III, figure 3, while the' 
out-of-door breeding cage, in which insects are reared under 
conditions as near as possible to those in the fields, is illus- 
trated in Plate III, figure 4. 

Where satisfactory buildings can not be leased for this 
purpose, real estate men or contractors are usually willing 
to erect buildings suitable for our purpose, leasing them to 
the Department of Agriculture. Such an arrangement is 
illustrated by the laboratory at Elk Point, S. Dak. (PI. Ill, 
fig. 2), and the one at Salt Lake City, Utah (PI. Ill, fig. 1). 

At Brownsville, Tex., the building formerly occupied as a 
cavalry barracks at old Fort Brown was, upon its abandon- 
ment as a military post, placed at the disposal of the depart- 
ment and was fitted up as an entomological laboratory. 
The building is shown in Plate IV, figure 1, and the out-of- 
door breeding cage in figure 2 of the same plate. In some 
cases universities have been kind enough to give us necessary 
laboratory quarters in their buildings and ample facilities 
for outside work. An instance of this sort is found in the 
work at Purdue University, La Fayette, Ind. (PI. IV, fig. 3), 
while another is seen at the University of South Carolina, 
Columbia, S. C. (PI. IV, fig. 4). 

A laboratory entirely different from those previously 
mentioned was established in the spring of 1913, when it 
became necessary to carry on investigations in the midst of 
a 100,000-acre cattle range, miles away not only from the 
nearest town but from the nearest human habitation. A 
field camp (PI. V, fig. 2) was therefore located at a point 
not too far from the small mining town of Koehler, N. Mex. 
The temporary field laboratory is shown in Plate V, figure 1 . 
The breeding cages necessary to this work in the develop- 



Bringing Applied Entomology to the Farmer. 87 

ment of parasites that had been previously imported from 
Europe are seen in Plate V, figure 3. This field station and 
laboratory in the open range is a very modern innovation 
and something that could not, by any possibility, have been 
inaugurated and carried, out 10 years ago, not only because 
at that time funds were not available for such an under- 
taking, but also because of the fact that public sentiment 
would not have offered any encouragement looking toward 
this particular piece of work. 

Another phase of the work of bringing aid to the farmer is 
illustrated in Plate VI, figure 1, where are shown breeding 
cages for the rearing of parasites artificially, the parasites 
to be shipped to distant points and there liberated in the 
fields, with the view of thus destroying insect pests of the 
wheat field. In this particular case the parasites, through 
the courtesy of this Government to the British Government, 
were consigned to the official entomologist of British East 
Africa. 

A parasite of the alfalfa weevil, a European insect that was 
accidentally introduced in the vicinity of Salt Lake, has 
by the reverse procedure been brought from the native home 
of the species in Europe and liberated in the alfalfa fields 
of Utah. Plate VI, figure 2, illustrates a party of Italians 
employed in their native country to collect alfalfa stems likely 
to contain parasitized eggs of the weevil. Figure 3 of the same 
plate shows another group charged with the more responsible 
duty of selecting for shipment to this country all stems 
known to contain such eggs. After they had been developed 
artificially in the laboratory at Salt Lake City the parasites 
were liberated in fields of alfalfa that had become infested 
by the alfalfa weevil. Plate VI, figure 4, shows the manner 
in which this was done. 

PRACTICAL VALUE OF THE FIELD STATIONS TO THE 

FARMERS. 

As evidence of the practical value of these field stations, it 
may be stated that farmers and stockmen are coming more 
and more not only to make use of these stations by telephone, 
but also by taking members of the staff of assistants to their 
own farms. They are also acquiring an intelligent interest 
in the more technical features of the laboratory work. Time 
was when a farmer, seeing an experiment carried on under 



88 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

a lantern globe, would have become so utterly disgusted as 
forever to forswear all interest in that particular kind of 
work. Now, however, he pursues an entirely different 
course. Not only does the insect pest itself interest him, but 
he also cultivates a business acquaintance with its parasites 
and other insect foes, for he is beginning to understand that 
there are really more beneficial than harmful insects, and 
that the former are his friends. He therefore likes to see 
the experiments at short range, and when he returns to his 
own fields he is all the better able to detect the presence of 
the pest if it occurs. 

We have found, too, that one of the most satisfactory 
methods of bringing applied entomology to the farmer is to 
carry out field experiments in places where these experi- 
ments can be easily observed. We have made it a point to 
let the farming community know exactly what we are trying 
to do, and to explain carefully the measures that are being 
carried out. By watching the experiments themselves, 
knowing just what we are trying to do, how we are doing 
it, and the object in view, the farmers are able to see pre- 
cisely what results are obtained. This work, carried out in 
their own locality, under local climatic, geographic, and 
agricultural conditions in their own fields, shows them much 
more clearly than could otherwise be explained that what 
we can do they themselves can do. In such cases negative 
results are to them of a3 much value as positive ones. This 
must not be confused with mere demonstration. It is 
actual experimentation with the farmer taken into partner- 
ship and really paves the way for the demonstrator and 
extension worker. 

Another most important point with reference to this 
matter of personal contact with the farmer is that he is 
still, generally speaking, strongly averse to reading about 
insects that may or may not attack his crops in the future. 
He can not by any possibility bring himself to take an 
interest in such matters. As one of them explained, "It 
is all right for you people who understand these things, but 
for us farmers it is very much like attempting the manage^ 
ment of a Krupp gun." We have found that after there has 
been a personal examination of fields — and this sometimes 
involves a whole community — the farmers frequently, either 
individually or collectively, are then ready to read almost 



Bringing Applied Entomology to the Farmer. 89 

anything put before them.relating to these particular pests or 
their parasites, because they have seen them working in their 
own fields and have seen also the results of such work. It 
seems that then, and not before, is the time to place entomo- 
logical literature before the farmer. It is only a different 
phase of what we all experience at some time or other, and 
which may be illustrated by the well-known fact that while we 
may for years have been reading about a certain interesting 
or historic locality, it is only after visiting the place and 
becoming personally acquainted with it that the descriptions 
become really interesting to us, and it is then that we desire 
to gather up and reread whatever we have regarding it. 

There is one more point which must b'e brought out in 
connection with the practical value of these field stations. 
The farmers' institutes have accomplished a great work, and 
it is no criticism against them to call attention to the fact 
that very many farmers will sit through an institute meeting, 
listening intently, but will ask no questions and give no 
experiences. Somehow it seems as though a body of people 
brought together in this way gives the average farmer a 
species of lockjaw. Yet these same men, interviewed in 
their own fields by some one who fits in with their life, imme- 
diately re-acquire the power of speech and give out informa- 
tion freely, often supplementing the knowledge acquired by 
the entomologist in his laboratory. If these field stations 
accomplished nothing more than this they would repay over 
and over again the funds annually appropriated for the work. 

But it is largely through the work and efficiency of these 
field stations that entomology as applied to the farm has 
been, within the last 25 years, completely revolutionized. 
Through their comparative accessibility to all sections of the 
country it is now possible, when complaint is made of an 
insect outbreak of more than local importance, to wire 
instructions to an expert stationed at the field station nearest 
to the point of outbreak, charging him to proceed at once 
to that point and investigate the trouble a't first hand. • Thus 
the farmer who has made application to the Department of 
Agriculture for assistance, either directly or, as is frequently 
done, through his representative in Congress, is often sur- 
prised to receive, instead of an impersonal reply by mail, a 
"living epistle," as it were, in the person of a young man 
who by training and experience is fitted to assist in con- 



90 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

trolling the pest. This young man, expert both in ento- 
mology and in agriculture, goes about with the farmer over 
his fields and over the fields of his neighbors, pointing out to 
them, in a perfectly natural and intelligible way, things 
which have been mysteries to them heretofore. He shows 
them wherein their farming methods have been responsible 
for losses due to insect attack in the past and how, by suitable 
cropping systems and methods of cultivation, such losses 
may be averted in the future; thus, again, clearing the way 
for actual extension and demonstration work. 

It must be borne in mind that the men connected with 
these field stations are working as a unit and not as isolated 
and independent individuals and upon interstate and not 
local problems, regardless of State boundaries. Securing 
facts in New England and attempting to apply them under 
the agricultural conditions existing in Texas, Montana, or 
Florida is neither good entomology nor good agriculture. 
These men do not recognize State lines at all, nor are they 
bound by them, and the same insect is studied through- 
out its entire area of habitation, under every climatic, 
geographic, and agricultural condition. In this way it is 
possible to meet the farmer on his own ground and show 
him what he can do in his own locality, under his own 
agricultural conditions and cropping system, as compared 
with merely telling him what someone else has done a thou- 
sand miles away and perhaps only in the restricted area of a 
garden patch. The comparative advantages of these two 
methods of handling the insect problems of the farmer are 
too obvious to need discussion. 

As has already been stated, these men are not demon- 
strators but investigators, whose duty it is to work out the 
full life history and habits of insects destructive to grain and 
forage crops at the various fully equipped field laboratories 
nearest to the localities where these ravages occur. Having 
secured such information in this manner, it must be thor- 
oughly tried out in the fields over wide areas under ordinary 
farm conditions, otherwise we shall be exactly where the 
earlier entomologists were a half century ago. When final 
results are obtained, these are available for use by experi- 
ment stations, demonstrators, or other experts, and will be 
found applicable throughout the entire area of destructive 
abundance of such insects. 



Bringing Applied Entomology to the Farmer. 91 

In such work State boundary lines fade away, and 
instead we recognize only the boundaries of distribution of 
each particular insect and upon which the activities of such 
members of the force as become necessary can be concen- 
trated. We thus are able to get finished and complete 
results instead of fragmentary ones, and do for several 
States what they are not in a position to do for themselves. 

It is not expected that these men shall devote their 
attention to strictly local outbreaks of insects, but to 
such as extend over more than a single State. Thus, 
avoiding local matters, they are better able to bring a 
greater power to bear upon interstate problems, and it is 
due to present conditions that it has been possible to bring 
this factor into action. The same insects may be, and 
sometimes are, destructive in one section and harmless in 
another. They may, and some do, attack one crop in one 
locality and another entirely different crop in another, or 
they may attack the same crop differently under different 
environments. They may, and some of them do, originate 
each year in the extreme south, and later in the season 
commit serious and widespread ravages far to the north- 
ward; and it is only through national measures that such 
conditions can be reached and remedied. 

In cases where details for special investigations are 
requested by Members of Congress, it is always left to the 
judgment of the entomologist in general charge of the section 
from which the detail is to be drawn to decide whether a 
personal examination is necessary, whether the interests of 
the Department of Agriculture will be benefited in its re- 
searches in this way, whether in view of the general distri- 
bution of the pest and possibilities of danger from it in future, 
more extended investigations are necessary, or whether the 
matter is not a local one which can be handled equally well 
by State authorities. 

Thus it is that applied entomology is being rapidly brought 
more and more to the farmer himself, in his own fields, and 
we are able to reach out to him to an extent that has never 
before been possible; and he is fast coming to realize that 
while he may have been, owing to previously existing con- 
ditions, the last to benefit by this somewhat difficult science 
of entomology, he need not, by any means, be the least 
profited thereby. There does hot seem to be any reason why 



92 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

this work should not be extended until every farming com- 
munity can be reached and benefited. Indeed the term 
"community" is hardly applicable in this sense, for even the 
most extended stock range of the West is not necessarily 
debarred from securing equal benefits. 

It must not be supposed that all of the activity in applied 
entomology is being confined to cereal and forage insects, 
because those affecting fruits, truck, and other crops are 
also receiving attention. That the United States is far in 
advance of other nations in the practical application of the 
science of entomology is evidenced by the fact that ento- 
mologists, both students and experts, from all quarters of the 
world come to this country for the purpose of studying our 
system and methods of work. Many of these are being aided 
financially by private philanthropy, while others are sent here 
by foreign nations at public expense. 

Thus it is that by the aid of Congress and under the 
fostering care of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture the mysticism and misconception regarding insects 
that have prevailed among farmers, and indeed have fol- 
lowed them throughout their migration from east to west, for 
centuries, are being swept away and the twentieth century 
is to see the farmer profit equally with his brother husband- 
men from a practical knowledge of insects and their habits 
and learn how, when, and where they can best be reached 
and controlled by practical measures intelligently applied. 



FACTORS OF EFFICIENCY IN FARMING. 

By W. J. Spillman, 
Agriculturist in Charge of Farm- Management Investigations, Bureau of Plant 

Industry. 

INTRODUCTION. 

DATA are available for the discussion of only a few of 
the factors which contribute to the success of a farm 
business. Among the more important of these are the 
magnitude of the undertaking, which may be measured by 
the area farmed, the amount of working capital employed, 
or the amount of productive labor provided; the system of 
organization, which determines the degree of diversity of 
enterprises on the farm, the seasonal distribution of labor, 
and the amount and character of equipment required; the 
adaptability of the chosen enterprises (crops, types of live 
stock, etc.) to soil, climatic, and economic conditions; the 
quality of the business, as indicated by yield per acre or 
product per animal unit; and, finally, the individuality of 
the farmer himself. Each of these is discussed briefly. 

MAGNITUDE OF THE BUSINESS. 

An important factor in determining the amount of income 
the farmer can secure is the magnitude of the business he 
conducts. Other things being equal, the larger the business 
the greater the possibility of profit. But it is also true that 
the larger the business the greater the possibility of loss. It 
is important that the magnitude of the business should not 
exceed the managerial ability of the owner or tenant, as the 
case may be, but within this limit it is easier to make money 
on a large farm than on a small one. 

There are three means of measuring the magnitude of a 
farm business. One is the area of land utilized, another is 
the amount of working capital employed, and the third is 
the amount of productive labor the farm furnishes. These 
three factors are not independent of each other. In general, 
the larger the area of productive land the greater the working 

93 



94 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



capital and the amount of productive labor, but this is not 
always the case. Data are not available for determining 
the independent influence of these three means of measuring 
the magnitude of the business, but we have many data which 
tend to show that each is closely correlated with profit. 

In the following paragraphs use is made of the terms 
"farm income" and "labor income." By "farm income" 
is meant the difference between receipts and expenses. The 
farm income must pay interest on the investment and wages 
to the farmer; hence, farm income is usually divided into 
capital income and labor income. 

AREA OF IMPROVED LAND. 

The table which follows shows certain facts developed in 
a farm survey conducted by the Office of Farm Manage- 
ment in the States of Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa. In all, 
about 700 farms were included in this survey. Of these 
farms 273 were operated by their owners and a somewhat 
smaller number by tenants. The remainder were operated 
by small landowners who rented additional land, a very 
common practice in that section of the country. The data 
in the following table relate to the 273 farms operated by 
their owners. 

Relation of size of farm to farm income. 



Num- 
ber of 
farms. 


Size limits. 


Average 
size. 


Farm 
income. 


Num- 
ber of 
farms. 


Size limits. 


Average 
size. 


Farm 
income. 


32 

51 

48 

44 


to 40 acres 

40 to 80 acres... 
80 to 120 acres. . . 
120 to 160 acres.. 


Acres. 
37.4 

72.9 

106.9 

149.4 


1416 

848 

998 

1,468 


31 

36 

19 
12 


160 to 200 acres . 
200 to 280 acres.. 
280 to 400 acres.. 
400 to 1,250 acres 


Acres. 
179.1 

239.8 

321.8 

623.8 


$1, 956 
2,738 
2,838 
6,182 



Here it is seen that the farm income increases quite regu- 
larly with the size of the farm. Similar results are given in 
Table 27, page 414, of Cornell Agricultural Experiment 
Station Bulletin 295, for a farm-management survey con- 
ducted in the State of New York. 

This is quite generally true where the type of organization 
is similar on the various farms compared, but a small farm 
may be so organized as to provide a large business. Hence, 
the area of improved land is not the only means of measuring 



Factors of Efficiency in Farming. 95 

the magnitude of the farm business, but it is important to 
remember that the smaller the farm the more difficult it is to 
organize it in such a way as to give a large amount of pro- 
ductive labor and good seasonal distribution of that labor. 
It therefore requires greater ability to make a preeminent 
success on a small farm than it does on a farm of considerable 
size. On the other hand, it requires more ability to make a 
success on a very large farm than on a medium-sized farm. 
In all of our farm-management surveys we find, where a 
large number of farms are studied, that both the largest 
losses and largest profits occur on the largest farms, but on 
the average the larger the farm the greater the profit. 

The farm-management survey above referred to, con- 
ducted in the States of Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa, brought 
out the interesting fact that the size of the farm is more 
closely related to the labor income on tenant farms than it is 
on farms operated by their owners. Thus it happened that 
26 of the farms conducted by owners were 80-acre farms, 
while 25 were 160-acre farms. The average labor income 
on the 160-acre farms was only 37 per cent greater than on 
the 80-acre farms. In the same survey 28 of the tenant 
farms were 80-acre farms and 37 were 160-acre farms. The 
average labor income on the 160-acre tenant farms was 105 
per cent greater than on the 80-acre tenant farms. The 
reason for this stricter proportionality between the size of 
the tenant farm and the labor income than between the size of 
the owned farm and the labor income is not far to seek. The 
tenant has very little capital, and his family, therefore, must 
live principally on the labor income obtained. There is 
consequently a spur to the greatest possible endeavor. But 
on farms conducted by their owners, the farm family, in 
addition to the labor income, has the interest on the invest- 
ment. They can, therefore, live quite comfortably without 
such strenuous effort as is required on the part of a tenant 
whose capital is small. 

WORKING CAPITAL. 

The amount of working capital required on a given farm 
depends both on the size of the farm and on the type of its 
organization. In general, the larger the working capital the 
larger the profits, provided the system of organization is 



96 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



good. The following table gives a comparison of the work- 
ing capital and labor income on the 247 tenant farms studied 
in the farm survey referred to above. 

Relation of working capital to labor income on 247 tenant farms. 



Number 
of farms. 



5 
21 
44 
48 
66 
41 
14 



Size groups. 



Capital below $500 

Capital $500 to $1,000.. 
Capital $1,000 to $1,500. 
Capital $1,500 to $2,000. 
Capital $2,000 to $3,000. 
Capital $3,000 to $4,000. 
Capital $4,000 to $6,000. 
Capital over $6,000 



Average 
capital. 



$324 
799 
1,271 
1,758 
2,439 
3,415 
4,808 
8,658 



Labor 
income. 



$328 

338 

502 

655 

915 

1,095 

1,796 

2,819 



All of the tenant's capital is working capital, and on these 
farms the tenants furnished practically all of this capital. 
The labor income mounts rapidly with increase in working 
capital. It is to be regretted that the number of farms in 
this survey is not sufficiently large to enable us to determine 
the relation between working capital and labor income on 
farms of the same size. Part of the increase in labor income 
shown in the foregoing table is undoubtedly due to increase 
in the size of the farm. 



AMOUNT OF PRODUCTIVE LABOR. 

Since the values created in the operation of a farm are 
the results of the application of labor, it is not surprising to 
find that the greater the amount of productive labor a farm 
furnishes the greater is the profit in farming. In a survey 
conducted by Mr. G. P. Scoville, county agent for Chemung 
County, N. Y., the amount of productive labor furnished 
by a considerable number of farms was compared with their 
labor incomes, as shown in the following table. The first 
group of farms furnished an average of 278 days of produc- 
tive labor annually, giving an average labor income of $279, 
or almost exactly $1 a day. Another group furnished an 
average of 406 days of productive labor, returning a labor 
income of $574, or $1.41 a day. A third group furnished 
678 days of labor, giving a labor income of $1,037, or $1.53 a 
day. Thus, not only does labor income increase with the 



Factors of Efficiency in Farming. 



97 



amount of productive labor provided by the farm, but it 
increases at a considerably higher rate, so that the greater 
the amount of labor the greater the profit per day's labor. 
This is to be explained presumably on the basis that the 
farmer who has the ability so to organize his farm as to give 
a maximum amount of productive labor also has the ability 
to make that labor more effective than in the case of the 
average farmer. 

Relation of labor income to amount of productive labor. 



Number 


Labor. 


Labor income. 


of farms . 


Tor year. 


Per day. 


23 


278 days 




$279 

574 

1,037 


11.00 


28. .. 




1.41 




678 days 


1.53 












ORGANIZATION. 







Reference has already been made to the fact that the type 
of organization may be such as to require a large amount of 
working capital and provide a large amount of productive 
labor even on a small farm. It may bunch the labor at cer- 
tain periods of the year, leaving other periods compara- 
tively idle, or it may distribute the labor evenly throughout 
the seasons. On many farms no regular type of organization 
exists, and the actual management of the live stock and field 
crops varies greatly from season to season because of the exi- 
gencies of the new situations which are continually arising 
on a farm which is run without any definite plan. In some 
seasons a farmer will have more of some particular crop than 
his available force can cultivate properly. He will thus slight 
the work. In other seasons he may have less of the crop 
than he could manage. Under these circumstances he is 
apt to put more labor on the crop than conditions justify. 

The economy and adequacy of equipment on the farm also 
have much to do with the possibility of profit. Definite data 
are not available for determining the exact relation between 
all the organization factors here mentioned and profit in 
farming, but such data as are available will be given. 

27306°— YBK 1913 7 



98 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

DIVERSITY. 

Especially when farms are small, diversity of enterprises 
is an important factor in providing productive labor and in 
distributing this labor to advantage throughout the season. 
The table following gives comparisons between the degree 
of diversity and the labor income : 

Relation of diversity of enterprises to labor income. 



Chemung County, N. Y., survey. 


Michigan s-urvey. 


IN umber 
of farms. 


Degree of diversity. 


Labor 
income. 


Number 
of farms. 


Diversity 
index. 


Average 
area. 


Labor 
income. 


24 


Poor 


$147 

534 

1,031 


27 

46 

32 

29 


2 to 3 


Acres. 
93 
94 
97 
93 


$287 


18 




3 to 4 


4!8 


22 




4to5 


436 






Over 5 


702 









The results given in the first half of the foregoing table 
were obtained in the survey already mentioned in Chemung 
County, N. Y., while those in the second half were obtained 
in a farm-management survey conducted by the Office of 
Farm Management in southern Michigan. In Chemung 
County, N. Y., 24 poorly organized farms gave an average 
labor income of $147. Eighteen farms having moderately 
good organization produced an average labor income of $534, 
while 22 well-organized farms gave an average labor income 
of $1,031. In the Michigan survey the degree of diversity 
is given in terms of the diversity index. A farm for which 
the diversity index is 4 has a diversity of enterprises equiva- 
lent to four equal enterprises. Of the farms studied in this 
survey, the diversity index is from less than 2 to more than 5. 
In general, it is seen that the labor income increases with 
diversity. It happens, however, that there were two farms 
in this survey with a diversity index less than 2 but with 
very high labor incomes. 

There are two conditions which may make farming very 
profitable, at least at times, without diversity of enterprises. 
One of these conditions arises when in any community a 
particular farm enterprise is for any reason exceedingly profit- 
able. As long as this condition lasts the greatest profit may 
be made by sticking to this one enterprise, even if it leaves 



Factors of Efficiency in Farming. 99 

the farmer and his working force idle for a considerable por- 
tion of the year. But conditions of this kind are nearly 
always temporary and in most cases decidedly short lived, 
so that such farming is usually unsafe. The other condi- 
tion under which farming may be quite profitable without 
diversity of enterprises is that under which a single farm 
enterprise permits the use of large power units and gives 
good seasonal distribution of labor. This is the case with 
wheat culture as conducted in the Pacific northwest. The 
actual income a family can secure on a proper-sized farm 
with this system of farming is large, but on account of the 
large acreage required it is necessary that the land be cheap, 
in order that there may be a labor income in addition to an 
income on the capital. Such a single-crop system of farming 
is also exposed to the danger which inheres in any farm 
business based on a single enterprise, namely, fluctuation in 
price and danger from loss because of untimely weather 
conditions. Diversified farming is, therefore, safer than 
farming based on a very small number of enterprises, and 
under most conditions is more profitable. It usually gives 
more productive labor than nondiversified systems, and by 
properly choosing the enterprises and regulating their mag- 
nitude it can be made to give an excellent seasonal distribu- 
tion of labor, thus permitting the farmer and his family to 
do a larger proportion of the labor with a minimum of horse- 
power and other equipment. 

SYSTEM IN OPERATION. 

There is an utter lack of system in the management of 
farm enterprises on many farms. Too little attention has 
been given to standardizing systems of management of enter- 
prises for different localities. In tabulating the number and 
kind of operations performed, say, upon the corn crop on 
different farms, and especially in different localities, one is 
struck by the enormous variations in practice. The ques- 
tion arises whether there is any fundamental basis other than 
custom for these variations. The subject is one which de- 
serves investigation. 

While the Office of Farm Management has many data on 
this subject, these data are not sufficient to justify conclu- 
sions and will therefore not be given here, except merely to 
illustrate the fact that notable variations of the kind in 
question do exist, even on neighboring farms. 



100 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



Hours of man labor per acre of cultivated land on three neighboring farms of 

similar type. 



Farm. 


Crop 
index. 


Crop 
area. 


Crop 
labor. 


Labor on 
stock. 


Market- 
ing. 


Miscel- 
laneous. 


Total 
man 
hours. 


A ! 0.82 

B ! 1.08 

C ! .82 

1 


Acres. 
106 
130 
35 


19 
24 
26 


8.3 
11.3 
28.6 


1.0 
2.1 
3.4 


7 
13 
32 


35 
51 
91 



The foregoing table shows certain data concerning three 
neighboring farms in a Middle Western State. The sizes of 
the farms are shown in the third column. The relative crop 
yields are shown in the second column under the heading 
"Crop index." It is seen that farms A and C have the same 
average yields, while farm B has yields one-fourth greater. 
Farmer C does more work than is necessary. Farmer A 
evidently does less, while farmer B, who gets excellent results, 
probably devotes about the proper amount of labor to his 
various enterprises. It is seen that the number of hours of 
man labor per acre of all crops varies from 19 on farm A to 
26 on farm C. A more marked difference, however, occurs 
in the number of hours of labor devoted to live stock, which 
varies from 8.3 for each acre of cropped land on farm A to 
28.6 on farm C. The same general difference appears in all 
the divisions of farm labor. Farmer C spends more time on 
his crops and very much more on his live stock, although he 
has less live stock per acre than farmer B, and more time in 
marketing his produce than either of the others. But it is 
in miscellaneous work that farmer C shows to least advantage. 
He is able to find 32 hours of miscellaneous work, for most of 
which he gets nothing, for every acre of crops he produces. 
In all, he does 91 hours of farm work for every acre of his 
crops, while farmer A works only 35 and farmer B only 51 
hours. Part of these differences is due to the fact that far- 
mer C has a very small farm, but B has a larger farm than A. 
The point is that the adoption of systematic methods in con- 
ducting farm work and the establishing of standard systems 
of management of enterprises would help to eliminate unnec- 
essary operations and greatly increase the efficiency of farm 
labor. 



Factors of Efficiency in Farming. 101 

ADAPTABILITY OF ENTERPRISES. 

One of the most important factors in determining profit in 
farming is the adaptability of enterprises to soil and climatic 
conditions, and especially to existing economic conditions. 
Adaptability to soil and climatic conditions is so obvious as 
to need only mention here, but the facts regarding adapt- 
ability to economic conditions are not so well understood. 

The table on page 102 gives an estimate of the average 
labor income for one of the leading dairy counties in the 
State of Wisconsin and one of the leading dairy counties in 
the State of Massachusetts. The calculations are based on 
census figures in so far as these are available. The estimated 
cost of maintenance of buildings, implements and machinery, 
taxes, and miscellaneous expenses are based on the results 
of farm-management surveys and other investigations con- 
ducted by the Office of Farm Management. Unfortunately, 
certain items necessary to determine accurately the labor 
income are missing. For this reason the labor income re- 
ferred to in this table has a different meaning from that 
referred to in previous tables. In this table the labor income 
represents not the wages of the farmer but the wages of the 
whole farm family. Furthermore, in the previous tables the 
farm family has, in addition to the labor income and the 
interest on the investment, such supplies as the farm fur- 
nishes toward the family living, while in the table under 
discussion the labor income includes what the farm furnishes 
toward the family living, except the milk and cream consumed 
on the farm where it is produced, the last census having made 
no estimate of the value of this item. In addition, a good 
many farm families, especially in Massachusetts, earn con- 
siderable amounts by outside employment, and on many 
farms this is the principal source of income. Unfortunately, 
also, the census gives no information as to the amount of 
money spent in the purchase of live stock, so that the labor 
income as given on page 102 must be reduced by the average 
amount spent annually in the purchase of live stock. To 
sum up, the labor incomes, together with the interest on the 
investment, which make up the farm income, require the 
following modification in order to represent the sum available 
annually for the family living: The farm income should be 
increased by the amount of milk and cream consumed on 



102 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



the farm where it is produced and by the amount earned by 
the farm family from other sources than the farm, including, 
of course, interest on investments other than in the farm, 
and it should be reduced by the amount paid for live stock 
bought. The figures are therefore not of much value except 
as a comparison between different regions, for the sam e 
defects inhere in the estimates for the two regions. 

E;timate of the average labor incomes for farms in a leading dairy county in 
Wisconsin and one in Massachusetts. 





Selected county in — 


Items of comparison. 


Wisconsin. 


Massachu- 
setts. 


Number of farms 


3,356 
65.0 
12.7 
5.38 


5,436 
34.2 


Improved land per farm r ores 

Number of cows per farm 




4.80 




Total farm investment 


$10,300 

2,279 

368 

42 


$7,945 


Value of farm buildings 


Value of implements and machinery 




Dairy products, per cow 








VALUE OF PRODUCTS. 

Dairy products (exclusive of home-used milk and cream) . 


$505 

1 

124 

318 

42 

576 









Poultry products 


Domestic animals sold 




Domestic animals slaughtered 




Value of crops not fed 








Total 


1,566 


1,795 




EXPENSES. 


$146 

1 

44 

102 

74 

62 


$527 

74 


Fertilizers 


Feed 


Maintenance of buildings, 4.5 per cent 




Maintenance of implements, etc., 20 per cent. 


81 


Taxes, 0.6 per cent 








Total (designated expenses) 


429 

64 












Total (all expenses) 


493 










$1,073 
575 
558 


$330 


Interest on investment, 5 per cent 




-67 





1 Should be increased by the value of home-used milk and cream and receipts from outside 
sources. Should be decreased by the amount paid for live stock purchased. 



Factors of Efficiency in Farming. 103 

It is seen that in the Wisconsin county the average labor in- 
come, as above determined, is $558 per annum and the aver- 
age farm income is $1,073 per annum. In the Massachusetts 
county the average labor income is minus $67. In other 
words, the average farm income is $67 less than 5 per cent 
interest on the average investment per farm. The reasons for 
this difference are seen in the data given in the table on page 
102. In the first place the western farms are twice as large as 
the eastern farms, but the average investment in farm build- 
ings is nearly 50 per cent larger on the eastern farms. The 
investment in farm machinery is also considerably larger on 
the small farms of the East. In the matter of gross income 
the eastern farms have distinctly the advantage. Although 
the average number of cows per farm in the Massachusetts 
county is less than half of what it is in the Wisconsin county 
and the income per cow is 2J times as much, the great differ- 
ence in expenses in the two counties more than counterbal- 
ances this increased income. The Massachusetts county has 
on the average a higher income per farm from dairy products. 
It also has a 50 per cent greater income from crops. The 
trouble lies in the higher expense of farming in the East. 
The labor bill on the Massachusetts farm is $527 annually, 
while on the Wisconsin farm it is only $146. The Massachu- 
setts farmer's children have gone to the city and he must hire 
his labor; the Wisconsin farmer's family does most of the 
labor. The farmer in the Massachusetts county spends an 
average of $74 a year for fertilizers, the one in Wisconsin 
about $1 annually. The Massachusetts farmer buys practi- 
cally all of his concentrated feed and perhaps some roughage; 
the Wisconsin farmer raises most of the feed on his own farm, 
his farm being large enough to justify this course. The total 
expenses of the average farm in the Massachusetts county 
are nearly a thousand dollars greater than in the Wisconsin 
county, while the total income is only about $200 greater. 

In order that farming in this Massachusetts county shall 
be as profitable as in the Wisconsin county, it is necessary, on 
account of the very much higher expense of farming in the 
East as compared with the West, that the farm business be 
based largely on enterprises which have a distinct economic 
advantage over similar enterprises in the West. It is not yet 
possible to state in full just what these enterprises are, but 
some illustrations can be given. The production of hay id 



104 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

the New England States is less than sufficient to supply the 
local demand. A considerable proportion of the supply must, 
therefore, come from the middle West. As hay is a cheap, 
bulky product, transportation charges on this commodity are 
relatively high. This gives the eastern farmer a much higher 
price than his western competitor. Hay production, there- 
fore, appears to be one of the enterprises which possess marked 
economic advantages in New England. The production of 
vegetables is another enterprise which enjoys marked eco- 
nomic advantages when conducted in the immediate vicinity 
of the consumer. This, then, also appears to be an enter- 
prise which should be developed in New England to as full 
an extent as economic conditions justify. 

Those who are most familiar with conditions of production 
and marketing in New England are of the opinion that the 
larger cities of that section are supplied with home-grown 
vegetable products during the summer months in a quantity 
approximately equal to the demand, but there are many 
smaller towns and cities, as well as considerable areas of 
farming community, in which this supply is inadequate. 
There is room, therefore, for considerable extension of vege- 
table farming throughout a large part of this territory. 

It is undoubtedly true that if the system of distribution of 
perishable farm products were so perfected as to render it 
possible to supply all communities at all times of the year 
with perishable farm products in such quantity as they would 
use, there would be a very considerable increase in the con- 
sumption of this class of farm produce. In view of the com- 
petition with the Middle West, where the production of ordi- 
nary farm crops and live stock is much less expensive than 
in New England, such organization for the distribution of 
perishable farm produce is of prime importance in this region 
as a means of increasing the possibilities of production of a 
class of products to which the region is eminently adapted 
and for which it possesses important economic advantages 
in nearness to the consumer and in the fresh condition in 
which products of this class could be laid before the consumer. 

Fruit growing appears to be another industry which might 
well be developed to much larger proportions in New Eng- 
land. Not all of the region is adapted to this industry, but 
there are localities here and there which can produce various 
kinds of fruits to advantage. On account of the nearness to 



Factors of Efficiency in Farming. 105 

market and the considerable expense of shipping fruit long 
distances, the New England producer, having an unlimited 
market near at hand, ought to be able to make a profit from 
this industry. 

In the case of dairy products, prices are based quite gener- 
ally on the butter value of milk. Because butter can be 
shipped at very small cost from the middle West to eastern 
cities, the prices of dairy products in the East and West are 
not greatly different; but the cost of production, as we have 
seen, differs very materially. If the dairy industry is to sur- 
vive in New England it is therefore necessary that it should 
be confined to those phases of dairying in which the price of 
the product is not necessarily based on the butter value of the 
milk. Not only that, but dealers and the public generally 
must recognize the necessity for paying higher prices for milk 
in eastern cities. The fact that dairy cows give some occupa- 
tion during the long winter season in New England is a miti- 
gating circumstance and is one of the reasons why dairying 
persists under such disadvantageous conditions. Even if 
the farmer does not earn ordinary wages for the work he does 
in his dairy in the winter, it is frequently the case that the 
time thus employed would otherwise be largely wasted, so 
that any profit he makes over the actual expenditures in con- 
ducting this business is so much added to the annual income. 
The fact remains, however, that economic conditions in New 
England are unfavorable to the dairy industry. Many other 
illustrations could be given of economic advantages enjoyed 
by certain enterprises in particular localities, but this is suf- 
ficient to show the importance of the subject. 

QUALITY OF THE BUSINESS. 

The quality of the business of the farm is indicated by the 
yield per acre, income per cow, etc. In the Chemung 
County, N. Y., survey 12 farms having cows two-thirds as 
good as the average gave a labor income of $255; 12 farms 
having average cows produced an average labor income of 
$484; and 14 farms having cows 1J times as good as the 
average produced a labor income of $1,175. The quality of 
the cows kept is therefore a very important factor in the 
profit. It is more important than the yield of crops, for the 
following reasons: (1) If the cows are not profitable, no mat- 
ter how large the yield of crops on dairy farms, the labor 



106 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

income must be small, or even a minus quantity; and (2) a 
large income per cow may be obtained by having good cows, 
while it can not be obtained by the better feeding and care 
of cows incapable of high production. Thus, if the cows are 
poor, greatly increased expense for feed and care will not 
give a corresponding increase in profit', but if the cows are 
naturally good the profits will be greater with average feed- 
ing and care than if the cows are naturally poor. 

In the same survey 22 farms having crop yields of two- 
thirds of the average gave an average labor income of $364; 
17 farms with average yields gave a labor income of $712; 
while 24 farms having yields 1£ times the average gave a 
labor income of only $653. Up to a certain point the labor 
income increases even more rapidly than the yield, but be- 
yond that point it decreases. While the farmer can change 
poor cows for good ones, and thus increase his profits, he can 
not in general change a poor acre for a good one. In order 
to secure increased yields, therefore, he must increase the 
labor and manure applied per acre. This will increase 
profits within certain limits, but beyond that increased ex- 
pense will not be rewarded by a corresponding increase in 
yields. The yield of crops therefore is a less important fac- 
tor in determining profit in farming than is the character 
of the cows kept. This is further illustrated in the Michigan 
survey mentioned. Of 295 farms conducted by their own- 
ers, 156 yielded below the average and produced an average 
labor income of $304, and 139 produced yields above the 
average, with a labor income of $675. But the 30 farms 
which produced the highest yields had labor incomes of 
only $660. Again, in this same survey, 42 farms having a 
labor income of over $1,000 had yields 12.6 per cent above 
the average of the whole group of farms, but of these the 30 
having the highest labor income produced yields only 10 per 
cent above the average of the whole group. 

COMBINATION OF FACTORS. 

In the Chemung County survey the four factors con- 
sidered were (1) days of productive labor, (2) diversity of 
enterprises, (3) receipts per cow, and (4) yield per acre. 
Thirty farms having none or only one of these factors as 
good or better than the average produced a labor income of 



Factors of Efficiency in Farming. 107 

$243; 11 farms having two factors as good or better than 
the average had labor incomes of $542; 11 farms with three 
factors as good or better than the average had labor incomes 
of $818; and 11 farms having all four factors as good or 
better than the average had an average labor income of 
$1,230. Thus, when several of the factors of efficiency are 
present the labor income mounts rapidly. 

In this article no attempt has been made to deal with all 
the possible factors that affect the labor income, attention 
having been confined mainly to a few of those for which data 
are available. The Office of Farm Management is attempt- 
ing to evaluate all of these factors, and it is hoped that the 
results of its investigations will ultimately give a much 
better understanding of the problems relating to the farmer's 

income. 

SUMMARY. 

We have thus seen that the following are factors of effi- 
ciency in farming: 

The magnitude of the business, whether measured by area 
of land farmed, amount of working capital employed, or the 
number of days of productive labor provided. 

Organization, which determines the degree of diversity of 
enterprises on the farm which may be made to provide full 
occupation to the available labor and equipment while avoid- 
ing the necessity of hiring large amounts of extra labor. , 

System of management: It is shown tbat neighboring 
farmers, with similar types of farming, devote very different 
amounts of time to the various classes of enterprises on 
their farms because of the lack of standard systems of man- 
agement of these enterprises, and it is not always the man 
who devotes the most time to an enterprise who makes the 
largest profits from it. Lack of system means lost motion 
and useless work. 

Adaptability of enterprises: In order that the farm may be 
profitable the crops and live stock maintained upon it must 
be adapted not only to local conditions of soil and climate 
but also to existing economic conditions. 

Quality of the business: The income per animal unit is a 
very important factor in profit. Yield per acre is also im- 
portant, but less so than the income per animal unit. Mod- 
erate yields may be more profitable than very high yields. 



108 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

On a farm which combines a large number of these factors 
of efficiency, profits are greater than on those which are effi- 
cient in fewer things. 

Many other factors of efficiency exist, but they are not here 
dealt with for lack of sufficient data. 

THE FARMER. 

In the last analysis the farmer himself is the determining 
factor in every successful agricultural enterprise. It must 
not be overlooked that the farmer is just as quick to take 
advantage of economic principles as he is of improved 
methods of growing crops and feeding animals. In fact, 
the farmer's experience and training have been fully as 
great in applied economics as in agronomy and animal 
husbandry. He will as quickly see the advantages of good 
farm organization when these are pointed out to him as he 
will those of improved methods of seed selection, tillage, or 
feeding. 

Experience has shown that the problems of farm organiza- 
tion are usually those of readjustment and improvement of 
existing systems rather than the introduction of wholly new 
systems. In most cases it is found that a redistribution of 
activities or an improvement in methods, which can be 
effected by the farmer himself as soon as they are brought 
to his attention, will result in providing a system of operation 
and an equipment adequate to give maximum results and 
a minimum expenditure both of money and of effort. 



PROMISING NEW FRUITS. 

By William A. Taylor, Chief of Bureau, and H. P. Gould, Pomologist in 
Charge of Fruit-Production Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry. 

INTRODUCTION. 

THE conditions under which fruit is grown and marketed 
are slowly though constantly changing. Standards of 
excellence in different particulars are being raised. Con- 
sumers are gradually acquiring a better knowledge of what 
constitutes good fruit. Too many varieties are poor in some 
particular, though perhaps possessing much merit in all other 
important respects. Practically no varieties are altogether 
good. 

A variety may be productive, an excellent shipping fruit, 
and attractive in appearance, but poor in flavor; another 
may have every desirable quality except productiveness; or 
a variety well-nigh perfect in other respects is very suscepti- 
ble to some disease difficult to control. But there is no inher- 
ent incompatibility in the various characteristics of fruits to 
prevent the existence of the ideally perfect variety for a partic- 
ular purpose — the one without fault for its season of ripening. 

Consciously or otherwise, the search for the ideal in fruit 
varieties goes on. Each year sees new varieties brought to 
light and introduced to the trade. A few of these persist 
and in time become important in the fruit industry, but the 
great majority are never widely known, because in reality 
they do not meet any special need. A new variety in order 
to attain enduring importance in the fruit industry must 
represent a high standard of excellence in all particulars, and 
in at least one particular it must surpass in some region or 
regions other sorts already in cultivation. And as a rule 
its merits must even then be persistently and extensively 
advertised; else its dissemination will be very slow. 

It is exceedingly difficult for a new variety, even of the 
highest merit, to crowd out a mediocre variety that has been 
extensively planted by many fruit growers. For this reason 
a variety may be old, as measured by the age of a man, 
before it becomes generally known. The Stayman Winesap 
apple, for instance, originated nearly half a century ago, 

109 



110 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

and for many years it lias been known in several sections 
among fruit growers, but it is only during the last 12 or 15 
years that its real value has become widely appreciated. 

The fruits to which attention is directed in this paper are 
varieties which, though admittedly falling short of perfection, 
are believed to possess valuable characteristics which render 
them worthy of the attention of fruit growers in the districts 
to which by experience they may be found to be adapted. 

It should be stated that the Department of Agriculture 
has no stock of these varieties for distribution. 

BANANA APPLE. 

Synonyms: Flory, Flory Banana, Winter Banana. 

[Plate VII.] 

EARLY HISTORY. 

About the year 1873 or 1874 the late David Flory, sr., 
planted at his homestead, which was located 5 miles east of 
Logansport and 1 mile south of Adamsboro, Cass County, 
Ind., 50 apple trees which he had grown from seed for the 
purpose of having a few stocks on which to graft desirable 
varieties. The next year, when grafting the trees, he noticed 
that one of them showed a marked difference from the 
others in the fine, thrifty growth it had made. Mr. Flory 
was impressed with its promising appearance and decided 
to retain it until it should bear fruit. 1 Accordingly the tree 
was left ungrafted. It came into bearing quite young, pro- 
ducing fruit which was so pleasing to its owner that he 
named the apple, calling it "Flory Banana." 

In 1890 this variety was introduced to the trade by the 
Greening Nursery Co. under the name "Winter Banana." 2 
This name is reduced to Banana to bring it into harmony 
with the code of nomenclature of the American Pomological 
Society. The original tree is still standing and in fair con- 
dition; the branches on one side are reported to show some 
decay as a result of injudicious pruning. It bore a good 
crop of apples in 1913. 1 

DESCRIPTION. 

Form roundish, to roundish conic, slightly angular, sometimes slightly 
oblate; size large; cavity regular, rather large, moderately deep, slope 
gradual, sometimes slightly russeted; stem medium in size and length; 

1 Letter from D. M. Flory, November, 1913. 

* Letter from the Greening Nursery Co., November, 1913. 



Promising New Fruits. Ill 

basin regular, medium in size, variable in depth, from shallow to deep, 
depending upon the region where grown, slope gradual, slightly furrowed; 
calyx segments medium, converging; eye large, open or partially closed; 
surface smooth with a rather waxen appearance; color greenieh yellow with 
blush of light red, deepening to rose on exposed side, sometimes covering 
a considerable portion of the surface; dots on surface few, irregular, medium 
in size, color brownish, but many whitish dots rather large in size showing 
indistinctly beneath the surface of the skin; skin medium thick, tenacious, 
bloom very slight, bluish; flesh yellowish; texture medium fine, tender, 
breaking, moderately juicy; core conical, clasping, large, open; seeds plump, 
large, brown, numerous; flavor mild subacid, slightly aromatic; quality 
good to very good; season winter. 

The tree grows well in both the nursery and the orchard; 
comes into bearing quite young; is prolific under reasonably 
favorable conditions, and hardy — according to the orig- 
inator enduring winter conditions in 1885 which destroyed 
most other varieties. 1 

Since its introduction this variety has been quite widely 
disseminated, especially in Ohio, in Indiana, in Michigan, 
and to a limited extent in Iowa. It has been planted rather 
extensively in some of the apple districts of the Pacific 
Northwest. As a commercial variety it appears to be 
growing in popularity in the northern and northwestern 
apple districts. 

The specimen illustrated in Plate VII was grown in 1913 
by Mr. C. H. Whittum, Eaton Rapids, Eaton County, Mich. 

MCCROSKEY APPLE. 

[Plate VIII.] 

EAELY HISTORY. 

The McCroskey apple originated from seed of either a 
Winesap or a Limbertwig apple which was planted about 
25 years ago by the late H. M. McCroskey at his place near 
Glenloch, about 6 miles east of Sweetwater, Monroe County, 
Tenn. The exact year is uncertain, but the tree bore its 
first crop of fruit in 1895. 2 

The name "McCroskey," in honor of the originator, was 
suggested early in 1896 by Prof. R. L. Watts, then horti- 
culturist of the Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station, 3 
and under that name the variety was described and illustrated 

• Letter from the Greening Nursery Co., November, 1913. 
3 Letter from H. M. McCroskey, July, 1898. 
3 Letter from Prof. Watts, February, 1896. 



112 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

by him. 1 From the resemblance of the fruit to the Winesap 
apple, it seems probable that it is a seedling of that well- 
known sort rather than of Limbertwig — a possibility sug- 
gested by Mr. McCroskey, as above stated. Prof. Watts 
regarded it as the most valuable new seedling winter apple 
of Tennessee origin that had been brought to his attention, 
its main points of merit being "productiveness, vigor in 
growth, symmetry and beauty of fruit, and good quality." l 

According to the originator, the fruit of this variety that fell 
from the tree kept better than Winesap, Bon Davis, or Lim- 
bertwig apples that were hand picked. 3 Prof. Watts reports 
the receipt of well-preserved specimens as late as May 1. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Form conical; size medium; cavity regular, medium in size and depth, 
slope abrupt, 'with, small russeted area about stem; stem about one-half 
inch in length, slender; basin regular, medium in size and depth, slope 
rather abrupt, slightly furrowed in some specimens, with slight leather 
cracking about apex; calyx lobes medium in size, reflexed; eye closed or 
slightly open; surface smooth; color greenish yellow, entirely overspread in 
well-colored specimens with rather dark red and indistinctly marked with 
darker stripes; dots small, rather numerous, not conspicuous, yellowish 
white in color; skin moderately tough and tenacious; flesh yellowish; tex- 
ture moderately fine grained, fairly juicy; core conic, clasping, small to 
medium in size, open; calyx tube small, funnel form, open nearly to core; 
seeds medium size, plump, reddish brown, 6 to 8 in number, rarely more; 
flavor subacid, rather rich, pleasant, very good: season winter. 

This apple has not been widely disseminated, but to the 
extent to which it has been grown in Tennessee it appears 
to be a very promising sort. 

It is interesting to note in the present connection that 
there are a number of seedlings of the Winesap apple which 
have assumed considerable commercial importance. The 
most prominent one which is an authentic seedling of this 
variety is Stayman Winesap. 4 Magnate 5 is valuable in some 
sections. Arkansas, Paragon, Arkansas Black, and Kinnard 
are other varieties disclosing evidence of Winesap parentage 

' Apples of Tennessee Origin, Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin; vol. 9, 
No. 1 (May, 1896), p. 18. 

* Tennessee Experiment Station Bulletin, vol. 9, No. 1, p. 19. 
' Letter from Mr. McCroskey, July, 1898. 

* For illustration and description, see Yearbook U. S. Department of Agriculture for 1902, 
p. 470. 

i For illustration and description, see Yearbook U. S. Department of Agriculture for 1906, 
p. 355. 



Yearbook U.S Dept of Agricultu'e. 1913 



Plate VII. 





Banana Apple 



Yearbook U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 1913 



Plate VIII. 








M9 Croskey Apple 



rlE S»CBftr 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 1913 



Plate IX. 





T C 



Opalescent Apple 



The S»C«'i wiLHCINS CO r 



Yearbook U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 1913 



Plate X. 




CJ?JU**t. 



Lizzie Peach 



TxesACHETTawii.Hei.Msco n • 



Promising New Fruits. 113 

each of which has gained considerable prominence in some 
districts. Moreover, several unnamed apples of evident value 
reported to be seedlings of the Winesap and which resemble 
it in many respects have been called to the attention of this 
department. It therefore seems probable that a rather high 
percentage of Winesap seedlings possess more than the ordi- 
nary merit. The usefulness of that variety for breeding pur- 
poses is thus indicated. 

The specimen of McCroskey apple illustrated in Plate VIII 
was grown in 1912 by Mr. L. C. H. Ayres, of Midway, Green 
County, Tenn. 

OPALESCENT APPLE. 

Synonyms: Hudson's Pride of Michigan, Hastings. 

[Plate IX.] 

EARLY HISTORY. 

The Opalescent apple originated with Mr. George M. 
Hudson, Shultz, Barry County, Mich. The circumstances 
of its origin as given by him are as follows: 1 

A number of years ago I was digging out the oak stumps in my orchard 
and found a thick cluster of sprouts by the side of one. I picked out the 
best sprout and set it out, intending to top-graft it, but you will see the 
result. 

At the same time, specimens of the fruit were submitted 
to the department by the originator under the name "Hud- 
son's Pride of Michigan," with the request that a suitable 
name be given to the variety. Accordingly "Hastings," 
the township in which the variety originated, was suggested 
as an appropriate name. In due course this was approved 
by Mr. Hudson, and the name was published by the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society. 2 But prior to such publication, 
this variety had been disseminated by the Dayton Star 
Nurseries, 3 of Dayton, Ohio, under the name "Opalescent." 4 
The original tree was still standing and in fairly good condi- 
tion in 1912. 6 

i Letter from Mr. Hudson, December, 1896. 

' Proceedings, 25th session, American Pomological Society, 1897, p. 38, 1898. 

» Letter from J. W. McNary, receiver, Dayton Star Nurseries, February, 1899. 

t Historical and descriptive notes concerning this variety have been published compara- 
tively recently as follows: Varieties of fruit originated in Michigan, Michigan Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Special Bulletin 44, p. 18; New or noteworthy fruits, New York Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 364, p. 181. 

6 Letter from George W. Thomas, December, 1913. 
27306°— ybk 1913 8 



114 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Form roundish; size large; cavity regular, large, deep, slope gradual with 
russet markings; stem moderately long, slender; basin regular, size and 
depth medium, slope abrupt, slightly furrowed in some specimens, some- 
times slightly russeted and leather cracked ; calyx segments small to medium, 
converging; eye medium, open or partially open; surface smooth; color 
yellow, washed over nearly entire surface with mixed red and indistinct 
stripes and splashes of dark crimson, sometimes an overspread of gray; 
dots rather conspicuous, yellowish, many indented; skin medium thick, 
tenacious, light bluish bloom; flesh yellowish, sometimes slightly tinged 
with red near the skin; texture medium coarse, tender, moderately juicy; 
core roundish or roundish conic, clasping, size medium, open; seeds plump, 
medium in size, brown, numerous; flavor mild subacid; quality good to 
very good; season late fall and early winter. 

The tree has been reported to be somewhat subject to 
blight, but otherwise to be healthy and vigorous. 

The Opalescent apple is not extensively grown at the 
present time, but it has been quite widely disseminated in 
the northern apple districts since it was introduced 12 or 13 
years ago. Because of its attractive appearance and fairly 
good quality, together with other desirable characteristics, 
it is worthy of being thoroughly tested for a late fall and 
early winter apple generally in the northern apple regions. 

The specimen illustrated in Plate IX was grown in 1913 

by the New York Experiment Station, Geneva, Ontario 

County, N. Y. 

LIZZIE PEACH. 

[Plate X.) 
EARLY HISTORY. 

The history of the Lizzie peach is identical with that of sev- 
eral promising varieties that have been developed in recent 
years with a view to meeting a distinct need and as the result 
of a well-directed personal effort toward a particular end. 

The Carman x peach, probably a chance cross of the 
Elberta and Family Favorite, originated from a seed, of 
the former variety that was planted in 1889 by Mr. J. W. 
Stubenrauch of Mexia, Limestone County, Tex. The Car- 
man was the forerunner of a considerable number of varie- 
ties that Mr. Stubenrauch has originated since that variety 
appeared. From the first fruiting of the Carman in 1892, 
it gave promise of unusual value. This early promise has 

i For illustration and description, see Yearbook TJ. S. Department of Agriculture for 1001, 
p. 385. 



Promising New Fruits. 115 

been fulfilled in a marked degree as the years since its 
introduction have passed. 

As Mr. Stubenrauch observed the behavior of the Car- 
man, he began to consider means whereby nature could be 
assisted in producing other varieties that would be better 
for his region. He had previously planted quite heavily of 
the Elberta peach. Among the trees of this variety he had 
observed that a particular one was remarkable in comparison 
with the others because of its more thrifty growth, its 
greater productiveness, and the, superior quality of the 
fruit. Having a block of the Mamie Ross peach which was 
isolated from other varieties, some of the best trees of it 
were partially "budded over" with buds taken from the 
Elberta tree just referred to. In the same manner, selected 
trees of the Bell October peach — a fine, late, yellow free- 
stone variety of high quality, ripening with the Salway — 
were top-worked with buds of the same Elberta tree that 
was used in budding the Mamie Ross trees. 

As the Elberta buds top-worked into the Mamie Ross and 
Bell October trees grew and came into fruiting, the plan 
followed was to select the best specimens of fruit on the 
Elberta limbs as they ripened and to save the seeds from them, 
care being taken to keep those from the Mamie Ross trees 
separate from those borne on the Bell October trees. These 
were planted the following winter, which was that of 1901-2. 
The trees which came from these seeds made an excellent 
growth the next season and were transplanted from the 
nursery into orchard rows. 

All of these trees which did not begin bearing earlier came 
into fruiting the third and fourth years from the planting of 
the seeds. They were systematically studied by Mr. Stu- 
benrauch, and at the end of the fifth season a considerable _ 
number were discarded and dug up, as they gave no promise 
of value. Selections continued to be made for several years, 
or until it became possible to choose from the collection a 
series of varieties of merit that produce fruit continually in 
the region of their origin from about July 15 to October 1, or 
a period of approximately two and one-half months. 

The varieties which constitute this series have a firm flesh 
and stand shipping remarkably well. One of the aims of 
the originator has been to secure varieties that could be 
shipped successfully for a distance of 150 to 200 miles by fast 



116 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

freight or express without, the use of ice, thus making it 
possible readily to supply the smaller markets located com- 
paratively near points of production, which are frequently 
without peaches, while the larger and more central markets 
are often glutted. Moreover, the most of these varieties 
appear to be especially hardy while in blossom. They are 
reported to have borne a good crop of fruit in a number of 
seasons when several degrees of frost occurred during the 
blossoming period and completely destroyed the blossoms of 
most of the standard sorts. In general, the trees are thrifty. 
The fruit is as large as or larger than the Elberta when grown 
under the same conditions and of good dessert quality in 
favorable seasons. Names have been given during the last 
two or three years to the more important selections made by 
Mr. Stubenrauch. These include the Lizzie, which has been 
chosen from among this collection of varieties for illustration 
and description in the present connection. It originated 
from one of the seeds selected from an Elberta limb on a Bell 
October tree, and accordingly it may be a natural cross 
between these varieties. Its characteristics give considerable 
weight to this supposition. 1 

DESCRIPTION. 

Form globular to obovate, sides sometimes unequal; size medium to large; 
cavity regular, medium, rather deep, slope abrupt; suture shallow except 
at cavity, extending beyond the apex; apex a small tip; surface slightly 
irregular; color rich yellow with light reddish blush tending to stripe on 
exposed side; down very short and sparse; skin moderately thick and 
tough; flesh rich yellow, red at pit; texture firm, meaty, moderately juicy; 
stone broad, obovate, pointed at tip, free, large; flavor rich, vinous, nearly 
sweet; quality good to very good; season latter part of August or about two 
weeks after Elberta at place of origin. 

The tree makes a good, thrifty growth and is reported to 
be intermediate in habit between the Elberta and the Bell 
October. It is productive, usually requiring heavy thinning 
in favorable seasons. The leaf glands are slightly reniform, 
many nearly globose. The fruit is reported to be quite highly 
resistant to brown-rot. The variety is considered worthy of 
being extensively tested, especially in the peach-growing dis- 
tricts of the Southern and Southwestern States. 

The specimen shown in Plate X was grown in 1913 by Mr. 
J. W. Stubenrauch, of Mexia, Limestone County, Tex 

1 Information supplied by Mr. Stubenrauch in various communications to this department. 



Promising New Fruits. 117 

FLOWERS GRAPE. 
[Plate XI.] 

That the fruit industry of the United States has been built 
up largely with fruits which represent introduced species is a 
fact which presents itself at times with almost startling force 
and significance. This, however, is less true of grapes than 
of the other important fruits. 

While the Vinifera grape industry represents an invest- 
ment of many millions of dollars, the cultivation of this class 
of grapes is largely restricted to the territory west of the 
Rocky Mountains, including California. The grapes which 
are extensively grown elsewhere throughout the country, 
with few exceptions, belong to native species of Vitis. The 
Muscadine grapes, which include the native species Vitis 
rotundifolia and Vitis munsoniana, are becoming increas- 
ingly important in the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast States. 

In view of the present interest in the culture of these grapes 
in many parts of the region to which they are adapted, and 
the systematic attention that is now being given to the inves- 
tigation of them and the breeding of more desirable varie- 
ties, it may be expected that the culture of these grapes will 
eventually contribute very materially to the horticultural 
development of the South. 

Unlike most other fruits, the Muscadine grape has thus 
far developed but few important varieties; in fact, a single 
variety, the Scuppernong, is of such great importance in 
comparison with the others that it might almost be referred to 
as constituting the commercial Muscadine industry. There 
are, however, at least six varieties of considerable importance, 
with a still larger number that have been named and more 
or less disseminated, but which thus far are chiefly of local 
value. 

The two varieties shown in Plate XI are among the six 
most important sorts. 

EARLY HISTORY. 1 

The original vine of the Flowers grape was discovered in 
1819 by "Popping Billy" Flowers, growing in a swamp 15 
miles south of Lumberton, Robeson County, N. C, and was 

i History and description condensed from notes published by George 0. Husmann and 
Charles Dearing, The Muscadine Grapes, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin No. 273. 



118 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

transplanted by him to a location a few hundred yards dis- 
tant. It has since been grown quite extensively for home 
use in the region of its origin. It is the oldest named black 
variety of Vitis rotundifolia. in cultivation. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Cluster nearly round, fairly compact; large for the species, composed 
generally of 6 to 10 berries; berries slightly oval, medium size, purplish 
black, dots only faintly visible; skin very thick and tough; flesh whitish, 
meaty, tough, not very juicy; seeds usually 3 to 4, more angular than other 
varieties and adhering tenaciously to the pulp; flavor sweetish, lacking in 
sprightliness; quality medium; season late, from about October 15 until 
destroyed by frost. 

The vine has an upright, slender growth and is more open 
and hardly as vigorous as other varieties of the same species. 
The leaves are thick, rather dark green in color, leathery, 
cordate, with sharp-pointed tip and sharply serrated margin. 

The distinguishing characteristics of the Flowers are its 
tendency to bunch, coarseness and meatiness of flesh, thick- 
ness of skin, late season of ripening, good shipping qualities 
due to strong adherence of berries to peduncles, and pro- 
ductiveness. In these respects this variety is well distin- 
tinguished from other sorts. It is used mostly for making 
wine, though the product is not considered as good as that 
from the other important Muscadine varieties. 

It appears to be especially well adapted to sandy-loam 
soils having a relatively high elevation, and it is reported to do 
well in such locations from North Carolina southward as far 
as the Florida Keys. 

The cluster illustrated in Plate XI was grown in 1910 at 
the Pender Test Farm of the North Carolina Department of 
Agriculture, Willard, Pender County, N. C. 

JAMES GRAPE. 1 

[Plate XI. I 
EARLY HISTORY. 

The first vine of the James variety was found growing, 
about 1866 or 1867, by Mr. B. M. W. James, near Grindool 
Creek, a short distance from the post office then known as 
Grindool, Pitt County, N. C, but now called Whitehurst, 
about 3 miles south of Parmele. 

i History and description condensed from notes published by George C. Hnsmann and 
Charles Dearing, The Muscadine Grapes, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin No. 273. 



Promising New Fruits. 119 

When discovered, the vine was only a few inches long, 
but it bore a cluster of grapes composed of 9 or 10 berries 
which were unusually large and which remained on the 
vine in good condition for a long time. These characteris- 
tics attracted Mr. James's attention, and he transplanted it 
to his home grounds, a short distance away. This vine is 
still growing and covers an arbor about 20 feet in diameter- 

DESCRIPTION. 

Cluster nearly round, fairly compact; large for the species, but because of 
the size of the berries rather than their number; berries usually 4 to 6 to the 
cluster, but ranging from 2 to 12 or even more, round, large, rather glossy, 
bluish or deep purplish black when fully ripe, with few but conspicuous 
"guinea-egg" specks. Before reaching full maturity there is a character- 
istic reddish coloring about the peduncle; flesh firm, meaty, juicy; skin 
thick, rather tough; seeds typical of the species, but larger than those of 
other leading varieties, adhering rather strongly to pulp; flavor sweetish 
but rather flat, berries ripening in the shade being mueh better than those 
which ripen in the sun; quality medium; season about October 1. 

The vine is vigorous and productive, and it readily adapts 
itself to systematic training on upright forms of trellises. 
The leaf is cordate in form with serrate margin. In late 
summer a portion of the space between the prominent veins 
turns yellow some time before the portions immediately 
bordering them lose their green color, thus producing an 
effect which is quite characteristic of the variety. 

The James is not much grown outside of North Carolina, 
though it appears to do well as far south as Florida. 

The attractive appearance of the fruit, its juiciness, fair 
quality, and good adherence to the peduncle combine to 
make the James one of the best Rotundifolia varieties for 
general purposes in the regions to which it is adapted. 

The cluster illustrated in Plate XI was grown in 1910 at 
the Pender Test Farm, Willard, Pender County, N. C. 

TRIUMPH PERSIMMON. 
[Plate XII.] 

EAELY HISTORY. 

In the late seventies or early eighties the late Gen. H. S. 
Sanford procured some imported Japanese persimmon trees 
for planting at his place near Sanford, Fla. The budded or 
grafted top of one of these trees proved to be dead, but the 
stock below the point of union was alive. It was rejected 



120 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

by the owner, but carried home and planted by one of his 
employees, a Mr. Ludbury. In due course a sprout grew 
from the roots, and from it a tree was budded for Mr. H. L. 
DeForest. The original tree died shortly after this, but 
apparently the one propagated for Mr. DeForest lived and 
became the source from which the variety, now much grown 
in some parts of Florida, was propagated. 

Very early in the history of the variety, following the suc- 
cessful growing of the tree on Mr. DeForest's place, about 15 
wilding trees, which came up in the orange grove on the 
homestead of Mrs. O. Kennedy, were budded to this variety. 
This place was located a short distance north of Sorrento 
and about 1 1 miles east of Eustis, Fla. 

This variety was first commercially propagated some time 
prior to 1887 by the late G. H. Norton, then the proprietor 
of a nursery at Eustis, and by him it was named "Triumph." 

It is reported that in 1887 Mr. DeForest shipped 5 boxes 
of this variety to Boston, where they sold for $5 per box. 1 

DESCRIPTION. 

Form distinctly oblate, in cross-section indistinctly quadrangular; size 
small to medium; cavity regular, large, medium depth, slope very gradual; 
stem short, about one-half inch, slender; apex a small point set in a very 
small, shallow basin which is surrounded, in some specimens at least, by an 
indistinct quadrangular shield of gray; calyx large, 4 lobed, refiexed; sur- 
face smooth except for rather indistinct sutures which divide the fruit into 
quarters, the suture lines in many specimens encircling or nearly encircling 
the fruit and radiating from the corners of the 4-parted calyx ; color bright 
yellowish red to dark orange red, depending upon stage of maturity; dots 
numerous, very minute, appearing indistinctly beneath the skin, hardly 
visible in some specimens; skin very thin, tender; bloom very light, whit- 
ish; flesh yellowish red at outer edge, losing yellowish shade as fruit softens, 
with numerous yellowish fibers through the flesh, these becoming indistinct 
as the fruit softens, translucent; texture buttery, tender, moderately juicy; 
core oblong, cylindrical, medium in size, closed; seeds very variable, many 
specimens seedless, sometimes 5 to 8 in number, plump or consisting merely 
of the unfilled integument, small to medium in size, rich brown in color, 
condition and number of seeds probably determined by extent of fertiliza- 
tion; flavor rich, sweet, somewhat astringent before ripening, but losing 
astringency upon softening; quality very good. Season in vicinity of Glen 
St. Mary usually begins in September and continues until toward the last 
of November, but the bulk of the fruit ripens the last week in October and 
the first half of November; when the weather is not too cold some specimens 
may hang on the trees until nearly Christmas. 

> Letter from G. H. Norton, October, 1887. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 1913 



Plate XI. 




Flowers and James Grapes 



THE 5»CRETI rt WH-HCLWS CO ' 



Yearbook U. S. Dept of Agriculture. 1913 



Plate XII. 





f.JTJU**:. 



Triumph Persimmon 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 1913 



Plate XIII. 





Cf^/^tt. 



Lue Orange 



■me SACKKTa wilhelms co n ■ 



Yearbook U. S Dept of Agriculture. 1913 



Plate XIV 




Boone Chestnut 



<7 



-> . J: y£/!^L.<^z£'- 



HrT51r.kEirnWILHtl.MeCa » 



Promising New Fruits. 121 

The tree presents a very attractive appearance and holds 
its leaves later than most varieties of the Japanese type. 
Its growth even in the nursery row is very characteristic, 
and it is one of the few varieties that can readily be distin- 
guished from the trees of other sorts. This is by reason of 
its peculiar bark and the pink color of the petioles when the 
leaves are young. 1 Some of the trees on the Kennedy home- 
stead at 4 years of age were estimated to bear 1,500 fruits. 2 
Heavy bearing has continuously characterized the variety. 
It is a variety highly prized, especially for home use. 
Almost every landowner in the vicinity of Eustis has from 
one to a dozen trees of it. 3 The skin is so thin and tender 
that it may be less desirable for shipping, except when 
marketed in a rather immature state. 

The specimen illustrated in Plate XII was grown in 1913 

by the Glen St. Mary Nurseries Co., Glen St. Mary, Baker 

County, Fla. 

LUE ORANGE. 

Synonym: Lue Gim Gong. 

[Plate XIII.) 

EARLY HISTORY. 

The history of the Lue orange as published by the Ameri- 
can Pomological Society * is substantially as follows : 

In 1888, Mr. Lue Gim Gong, of De Land, Fla., pollinated the Hart (Hart's 
Late) with pollen of what was believed to be a Mediterranean (Mediterranean 
Sweet) orange. A single fruit containing 15 to 18 seeds resulted from this 
effort. From these seeds about 12 trees were grown, no two of which proved 
to be alike. One tree, when it came into bearing, produced fruit which 
appeared to be so superior to the Hart, which is the standard late orange 
in Florida, that Mr. Lue budded one side of each of 45 trees to it. Buds of 
the Hart (Hart's Late) orange were put into the other side of 15 of these 
trees, while several different sorts were budded into the other side of the 
remaining trees. 

This variety was introduced to the trade in 1912 by the 
Glen St. Mary Nurseries Co., under the name "Lue Gim 
Gong" in honor to the originator. This name is reduced 
to Lue in conformity with the code of nomenclature of the 
American Pomological Society. 

i Letter from H. Harold Hume, November, 1913. 

> Letter from G. H. Norton, October, 1887. 

s Letter from Frank W. Savage, December, 1913. 

* Proceedings, American Pomological Society, 1911, p. 172. 



122 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Form roundish; large; cavity very small, shallow, somewhat furrowed; 
stem slender; apex a small tip in a very shallow basin; surface slightly 
undulating with indented dots; color rich orange yellow; oil cells numer- 
ous; rind relatively smooth, adherence medium, rather thin and tender; 
segments 10 to 12, fairly regular in size; flesh pale orange, tender; cells 
large, irregular, enveloping tissue thin; core nearly solid, filled with white 
pith; juice translucent, abundant; seeds plump, medium in size, straw 
color, few in number; flavor slightly subacid, pleasant; quality very good; 
season begins in July, but is mainly during August and September in 
Florida. 

The tree is said to be hardier than most standard varieties. 
It makes a thrifty growth and is very productive. The 
fruit is said to hang to the tree well during the rainy season 
in Florida, which usually begins in June and lasts several 
weeks. The fruit ripens during a period when about the 
only oranges in the market are Valencias from California. 
It is remarkably heavy, does not lose moisture rapidly, and 
possesses excellent shipping and keeping qualities. 

Its early promise of exceptional value has been fully real- 
ized as the older trees have come into bearing. It is consid- 
ered of special importance as a late variety in the orange dis- 
tricts of Florida and worthy of careful test in other orange 
districts. 

The specimen illustrated in Plate XIII was supplied in 
1911 by the Glen St. Mary Nurseries Co., Glen St. Mary, 
Baker County, Fla. 

BOONE CHESTNUT. 

Synonym: Daniel Boone. 

[Plate XIV.) 

EARLY HISTORY. 

The Boone chestnut originated with the late George W. 
Endicott, of Villa Ridge, Pulaski County, 111., and is a seedling 
of the Giant (Japan Giant) pollinated with an American 
chestnut. According to the originator, it took him seven 
years to find a tree of the latter which blossomed early 
enough to furnish pollen with which to pollinate the Giant. 
After finding one, he pollinated 20 blossoms of the Japanese 
variety in 1895. From this work he obtained 14 nuts. 
These were stored in moist sand during the following winter, 
and on April 1, 1896, they were planted. 



Promising New Fruits. 123 

All germinated, but with the exception of two trees they 
made a feeble growth and gave promise of no value. The 
two more vigorous trees made a growth of about 3J feet 
during the first season. One of these — the variety now 
under consideration — ripened six burs of nuts early in Sep- 
tember of the following year; that is, the second year from 
seed. 1 The name by which the variety is known was applied 
by Mr. Endicott in 1902 after he became impressed with its 
value and was given in memory of that early American 
pioneer, Daniel Boone. He began propagating it about the 
same time for his own use, but it was introduced to the trade 
by Mr. E. A. Eiehl, of Alton, Madison County, 111. The 
name, appearing as "Daniel Boone," was published first in 
the Transactions of the Illinois State Horticultural Society 
for 1906. 2 

DESCRIPTION. 

Burs large, color rather dark green; spines short, stiff, dense, several 
times branched on peduncles one-eighth to one-fourth inch long; nuts 
large, 55 to 62 per pound when fresh ; usually 1 to 4 nuts to the bur, occasion- 
ally as many as 6 ; color rich brown, pubescent only at tip ; shell of medium 
thickness; inner husk rather thick, quite pubescent; flavor sweet; quality 
good to very good, comparing favorably with the best of the Japanese 
varieties; season about September. 

The tree is thrifty and vigorous, with a symmetrical, 
roundish head. In August, 1913, the original tree measured 
38 inches in circumference at breast height and was esti- 
mated to have a height of 25 feet and a spread of limb of 
more than 30 feet. The foliage is dense and rich green in 
color; the leaflets average about 6 inches in length and are 
deeply serrated. The tree usually blossoms about June 5 
and matures its crop before September 20, about 30 days 
earlier than the native American chestnuts growing in the 
same locality . 

This variety is apparently strongly self-fertile and in this 
respect is unlike most chestnut trees. For the first three or 
four years after it came into bearing and while it was some- 
what isolated from other trees, seedlings of it which were 
grown by Mr. Endicott came nearly "true to the variety," 
but later other trees standing near it began to blossom ; fol- 
lowing this the seedlings of Boone varied greatly. 

1 Letters from George W. Endicott, October and November, 1913. 

2 Transactions of the Illinois State Horticultural Society for the year 1906, vol. 40 (1906), 
p. 219. 



124 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

The early bearing of the original Boone tree has been 
mentioned. It has continued to bear with remarkable con- 
stancy and regularity. With only one important exception, 
which was in 1910 when injured by a very late frost, the 
crop has been larger each year than it was in the preceding 
one. The bearing record of this tree as furnished by Mr. 
Endicott 1 is as follows : 

Bearing record of the original Boone chestnut tree at Villa Ridge, III. 





w 








■3 




•o 




■3 




■S 


a. 


§ 


C3 


1 


1 






S3 
o 


$ 


o 


t* 
& 




>* 


p^ 


!* 


Pn 


s* 


p* 


i» 


Pn 


>H 


Ph 


r* 


Pn 


1897 


i 6 


1900 


5 


1903 


12 


1906 


31 


1909 


56 


1912 


78 


1898 


1 


1901 


6 


1904 


17 


1907 


43 


1910 


= 5 


1913 


140 


1899 


3 


1902 


8 


1905 


23 


1908 


50 


1911 


80 







i Burs. 



2 Frost in June. 



The crop of 1913 was sold at 30 cents per pound, giving a 
gross return for the one tree of $42. But, obviously, such a 
large return is exceptional and not a safe basis for estimates 
of "average returns" for entire orchards. 

The bur of nuts illustrated in Plate XIV was grown in 
1913 by the late George W. Endicott, Villa Eidge, Pulaski 
County, 111. 

' Letter from Mr. Endicott, October, 1913. 



HEALTH LAWS. 

By Francis G. Caffey, 
Solicitor, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

IN the early history of the United States little legislative 
attention was given to health conservation. When 
necessity for public action was first generally recognized, it 
was almost universally regarded as the business of the States. 
But, along with the growth of population, the multiplica- 
tion of complexities of civilization, the development of 
transportation, the quickening of communication, and the 
increase of governmental activity in other matters directly 
affecting the lives of individuals, there has gradually come 
into existence a mass of Federal legislation on the sub- 
ject. To-day each of the ten executive departments of the 
United States Government is engaged, directly or indirectly, 
in the administration of one or more acts of Congress 
designed to safeguard health. 

The original statute of 1862 establishing the Department 
of Agriculture defined its chief purpose to be the acquisition 
and diffusion among the people of the United States of useful 
information on subjects connected with agriculture, in the 
most general and comprehensive sense of that word. While 
this definition is still retained in the organic law, concur- 
rently with the spread of its other activities the department 
has had imposed upon it many duties that concern health 
primarily and agriculture only incidentally. The principal 
of these relate to foods, drugs, and meats. 

The food and drugs act and the meat inspection act were 
approved the same day, June 30, 1906. Both were the out- 
growth of statutes which had proved insufficient. Both, 
probably, are mere forerunners of more effective legislation 
which experience will demonstrate to be essential; in the 
last seven and a half years the food and drugs act has been 
twice amended and the provisions of the meat inspection act 
have been extended to imported meats. Both operate within 
the District of Columbia, the Territories, and other places 

125 



126 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

under the jurisdiction of the United States. Both deal with 
interstate and foreign commerce. Their main domestic 
concern is necessarily confined to interstate transactions and 
imports, inasmuch as the District of Columbia, the Territories, 
and the insular possessions comprise a relatively small pro- 
portion of our population. A fair conception of their 
limitations is gained by considering that in our forty-eight 
States all foods, drugs, and meats which are produced, 
manufactured, handled, and sold intrastate, which never 
enter interstate or foreign commerce, may be kept beyond the 
pale of Federal law. 

FOOD AND DRUGS ACT. 

The purpose of the food and drugs act is twofold. Pri- 
marily, it is intended to enforce honest labeling of the foods 
we eat and the drugs we take. Secondarily, it is intended to 
conserve health in so far as it is affected by these articles. 
The act, therefore, makes unlawful the misbranding and 
adulteration of the foods and drugs with which it deals. 

Each of the terms "food," "drug," "misbranded," and 
"adulterated" is specifically defined in the act. In some 
respects the definitions are broader, and in other respects 
more restrictive, than the meanings given in common par- 
lance. Wherever any of these words is used in connection 
with the act it is to be taken solely in its statutory sense. 

"Food," within the act, includes "all articles used for 
food, drink, confectionery, or condiment by man or other 
animals." "Drug," as used in the act, includes ' ? all medi- 
cines and preparations recognized in the United States 
Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary for internal or exter- 
nal use, and any substance or mixture of substances intended 
to be used for the cure, mitigation, or prevention of disease 
of either man or other animals." 

All "misbranding" and much statutory "adulteration" 
are capable of correction by the use of appropriate names 
and labels. The prohibitions against improper nomencla- 
ture and marking are of immense commercial importance to 
manufacturers, dealers, and consumers; they tend to pre- 
vent cheating and to compel fair dealing. Their value in 
that aspect is great and should not be underestimated. They 
are also important to consumers as aids in avoiding the 



Health Laws. 127 

purchase or use of articles without knowing what they are; 
but the "misbranding" and a large proportion of the "adul- 
teration" provisions of the food and drugs act have no other 
direct bearing on health. 

It is unfortunate that the general public has not yet appre- 
ciated that the act is principally a labeling and not a health 
law. 

The statute takes cognizance of two classes of adulterated 
foods. In one class whether an article is adulterated depends 
on the name or the label under which it is sold. Change of 
name or label so as correctly to describe the product will 
relieve it from the charge of adulteration, which could other- 
wise be maintained against it, because of false or misleading 
representation as to its identity, quality, or strength. Adul- 
teration of the second class is inherent in articles them- 
selves, irrespective of names or labels, and incapable of being 
cured by naming or labeling. The more important provisions 
of the act affecting products of this class declare adulterated 
those foods which consist, in whole or in part, of a filthy, 
decomposed, or putrid substance, or contain any part of an 
animal unfit for food, or contain any added poisonous or 
other added deleterious ingredient which may render the 
articles injurious to health. It is further provided that 
confectionery shall be deemed adulterated if it contain any 
of certain specified substances or any poisonous or dele- 
terious ingredient, whether added or not. 

Whether a drug is adulterated depends solely on the 
labeling or the name under which it is sold. Falling below 
the professed standard of strength, quality, or purity is an 
adulteration, but declaration on the label of the actual 
strength, quality, or purity of an article, notwithstanding 
that it differs in these respects from the standard laid down 
in the United States Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary, 
removes the article from the ban of the statute. The food 
and drugs act contains no provision as to drugs prohibiting 
adulteration in any popular sense of that word. The forms 
of "adulteration" of drugs which are prohibited may all be 
cured by correct labeling. 

In addition to the general advantage to consumers result- 
ing from the prohibition of untruthful labels, an important 
protection against the misuse of certain habit-forming drugs 



128 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

is afforded by a special requirement that the quantity or pro- 
portion of drugs of that class, when present in any article 
subject to the act, shall be stated on the label. 

It is a criminal offense to manufacture, sell, or offer for 
sale any adulterated or misbranded food or drug within the 
District of Columbia or within the Territories, including the 
insular possessions of the United States; to ship or deliver for 
shipment any such article from any State or Territory or tho 
District of Columbia to any other State or Territory or the Dis- 
trict of Columbia or to a foreign country; or to receive and 
deliver or offer to deliver in original unbroken packages any 
such article brought from another State or Territory or the 
District of Columbia or a foreign country. 

The penalty for a first offense under the clause regulating 
manufacturing is a fine not to exceed $500, or imprisonment 
for one year, or both, and for a second offense, a fine of not 
less than $1 ,000, or imprisonment for one year, or both. The 
penalty for a first offense under any other clause is a fine of 
not exceeding $200, and for each subsequent offense, a fine of 
not exceeding $300, or imprisonment for not more than one 
year, or both. In addition, under libel proceedings in the 
Federal courts, adulterated or misbranded articles held for 
sale in the District of Columbia, the Territories, or insular 
possessions, or in the course of interstate or foreign transpor- 
tation, or remaining after interstate or foreign transportation 
unloaded, unsold, or in original unbroken packages, may be 
seized and, when condemned by the court, may be destroyed. 

The Department of Agriculture administers the act 
through the Bureau of Chemistry. Samples are collected, 
investigations conducted, and hearings held by that bureau. 
A compliance with department decisions is secured in large 
measure without resort to the courts. Apparent violations 
of the law are reported to the Department of Justice by the 
Department of Agriculture when the facts seem to warrant 
prosecutions or seizures. In addition, United States attor- 
neys are required, when satisfactory evidence is furnished, 
to prosecute violations of the act reported to them by health, 
food, or drug officials of the States, the District of Columbia, 
and the Territories. The conduct of all litigations, civil and 
criminal, is in the hands of the Department of Justice. The 
statute makes it the duty of the Department of Agriculture 



Health Laws. 129 

to publish notices of the judgments of the courts. The pub- 
licity given by means of these notices is a powerful aid 
toward securing compliance with administrative rulings and 
deterring the commission of offenses. 

The importation of foreign and the export of domestic 
foods and drugs are also regulated by the act. In the inves- 
tigation of imported products, the Treasury Department co- 
operates with the Department of Agriculture. 

MEAT INSPECTION ACT. 

The meat inspection act, though similar in intent to the 
food and drugs act, is primarily a health and secondarily a 
labeling law. Its purposes are accomplished by different 
means and are capable of more nearly certain attainment. 
Inspection of meats derived from cattle, sheep, swine, and 
goats, prior to entry into interstate or foreign commerce, is 
mandatory, except in the cases of retail butchers and retail 
dealers supplying their customers and of animals slaughtered 
by farmers on the farm. Under the food and drugs act the 
sole powers are to penalize persons who and to seize articles 
which violate the law. Carriers are not prohibitsd from 
transporting adulterated or misbranded foods or drugs. The 
meat inspection act not only prescribes punishments for 
producers, shippers, and dealers guilty of offenses under its 
provisions, but prohibits carriers from transporting for inter- 
state or foreign commerce meats derived from any of the 
four classes of animals named in the act which do not bear 
marks of Federal inspection and approval. It is estimated 
that approximately sixty per cent of all meats and meat food 
products in the United States derived from cattle, sheep, 
swine, and goats are under Federal inspection. It is obvi- 
ous that but a small percentage of the foods and drugs 
transported in interstate or foreign commerce could be sub- 
jected to Government inspection and marking without an 
appropriation many times the $3,200,000 a year required 
for meat inspection. 

The meat inspection act provides for the maintenance by 
the Department of Agriculture of a system of inspection of 
establishments in the United States in which cattle, sheep, 
swine, or goats are slaughtered or the carcasses or meat or 
meat food products of which are prepared for interstate or 

27306°— YBK 1913 9 



130 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

foreign commerce. If, on such inspection, the articles are 
found to be wholesome, within the meaning of the act, it is 
the duty of department inspectors to mark them "inspected 
and passed," and, if not, to mark them "inspected and 
condemned." 

All such establishments are required to apply to the 
Department of Agriculture for inspection and to maintain 
sanitary conditions in the conduct of their business. No 
meats or meat food products are permitted to be brought 
into federally inspected establishments unless derived from 
animals which have had both ante-mortem inspection and 
post-mortem inspection' at the time of slaughter, except 
farm-slaughtered animals, with the heads and certain viscera 
attached, which must be inspected at the time of admission. 
Inspection may be withdrawn from establishments which 
violate the law or the regulations prescribed by the depart- 
ment. The withdrawal of Federal inspection from an estab- 
lishment is tantamount to a prohibition against its longer 
engaging in interstate or foreign commerce in articles with 
which the act deals. 

Transportation in interstate or foreign commerce of any 
meat or meat food product derived from cattle, sheep, swine, 
or goats not bearing the mark of Federal inspection and 
approval is an offense, punishable by a fine of not more than 
$10,000, or imprisonment for not more than two years, or 
both. The sale or offer for sale or transportation for inter- 
state or foreign commerce of any diseased, unsound, unhealth- 
ful, or unwholesome meat or meat food product, or of such 
an article which is otherwise unfit for food, with knowledge 
that the same is intended for human consumption, is punish- 
able by a fine of not exceeding $1,000, or by imprisonment 
for not exceeding one year, or both. 

In addition, all meats and meat food products entering 
interstate or foreign commerce, or manufactured or sold in 
the District of Columbia or in the Territories, are subject to 
the provisions of the food and drugs act. While the meat 
inspection act does not provide authority to seize such arti- 
cles outside of federally inspected establishments, the power 
of seizure conferred by the food and drugs act is applicable 
to them. 



Health Laws. 131 

The meat inspection act exempts from its inspection 
requirements animals slaughtered by farmers on the farm 
and retail butchers and retail dealers in meats and meat 
food products supplying their customers, but provides that 
if any of these persons ships his product in interstate or 
foreign commerce, knowing that it is intended for human 
consumption, and it be unfit for food, he is guilty of a 
violation of the law. 

As originally enacted in 1906, the meat inspection act did 
not deal with imported meats; they were subject only to the 
food and drugs act. By the tariff act of October 3, 1913, 
the importation of meats was made conditional upon their 
being wholesome and free from unwholesome substances and 
complying with regulations of the Secretary of Agriculture. 
To ascertain wholesomeness, the Secretary of Agriculture 
investigates foreign systems of meat inspection and causes 
the meats themselves to be inspected at ports of entry before 
admission into the United States. Importations are pro- 
hibited from countries which do not maintain systems of 
inspection as efficient as our own, and articles found upon 
inspection at ports of entry to be unwholesome or to contain 
unwholesome substances must be refused admission into the 
United States. After admission, with marks of Federal 
inspection and approval, such imported products may be 
carried into federally inspected establishments and must be 
otherwise treated as domestic articles which have been 
inspected and passed. 

The Department of Agriculture administers the meat 
inspection act through the Bureau of Animal Industry. 
Most of the results are accomplished without litigation. 
Where prosecutions are necessary, they are conducted by 
the Department of Justice, upon reports of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, in the same way as proceedings under 
the food and drugs act. 

The proportion of the foods, drugs, and meats consumed 
by the people of the United States, which of necessity must 
enter interstate commerce and are, therefore, subject to the 
food and drugs act or the meat inspection act, or both, is, 
and always will be, large. The problem of efficient admin- 
istration is enormous, difficult, and expensive. Full com- 



132 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

prehension by the people of precisely what these statutes 
are would greatly lessen the burden of officials charged with 
the duty of enforcing them. 

OTHER HEALTH LAWS ADMINISTERED BY DEPARTMENT 
OF AGRICULTURE. 

While the laws dealing with foods, drugs, and meats are 
of chief importance, other laws affecting health, with the 
administration of which the Department of Agriculture is 
charged, are also important. 

The so-called twenty-eight-hour law prohibits the confine- 
ment in railroad cars and boats of animals in course of inter- 
state transit for a period longer than twenty-eight hours with- 
out being unloaded, for feed, water, and rest, for five hours, 
except that, upon proper written request in advance by the 
owner or person in custody of the shipment, the period of con- 
finement may be extended to thirty-six hours; provided that 
carriers may relieve themselves of the duty of unloading by 
supplying ample facilities for feed, water, and rest on board 
their cars or boats. The intention of this statute is humane, 
but it tends to bring animals to slaughter markets in more fit 
condition. 

Three acts of Congress prohibit the interstate shipment of 
live stock affected with contagious, infectious, or communi- 
cable disease, or coming from areas quarantined by the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture for such disease. Another act prohibits 
importation of neat cattle, sheep and other ruminants, and 
swine which are diseased or infected with disease or which 
have been exposed to infection within sixty days previous. A 
recent act regulates the importation and interstate shipment 
of viruses, serums, and toxins for the treatment of domestic 
animals. Under appropriation acts the department is en- 
gaged in campaigns against hog cholera and other animal 
diseases, obviously alike in the interest of human health and 
of preventing waste. The department is also charged with 
the inspection of dairy products intended for export, with 
the inspection of process or renovated butter, with the 
sanitary inspection of renovated butter factories, with the 
conduct of investigations for the determination of the 
nutritive value of foods, and, in connection with the Forest 



Health Laws. 133 

Service, with the administration of national forest are&s 
affecting the water supplies of certain municipalities. Much 
more of the department work which is primarily directed 
toward increasing economic efficiency incidentally affects 
the health of farmers and the wholesomeness of all kinds of 
agricultural products. 

NEED FOR EXERCISE OF POWERS BY THE STATES. 

Anomalous as it may seem, the validity of a large propor- 
tion of Federal health laws is predicated on the commerce 
clause of the Constitution. Yet the Supreme Court of the 
United States has sustained them against all attacks. What- 
ever may have been the original conception of the relative 
functions of the States and the Federal Government in re- 
spect to health conservation, it can not now be doubted that 
there is a very large field in which Federal authority is com- 
plete and, when exercised, exclusive. The fact is that the 
statutes already enacted are but a crossing of the threshold 
of the power which Congress may exercise and,' if the public 
demand it, doubtless will exercise. 

On the other hand, there are indisputable limitations upon 
Congress. Beyond these the Federal Government can not 
go. There is, and always will be, a large field exclusively for 
State legislation. If the power of the States be not fully 
exercised, then the public health, in so far as it is dependent 
on governmental activity, will remain unprotected. 

On the administrative side, the Department of Agriculture 
for years past has cooperated in many ways with the States 
in health matters. It is manifestly important that such 
cooperation should continue; that duplication of effort 
should be avoided; that Federal and State legislation should 
be supplementary and consistent; and that State statutes 
should be uniform. 

Experience demonstrates that there is still much popular 
misconception of the separate domains of Federal and State 
laws. In order to secure intelligent Federal administration, 
and to prevent dormant reliance upon lack of necessity for 
State action, it can not be too strongly emphasized or too 
frequently recalled that, outside of the territory which is 
exclusively under the jurisdiction of the United States, the 



334 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

two chief Federal laws affecting health, which the general 
public knows about, are operative only upon interstate and 
foreign commerce in the articles with which those laws deal. 

In framing further health legislation Congress may law- 
fully cover much unexplored ground. The inevitable dif- 
ficulties to be overcome under the limitations contained in 
the Federal Constitution can be obviated by complete and 
uniform exercise of their powers by the States. Wisdom 
suggests that these difficulties should be avoided in future 
by appropriate State activity. 

It is essential to recognize the respective fields of Congress 
and the State legislatures in measuring the possible efficiency 
of present laws and in planning for new laws. 



THE AMERICAN THRUSHES VALUABLE BIRD 
NEIGHBORS. 

THE ROBIN, BLUEBIRD, AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE 
THRUSH FAMILY ENTERTAIN WITH THEIR SONGS AND 
HELP THE FARMER BY EATING MANY DANGEROUS PESTS. 

Prepared from data furnished by Prof. F. E. L. Beal, Biological Survey. 

WHEN our English ancestors first came to America they 
found a bird with a brown back and a red breast 
that reminded them of the robin redbreast so often alluded 
to by the British poets, and they proceeded to call the new 
bird by the old name. The bird, however, was not the same. 
Our so-called "robin redbreast" is really a thrush, although 
few of us would think of him as related to the sober brown 
wood thrush or the distinctive bluebird. The English robin 
redbreast is actually more like our bluebird than like our 
robin. The fallacy of the earliest settlers who transferred 
their affection from the real redbreast to our robin has been 
largely responsible for the esteem in which we now hold our 
little American bird neighbor. 

The object of this transferred affection, however, is worthy 
of our kind consideration, as are practically all members of 
the American thrush family, to which it belongs. This 
family is one of the most prominent and widely spread of the 
various bird families in the United States. The birds have 
retiring habits and their songs are pleasing. Their plumage 
is modest, indeed, it is almost somber, the blue of the blue- 
bird (most noticeable of the thrushes) being the most bril- 
liant tint displayed by any of the family. The general char- 
acter of the thrushes' plumage is a brown back with a spotted 
breast. The robin and the bluebird have red breasts. 

Through close association with man and his works, this 
group of birds have endeared themselves to our rural popula- 
tion and are often protected merely because their presence 
is enjoyed. In. addition, they fulfill a useful function by 
reducing the insect life constantly preying upon the crops. 

135 



136 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

A large part of their food, particularly of the young ones, 
consists of insects. Unless nature provided checks like the 
thrush family to keep the balance between the insect and 
the vegetable kingdoms, vegetation would soon be destroyed. 
The thrush family is a very large one, and itself is made up 
of a number of smaller groups or species. These are usually 
well known to the farmers in the vicinities they frequent. 
The following are the common names for species of the well- 
known family of thrushes: 

Robin (PL XV). Veery. 

Oregon robin. Gray-cheeked thrush. 

Bluebird. Olive-backed thrush. 

Western bluebird. Hermit thrush (Frontispiece, lower 
Mountain bluebird. figure). 

Wood thrush (Frontispiece, upper 
figure) . 

THE SHYEST MEMBER OF THE FAMILY. 

One little member of this family is so seldom noticed that 
he has no popular name. Scientists call him "Townsend's 
solitaire." He inhabits mainly inaccessible mountain gorges 
in the West, subsists largely on wild berries, and so comes 
into contact with man only infrequently. 

ROBIN AND BLUEBIRD ARE MORE DOMESTIC. 

In contrast to the "solitaire," the robin and the bluebird 
are the most domestic of the family. Their songs are among 
the earliest to announce the coming of spring, as they return 
to their breeding places in March or early April. The robin 
is found as far north as Alaska. Generally, however, he is 
fond of the districts east of the Great Plains, which are more 
thickly settled by man. 

The Oregon robin is a slightly different fellow, being found 
westward toward the Pacific. Both robins are for the most 
part migratory in the northern half of this country, but some 
individuals remain throughout the winter in the north where 
shelter and food are assured. Cedar swamps where there are 
many berries are favorite winter resorts for the robin. The 
robin, and the bluebird also, habitually winter as far north as 
southern Illinois, and not infrequently the former remains as 
far north as Massachusetts or southern Michigan, if food is 
abundant. The robin is probably more familiarly known 
and has figured in our American literature to a greater extent 



Yearbook US Dept. of Agriculture. 1913 



PLATE XV 




Robin (Planesticus Migratorius) 



THE SA.t^ETT * «Vll_HEl_MS CO. NY 



American Thrushes Valuable Bird Neighbors. 137 

than all other birds together. The bluebird has also come 
in for a larger share of attention than most of the thrushes. 

The first of the thrushes to leave for the South in the fall 
are the wood thrush, the -veery, the gray-cheeked, and the 
olive-backed thrushes. The olive-back usually stays longest 
in southern climes, and only makes its first appearance in the 
North in May. 

The different species that make up the great thrush family 
have each developed little peculiarities of their own. These 
are particularly noticeable in the homes which the different 
species choose for themselves. The hermit thrush and veery 
generally build on the ground in thick cover. If possible 
they choose a locality near running water. Other members 
of the family usually build upon shrubs or small trees. 

THE BLUEBIRD MOST PARTICULAR ABOUT HIS HOME. 

The bluebird is the most exclusive in the matter of homes. 
He usually selects a place completely inclosed, sometimes 
moving into the cozy hollow of a tree that has been carefully 
cleaned out by an obliging woodpecker. He will also show par- 
tiality for dwellings rigged up by human hands for his special 
accommodation, as a box or birdhouse placed on a post. 

The robin also likes shelter, but does not insist upon being 
as exclusive as the bluebird. A beam under a shed, a cranny 
in a wall, a cornice under a gable, or the fork of a tree usually 
satisfies his more democratic tastes. 

THE WOOD THRUSH THE MOST OPERATIC MEMBER. 

All the members of the thrush family can sing, but the 
most operatic of them all is the wood thrush. The wood 
thrush, however, is so modest that many country people 
who know his song do not know him by sight. His favorite 
time for singing is in the early evening or toward the close of 
a sultry afternoon, when a shower has cooled the air. At 
such times his song has a peculiar sweetness unlike that of 
any other bird. The veery and hermit thrush are also good 
singers. 

As is usual among birds, the gayest colored members of 
this family are the poorest musicians. So it happens that 
the bluebird and the robin sing less frequently than the 
more somber-colored thrushes. However, they do sing, and 



138 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

their notes are listened for in the early spring by country 
folk, who welcome these earliest heralds of warmer weather 
and flowers. 

THRUSH FAMILY NOT VEGETARIANS. 

While all the thrushes like berries and fruit, they are 
fonder of animal food. They are especially partial to beetles, 
and these make up about one-fifth of their animal diet. The 
bluebird members are most addicted to the beetle diet, and as 
many beetles are very destructive to crops, the farmer feels 
kindly toward these little bird neighbors that help him out. 

Indeed, the diet of such a large and widely distributed 
group of birds is of more economic importance to man than 
might at first appear. Thrushes eat many other pests 
besides the beetle. They also eat certain fruits and berries 
of value to the farmer. It is, therefore, important to find out 
just how many destructive and how many valuable things 
thrushes eat in order to determine whether these birds should 
be discouraged or encouraged. The report of the scientists 
who have spent considerable time on the problem has been 
in favor of the thrushes. 

The fruit raiser as well as the farmer may well be interested 
in knowing exactly what is the ordinary food of the thrushes. 
According to the scientists their diet is quite varied. Some 
idea of it may be obtained from the following menu which 
the average thrush would enjoy, although he would hardly 
sample all the items at one meal. 

A THRUSH MENU. 

Spiders. Snails. Grasshoppers. 

Ante. Angle worms. 

BEETLES. 

(Choice varying according to thrush.) 

Potato beetle. Plum curculio. Clover-leaf weevil. 

May beetle. Corn weevil. Spotted squash beetle. 

Alfalfa weevil. 

CATERPILLARS. 

Army worm. "Cutworm." Yellow bear. 

Codling moth. Yellow-necked appleworm. Cabbage worm. 



American Thrushes Valuable Bird Neighbors. 139 

BUGS. 

Chinch bug. Black olive scale. Seventeen year locust. 

FRUITS AND BERRIES. 

Apples. Grapes. Raspberries. 

Apricots. Currants. Strawberries. 

Cherries. Blackberries. Figs. 

WILD BERRIES. 

Dogwood. Poison ivy. 

Mountain ash. Virginia creeper. 

Choke berry. Holly. 

WEED SEEDS. WATER. 

ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE THRUSH MENU. 

By examining the above list one may see that the thrushes 
destroy many dangerous pests. The newly imported alfalfa 
weevil, which has committed ravages in the West, has already 
been selected by robins as a choice article of diet. The May 
beetle in "the above menu is the parent of the well-known 
white grub and is most destructive to grass. 

Ants have an unpleasant habit of fastening their jaws to 
anything that disturbs them, so the thrushes' fondness for 
them may be wondered at, though there are other bird 
families fond of ants. Ants are of very doubtful value to 
rural communities. Several kinds of ants render service as 
scavengers, but hundreds of other varieties are very harmful. 
The so-called ant "cow" is a parasite most harmful to 
valuable plants. The ants protect these parasites during the 
entire year and thus aid them in their injurious work. Some- 
one has described the ant as ' ' the little black milkmaid that 
pastures her cow on a roseleaf." 

Practically all caterpillars are harmful, and if it were not' 
for nature's check on their rapid multiplication there would 
soon be no trees in the land, for their leaves would all be 
eaten by caterpillars. Thrushes are nearly unanimous in 
their fondness for this soft, juicy article of diet, and in quan- 
tity it makes up about one-tenth of their entire bill of fare. 

As for the grasshoppers, they are considered particularly 
delicious in midsummer, when they are of rather soft tex- 
ture. They are abundant, easily obtained, and are eaten by 
the great majority of birds. The thrushes, however, have not 



140 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

the same fondness for them as for caterpillars. The three 
bluebirds, which seem to be the biggest eaters, are fondest of 
them, and one-fifth of their food consists of this insect. 
Other members of the thrush family eat them only on special 
occasions. It is hardly necessary to comment on the harm 
that grasshoppers might do to crops if it were not for birds 
that prey on them. 

The quantity of so-called "bugs" eaten by thrushe3 is 
relatively small. However, considering their undesirable 
quality, it is important to note this item. The chinch bug, 
in particular, is a most harmful enemy of the wheat crop. 
The black olive scale and the 17-year locust are most dan- 
gerous to fruit and forest trees, and their elimination is to 
be desired. 

Spiders would not seem to be an appetizing food, but are 
fairly well liked by the thrush. About 4 per cent of the 
average food of the thrush family is spiders. The wood 
thrush, veery, and hermit thrush eat about twice' the aver- 
age amount, whilo the robin very rarely cares for spiders. 

The snail naturally falls a prey to the thrush when he 
seeks out dark, shady nooks for a drink at some spring, and 
finds this tempting morsel awaiting him. The Oregon robin, 
however, is the only thrush that is really a snail epicure. 

The fruit and berry diet of the American thrush, while it 
contains certain items relished by human beings, is largely 
made up of articles that would be very disagreeable, if not 
dangerous, for human consumption. The reason certain 
wild berries are found along farm fences, as though espe- 
cially planted there, is that the original seeds were dropped 
by birds resting on the fences. 

THRUSHES LIKE NOVELTIES IN FKUIT. 

Thrushes, like many people, are fond of novelties of diet. 
They will eat an unusual quantity of something new, and 
then finally go back to their former diet, leaving the novelty . 
alone. When certain fruits were first introduced in Califor- 
nia the birds did so much damage to them that it was thought 
that the crop would be unprofitable because of them. Sev- 
eral years later, however, the birds settled down and both- 
ered the orchards very little. The same thing happened 
when grapes were first grown in Texas. The first year the 



American Thrushes Valuable Bird Neighbors. 141 

birds gorged themselves on grapes, but later on they seemed 
sated with this nov.elty and caused little appreciable damage. 

In general, the thrushes as a group do little injury to the 
fruit crop. These birds visit swamps and underbrush in 
preference to orchards and gardens when looking for fruits 
and berries. In some cases where cities are built up the 
thrush is compelled to go to orchards for its vegetable diet, 
as there are no wild berries. 

In New Jersey it has been found that if wild berries are 
planted around cultivated berries the thrushes will show 
such a preference for the former that they will scarcely 
touch the latter. Some thrushes also prefer fallen fruit to 
that still on the trees, even though the latter is better from 
our point of view. Under ordinary conditions of country 
life wild fruits are so abundant that thrushes seldom tres- 
. pass upon cultivated varieties. 

Of all the thrushes the popular robin, under exceptional 
conditions as above described, is the greatest destroyer of 
fruit. It must be remembered, however, that during the 
earlier season he steadily works to help make that crop a 
possibility. When the fruit ripens, the robin has already 
a standing account with the farmer for services rendered, 
for he has been eating injurious insects and taking them 
in the very act of harming the tree. 

SCARECROWS RATHER THAN GUNS FOR TROUBLESOME 

THRUSHES. 

When robins are too numerous they may, of course, 
overdraw their account, but it is sometimes difficult to 
determine whether they have actually done so. 'They may 
not even be condemned for a whole year's showing, because 
their services to the farmer in several previous years may 
far more than offset the bad record of one. Also a bird 
that has done damage to one crop, as for instance cherries, 
may merely be taking his pay for protecting other crops 
of greater value. 

It must also be borne in mind that birds may be fostered by 
so much human care and protection that they become so 



142 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

plentiful that the available supply of insects and wild fruits 
will not feed them. They are then naturally forced to seek the 
orchards for sustenance. Under normal conditions nature 
arranges that when insect and berry supplies are rare the 
birds decrease in number; when the insect pests become more 
numerous the number of birds increases. 

In any case, when thrushes become troublesome an effec- 
tive remedy may usually be found. Devices for frightening 
birds are always better than thos'e for destroying them. 
Scarecrows will probably frighten the thrushes from the 
vicinity, and certain fruit^bearing shrubs planted about the 
dooryard will attract them from the cultivated crops. De- 
stroying the birds will do more harm than good in the long 
run. 

The biologists have encountered much difficulty in deter- 
mining the thrush menu set forth above. Formerly it was the 
custom to watch birds and make more or less satisfactory 
guesses as to what they were eating; now, instead, the 
stomachs of a sufficient number of birds are examined to 
enable the investigators to draw general conclusions. In 
some cases very strange things were found in the stomachs 
of thrushes. The shell of something that puzzled one 
investigator proved to be the jaw of a caterpillar. Some- 
times an indigestible part of a vegetable would turn up 
which had not been eaten directly by the thrush, but by an 
insect which the thrush had eaten in turn. It has taken 
several years sometimes to determine positively that certain 
articles of diet are generally eaten by thrushes. The pains- 
taking work of the ornithologists has, however, eventually 
given us the complete menu which is of such importance in 
determining the status of this bird family. 

On the whole, thrushes make interesting and valuable bird 
neighbors to our farmers. They are a sociably inclined family, 
usually selecting by preference places where man has taken 
up his abode. Their presence and their songs are very 
generally welcome. Economically they are valuable little 
neighbors as well. 



WHAT THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IS 
DOING FOR THE HOUSEKEEPER. 

By C. F. Langwoethy, 
Chief of Nutrition Investigations, Office of Experiment Stations. 

INTRODUCTION. 

THE Department of Agriculture in its varied activities 
comes very close to the life of the people, not only of 
those who produce the crops, but also of those who convert the 
raw materials of agriculture into finished products and of 
those who use them. Its interests extend to the town as well 
as to the country and to the home as well as to the farm.. 

So long as the housekeeper shared in the outdoor activities 
of the home and helped to produce the commodities she 
used she combined in herself the functions of producer, in- 
spector, caterer, and user. She then had little need to discuss 
with others either the nature or the uses of the materials she 
handled. Her chief need was for technical skilk and this 
was received directly from her mother and in turn passed 
on to her daughter without the aid of outside educational 
agencies. When, however, under new conditions it came 
about that she bought a large part of the commodities she 
used, as is now the case even in isolated rural districts, it 
became necessary for her to express her desires with reference 
to the characteristics and qualities of the commodities she 
bought. The result, therefore, of the increasing importance 
of the home maker as a consumer of the products of agri- 
culture was a new demand on her part— not so much a 
demand for new commodities as for knowledge and a de- 
mand for information which would help the family to meet 
certain world-old needs. The housekeeper has been asking 
for information on many home matters. She has sought 
to learn the effects of cooking upon the nutritive value of 
foods; she has asked what constituents are needed for an 
adequate and proper diet for her family and what foods are 
particularly suited to the needs of children; she has sought 
to know the comparative strength and wearing quality of 
various textiles used for clothing and for house furnishings, 

143 



144 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

and the best methods of cleaning and preserving such tex- 
tiles; she has sought help in matters connected with house- 
hold sanitation, such as water supply, plumbing, heating, 
ventilating, and lighting; she has been aroused to an interest 
in the problems of efficiency, and is looking for sources of 
reliable information, not only about the relative value of 
various kinds of textiles, but also about the comparative 
amounts of energy required for performing household tasks 
by different methods. 

Housekeepers are also seeking help in conducting those 
household industries which still remain in the home and 
which usually fall to the lot of women. They are seeking 
the best methods not only in cooking, sewing, and house- 
keeping, but also in poultry raising, flower gardening, mar- 
. ket gardening, and beekeeping. In their philanthropic and 
charitable activities also, which are rapidly taking the form 
of what is known as "social service," women are recogniz- 
ing the need for definite kinds of information. They are 
finding that in helping to solve the many problems which 
affect the home and community they need to know the cost 
of living and factors which influence it and to compare 
expenditures with income. This is true whether they inter- 
est themselves in such fields of work outside the home, as 
membership on the boards of orphan asylums and other 
public institutions, as managers of boarding clubs and homes 
for students, and in such enterprises as the serving of lunch- 
eons for school children either as a philanthropic measure 
or for other reasons. They are realizing that it is necessary 
to have some definite information about such matters as the 
amount of nourishment which can be bought for a given sum, 
the wearing quality of textiles, and the relation of housing 
conditions to health. 

Agriculture supplies the bulk of the raw materials used in 
the home for food, for clothing, and for household equip- 
ment. Since the Department of Agriculture gives attention 
not only to problems of production and distribution, but also 
to problems of consumption, and since, all things considered, 
the home is the greatest consumer of the products of farm and 
garden, it is inevitable that information should be forthcom- 
ing from the department which will help to solve many of the 
housekeeper's problems. The interdependence of agricultural 



The Department of Agriculture and the Housekeeper. 145 

interests and home problems has also resulted in work in the 
Department of Agriculture undertaken particularly to meet 
the housewife's needs and to insure a better utilization of 
agricultural products in the home. A survey of the work of 
the department will show that it is not the case, as some- 
times claimed, that the National Government bends its 
energies solely to the study of man's activities and overlooks 
the housewife and her problems. 

GENERAL ACTIVITIES. 

Broadly speaking, the Department of Agriculture is con- 
cerned with such matters as the production of crops, timber, 
and flocks and herds, with studies of plant and animal 
. diseases and their control, with the establishment of stand- 
ards of quality, with the protection of agricultural products 
from adulteration, with the processes for converting raw 
products of agriculture into finished products ready for use, 
wi'th insect enemies and their control, with agricultural engi- 
neering problems, with rural economics, with rural life and 
activities, and with educational problems pertaining to all of 
these. Information is gathered in the field, in the labora- 
tory, and in other ways, and the results are spread broadcast 
by means of publications, demonstration work, correspond- 
ence, personal contact, and teaching, the last largely through 
extension work, through the agricultural colleges, and 
through other organized methods of education. 

In answering the questions which arise in the minds of the 
producers on the farms the investigator almost inevitably 
furnishes information about the commodities which the 
housekeepers buy and use and whose composition they should 
understand. Help for the housekeeper, who directs the 
spending of the family income, or, as the economist would 
put it, represents consumption, is, in fact, not only one of the 
inevitable by-products, but one of the very valuable main 
products of agricultural research, and is clearly recognized 
as such by the department. 

RELATION OF DIFFERENT BUREAUS TO HOME ACTIVITIES. 

It is interesting to consider in some detail som'e of the ways 
in which the work of the department contributes to the 
housekeeper's fund of useful informaton. 

27306°— YBK 1913 10 



146 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

Through the Bureau of Animal Industry the department 
studies the breeding and feeding of farm animals and the 
questions pertaining thereto. It carries on this work pri- 
marily for the purpose of assisting those who depend for their 
livelihood upon the raising of stock, but the stock is raised 
in order that we may be supplied with meat, milk, butter 
and eggs, wool for clothing, and leather for shoes. Improv- 
ing the production of farm stock means a larger and better 
supply of these products. This bureau interests itself in the 
handling of milk, primarily to benefit the dairy business, but 
the effort for cleaner dairies and more sanitary methods 
of handling milk benefits all who use this important foodstuff 
and the products made from it, and enables the housekeeper 
better to protect her family, and particularly her children, 
from disease. The Bureau of Animal Industry also investi- 
gates the existence of communicable diseases among live 
stock, studies their nature, causes, and prevention, and takes 
measures to wipe them out. This obviously benefits the 
farmer. In this and in its meat-inspection work it also safe- 
guards the home by insuring a wholesome supply of animal 
products used as food. 

The Bureau of Chemistry, among its other activities, has 
studied the composition of thousands of materials used in the 
home and many processes for converting the raw materials 
of agriculture into finished products. One has but to remem- 
ber its extended studies of sugar, of bread and breadstuffs, 
of commercial food products, and so on, to realize how closely 
the results concern the home. The same could be said of its 
studies of fruits and their preservation, of storage and its 
relation to quality, and of the extended activities which have 
resulted in the establishment of food standards and the car- 
rying out of the provisions of the National pure food law. 
Of great importance are the methods for research which have 
been developed by this bureau, and here, as in many more 
lines of its work, it will be found that it has made a very large 
contribution to the fund of information of use to the house- 
keeper. 

The Bureau of Plant Industry could not labor as it does to 
increase the yield of crops which are used for food either for 
man or for live stock, and to protect plants from injurious 
diseases, without aiding the housekeeper in her efforts to 



The Department of Agriculture and the Housekeeper. 147 

obtain a good and varied food supply for her family. It could 
not bring into the United States and domesticate food plants 
which have proved acceptable in other countries without 
helping the housekeeper in her efforts to secure pleasing vari- 
ety in her bills of fare, as well as helping the farmer to profit- 
ably extend his activities. A study of farm accounts has 
also been begun, which includes records of household expend- 
itures. To cite another instance out of many, the girls' home 
garden and canning club work directly benefits the home and 
the housekeeper. Designed originally to teach girls how to 
grow a crop, learn its uses, and preserve a surplus for winter 
use, the work has extended to methods of canning for mar- 
ket, and not only has started an interest in improved methods 
of housekeeping in a great number of homes, but has enabled 
many girls to earn money for further study. 

The Bureau of Entomology, through its study of insects 
and their relation to man, is the housekeeper's best aid in her 
warfare against flies, mosquitoes, ants, moths, and other 
insects which carry filth, transmit disease from one home to 
another, or destroy materials and household equipment. 

The Office of Public Roads can not carry on its activities 
without benefiting the home and the community as well as 
agricultural interests, for by improving the condition of roads 
it brings the home into closer communication with market, 
school, library, church, and social centers. 

The Department of Agriculture Library, through its bibli- 
ographies and other publications and its close relations with 
teachers and others who seek information through published 
data, reaches the student of housekeeping as directly as the 
student of agriculture. 

The Office of Experiment Stations has been studying prob- 
lems which pertain to agricultural education, and more and 
more, as the years have passed and information has accumu- 
lated, agricultural education has come to include the activi- 
ties of the home as well as the activities of the farm; so much 
so that at the present time home economics is included in 
the curricula of a large proportion of the agricultural col- 
leges. It is worth noting that educational work on these lines 
is by no means limited to this group of institutions. Indeed, 
in educational movements of recent years nothing is more 
marked than the increased attention which is given to the 



148 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

study of plant and animal life and to home economics. No 
one realizes more clearly than the teachers of these subjects in 
secondary schools, normal schools, colleges, and universities 
and the authors of textbooks intended for their use, how 
much the Department of Agriculture has contributed to the 
fundamental data used in the classroom. 

Such statements might be extended and instances multi- 
plied of ways in which these and other units of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture render assistance to the housekeeper, 
as a result of its efforts to aid in the production, protection, 
and distribution of agricultural crops and the products 
made from them, and its related activities. 

NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS AND HOME PROBLEMS. 

In addition to such work the department has for more than 
20 years carried on work which relates directly to the home 
and its activities, through the nutrition investigations of 
the Office of Experiment Stations, undertaken especially to 
study the utilization in the home of agricultural food prod- 
ucts, both animal and vegetable. 

Early in the work the composition and nutritive value 
of the more common American foodstuffs were investigated. 
Following this work came studies of the kind and amounts 
of food used by American families of different occupations 
and incomes, which, with studies of the laws of nutrition, 
furnished information regarding the kind and amounts of 
food needed by men, women, and children of different ages 
and activities, and helped in the formulation of dietary stand- 
ards which express these needs in definite terms. Many 
studies have also been made of the thoroughness of digestion 
of. different foodstuffs, and as a result a large fund of infor- 
mation is available regarding the digestibility of a great 
variety of materials. The changes brought about in animal 
and vegetable foods by cooking processes have also received 
attention, and the effect of cooking upon digestibility. An 
important side of the work has been the development of 
methods and apparatus, including the bomb calorimeter and 
the respiration calorimeter, for use in the study of these ques- 
tions. Information has been collected, classified, and stand- 
ardized regarding the care of food in the home, home canning 



The Department of Agriculture and the Housekeeper. 149 

and preserving, and preparing foods for the table. The study 
of these questions has involved cost considerations and the 
planning of meals which will adequately meet family needs 
as well as please the palate, and other similar questions. 
Incidentally, much information has been gathered regard- 
ing household sanitation, household conveniences, and other 
household problems. 

It has been the object to collect facts which would explain 
household processes and to provide exact data which could 
be formulated and passed on for practical as well as scientific 
use. All this work has been designed not to supplant but 
to supplement empirical, practical knowledge which house- 
keepers have gained from uncounted years of experience and 
passed on from mother to daughter. 

Such investigations as those enumerated bear the same 
relation to housekeepers' problems that systematic technical 
study bears to other industries. Commercial activities were 
long ago studied by scientific methods, since it had been 
found that gaining knowledge by experience is much more 
costly than gaining it by systematic study. Much more 
recently we have come to realize that it is equally possible 
to study the housekeeper's problems by laboratory methods. 
Yet so useful has such work been found, that now the 
housekeeper consults the investigator as naturally as the 
manufacturer does the engineering expert. And it is as true 
as it is in the case of business enterprises that systematic 
study is needed to furnish the broad foundation on which 
improvements in household operations should be based. 

The results of the nutrition investigations have been 
published in technical bulletins, some 50 in number, designed 
for the investigator and the teacher, and in about the same 
number of Farmers' Bulletins and other popular publica- 
tions, which summarize the laboratory research and general 
data gathered from other sources, in a form designed to 
meet the housekeeper's needs. That this has actually been 
the case is indicated by the very large demand for these 
publications from housekeepers, teachers, and others inter- 
ested in home problems, and by the rapidly growing corre- 
spondence between housekeepers and the Department of 
Agriculture. Just as the farmer turns to the Department 



150 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

of Agriculture and his experiment station for information, 
so the housekeeper seeks answers to her problems from the 
Department of Agriculture. 

The Farmers' Bulletins referred to aboye have covered a 
great variety of topics, such as the food value of milk, sugar, 
bread, meats, fruits, vegetables, and eggs; bread and bread 
making; the economical use of meat in the home; cheese 
and its economical uses in the diet; mutton and its value 
in the diet; canned fruits, preserves, and jellies (household 
methods of preparation); the preparation of vegetables for 
the table; corn meal and its uses in the diet; kafir corn and 
cowpeas and ways of using them; and the care of food in 
the home. 

Some of the other popular publications which have 
appeared have had to do with food customs and diet in 
American homes, with green vegetables and their value as 
foodstuffs, and with raisins, figs, and other dried fruits and 
their uses in the diet. 

In connection with information concerning the nature and 
uses of foods and scientific data about them, recipes are 
often included for preparing foods for the table. These re- 
cipes are gathered from many sources; they are carefully 
compared and those are selected for study which represent 
essentially different modes of preparation. Those chosen are 
modified when necessary and are carefully tested and stand- 
ardized before they are published. 

The demand for technical information has been larger than 
the supply in most cases. For the popular publications it 
has been very large indeed, as may be seen from the fact that 
to date over twelve million of the Farmers' Bulletins on food 
and nutrition topics have been needed to meet the requests 
for them from housekeepers, teachers, students, and others, 
which is an average of more than 1 bulletin for every 10 per- 
sons of the ninetjr-odd millions making up the population 
of the United States. The demand for circulars and other 
popular publications on the subject has been correspond- 
ingly great. 

A publication designed to help the housekeeper as well as 
the student to understand the relative value of different foods 
is the series of 15 food and diet charts printed in color and 
showing in graphic form the composition of the common 



The Department of Agriculture and the Housekeeper. 151 

food materials and summarizing some fundamental data 
regarding nutrition and dietary standards. These charts 
might be called "food maps," since they show, in a simple 
way, the kind and proportion of nutrients present in com- 
mon food materials as well as their value as sources of energy 
for body needs. 

The inquiry naturally arises, Can the results of investiga- 
tions and publications such as those enumerated be used to 
the housekeeper's advantage, and are they desired? The 
proof that they are so used is found in the growing interest 
in the subject, in the increased demand for more work of 
broader scope, and, most directly of all, in the very numerous 
letters received from housekeepers and home makers giving 
their opinions as to the work and its importance. An an- 
swer to the first part of the question raised can be given by 
citing some illustrations of ways in which such data on sub- 
jects related to the home have contributed to the solution 
of home problems,, and in the following pages attention is 
directed to some matters of interest to the housekeeper which 
are discussed on the basis of results obtained in the depart- 
ment's studies of nutrition. 

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES AND THEIR RELA- 
TION TO PLANNING MEALS. 

Perhaps no subject is of more interest to the housekeeper 
than the preparation of lood materials which are palatable 
as well as adequate and nourishing. It need hardly be said 
that to be thoroughly satisfactory a diet must do more than 
furnish sufficient building material and energy to meet the 
needs of the body. It must also furnish the material in a 
form in which the body can make use of it without disturbing 
the digestive organs and must be made up of wholesome ma- 
terials, well prepared, and must be palatable, in accord with 
rational dietary habits, and reasonable in cost as compared 
with available income. Individual food materials differ 
somewnat in the ease and readiness with which their nutri- 
ents can be turned to account in the body, but with healthy 
persons these differences are less significant than is commonly 
supposed. Proper preparation is very important, for the 
illness caused by bad cooking must be very great. Some peo- 
ple imagine that there is no particular advantage in making 



152 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

a diet attractive beyond the mere gratification of appetite, 
but physiologists think differently, for scientific research has 
shown that appetizing diets actually stimulate the action of 
digestion. Variety in food is a great aid in making meals 
appetizing and also serves to insure a supply of all the chemi- 
cal ingredients needed. 

To say that a family bill of fare must be appetizing and 
varied does not necessarily mean that it must be costly as 
well. At first sight, it might seem difficult to secure these 
qualities without buying rather expensive materials or serv- 
ing very fancy dishes, but the theory does not hold in the 
case of food any more than in that of clothing and house fur- 
nishings. A hoiise furnished without regard to expense and 
also without intelligence and taste may be a dreary place after 
all, while one furnished with inexpensive materials, chosen by 
a person of experience and taste, may be really beautiful. In 
the same way, meals do not need to be made up of elaborate 
dishes or delicacies in order to be attractive. Indeed, the 
staple food materials skillfully combined and simply but at- 
tractively prepared are more pleasing in the long run than 
elaborate living, and more wholesome as well. Just as the 
test of a woman's ability in dress is to get suitable and attrac- 
tive effects with relatively low expense, so the test of her ca- 
tering ability is to give her family an ample supply of whole- 
some and pleasantly varied meals with an outlay of money 
and time proportionate to her income and circumstances. 
There is nothing new in this ideal; good housekeepers have 
always tried to realize it, and, though they may have been un- 
conscious of its physiological significance, have handed down 
the tradition of such suitably balanced combinations of food 
materials from generation to generation. The novelty lies in 
the fact that science is just catching up with the home makers 
and is finding the reasons for some of the old beliefs, testing 
all, that the useful may be retained, adding to the store of 
useful fact regarding materials and processes, and formulating 
the results of experience and experiment in such a way that 
they may be passed on to those who need the knowledge. 
This has an advantage over tradition only in that it substi- 
tutes exact for general data. It also enables the teacher to 
formulate knowledge so that it may be used in the classroom. 
Not only may the home maker, if for any reason she has not 



The Department of Agriculture and the Housekeeper. 153 

learned her art from the older women in her family, correct 
the deficiency by the study of publications dealing with home- 
making topics, classes for home study, etc., but, more impor- 
tant still, the young generation, facing as it does new condi- 
tions of living, can be grounded in the schools in the principles 
and practices of home making adapted to those conditions. 

Variety in the diet can be secured both by providing differ- 
ent kinds of food and by preparing staple foods in different 
ways, and the best results are obtained by combining both 
methods. When the housekeeper studies the list of common 
foods and the combinations made from them, she will prob- 
ably find that as regards their place in the menu they fall into 
two general groups — those which, like bread, potatoes, milk, 
eggs, etc., have little distinctive taste, and those which, like 
cheese, seasoning vegetables, some sweets, cooked meats, 
etc., have marked and individual flavor. She will further 
find that the mild-flavored materials are the ones which are 
used in the greatest quantities, meal after meal, while those 
of pronounced taste appear in smaller amounts; or some of 
them only occasionally. To put it in another way, she will 
depend largely on the first group to make up the bulk of her 
dietary, and on the second to vary it. In cookery, some foods 
require only simple methods to make them very palatable. 
Tender steaks, or chops, in cooking, develop delicious meat 
flavors and require no highly flavored vegetable seasoning or 
condiments to make them palatable. In themselves they 
furnish flavor sufficient to accompany potatoes, rice, or other 
foods of mild flavor. On the other hand, in stews and other 
dishes made from the cheaper cuts of meat, carrots, onions, 
or other distinctive flavor is usually added to supplement that 
of the meat flavor, for the cheaper cuts are not usually of such 
a texture that the best results can be secured by such simple 
methods as broiling or roasting. Children's preference for 
bread and butter with jam is explained by their unconscious 
desire to add flavor to bulk. The housekeeper who makes a 
dish composed of cheese and macaroni, or of meat and rice or 
potato, etc., applies the same principle. The great varietv 
of pickles, preserves, and elaborate pastry which American 
housekeepers used to consider necessary represented another 
instinctive effort to vary, by adding flavor, the monotonv 
which was inevitable, particularly in winter fare, before the 



154 Yearbook of ike Department of Agriculture. 

days of easy transportation and storage brought fresh fruits 
and vegetables the year round. 

If the good housekeeper analyzes the make-up of her meals 
a little further, she will probably find that she arranges them, 
perhaps unconsciously, according to more or less definite 
principles. In most American families the chief daily 
features of breakfast are bread of some sort with butter, very 
often fruit, and some kind of breakfast cereal, and coffee, tea, 
or cocoa, with their usual accompaniments of sugar and 
milk or cream. This combination is varied by omitting 
either the bread or the cereal (which is logical, if one wishes 
to do it, since they provide the same sort of nutrients, though 
in different form), by changing the kind of bread or cereal, 
or by combining with them some other materials. If the 
members of the family are engaged in much muscular work, 
the meal will b*e made more hearty by the addition of some 
hot dish, as eggs, meat hash, creamed fish, bacon, and pos- 
sibly honey or sirup. If their work is light, however, less 
variety or smaller portions will probably be preferred. 

The custom of serving fruit at breakfast is undoubtedly 
healthful and not extravagant if low-priced fruit is chosen. 
Of course, it may be cooked or canned fruit, if this is more 
convenient. It does not increase the housekeeper's work so 
much if it is served with the other breakfast dishes as it does 
if made a separate course, for each course means extra time 
and service. This is a commonplace illustration of the prin- 
ciple that the housekeeper who has many demands on her 
time or who has limited help should select ways of service 
which are simple and time-saving rather than those suitable 
for families where other conditions prevail. Well carried 
out, the result is pleasing in either case. 

Tea, coffee, or cocoa is usually taken at breakfast and 
other meals as pleasant flavored hot beverages only, and owe 
their food value mainly to the cream, milk, or sugar used 
with them. Cocoa itself has a greater food value, but, if the 
beverage is made with water, the difference in the food value 
of a cupful is not very large, as the amount of cocoa used per 
cup is not great. When made with milk, it is, of course, 
more nutritious. The value of milk as a beverage must not 
be overlooked, especially in the case of children. Skim milk 
is not so hearty as whole milk, but it is still a nutritious food 



The Department of Agriculture and the Housekeeper. 155 

and might well be used more freely than it is, especially 
where economy is necessary. 

Dinner, the heaviest meal of the day, usually has a meat 
or fish dish as its principal item, with vegetables and bread 
and butter, and perhaps a relish, such as jelly, to accompai^ 
it, and a sweet dessert to "top off with." If the rest of her 
dinner is lighter or simpler than usual, a good manager often 
finds it worth while to let a soup precede the meat. This 
adds to the attractiveness of the meal and need not mean 
much extra work. Unless it is a thick broth or is made with 
milk, the soup has little nutritive value, but it is usually 
relished, especially in cold weather, and is often an economi- 
cal way of using up left-overs. The serving of a little soup 
as an appetizer for the first course of dinner is a common 
custom in homes where somewhat elaborate meals are the 
rule. Since it adds little to the nutritive value of the meal, 
the very general omission of soup as a regular part of dinner 
in homes where labor saving is sought is a sensible custom. 
A way of piecing out a very simple meat course is to make 
the vegetables especially attractive and more nutritious, 
perhaps serving escalloped potatoes, which have milk and 
butter added, or macaroni and cheese instead of plain boiled 
potatoes; or, if the family is fond of such things, providing 
some kind of simple vegetable or fruit salad, perhaps as a 
separate course. On the other hand, if some expensive cut, 
such as beefsteak, is the main feature of the meal, the other 
parts of the dinner may be made simpler than usual and the 
total expenditure kept not far from the average, or an expen- 
sive meal on one day may be followed by a judicious 
use of left-overs the next day. In parts of the country where 
good fresh fish is available it makes an excellent substitute 
for meat, for sea food has a similar nutritive value, usually 
costs less, and is quite worthy of more frequent use than is 
common. Dried, pickled, and smoked meat and fish also 
have their uses to vary the diet, and can often be used for 
economical dishes. Cheese, eggs, beans and similar legumes, 
and nuts are other foodstuffs which may be used for the 
preparation of dishes to replace meat if one wishes to do so. 
In choosing the vegetables for a meal, it is worth while to 
remember that potatoes, both white and sweet, the staple 
carbohydrate vegetables, contain much larger proportions 



156 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

of nutrients than most vegetables. They resemble cooked 
macaroni, rice, and hominy in food value, and these can be 
used to take their place when convenience or the wish for 
variety makes this desirable. It would be better judgment 
not to serve several of this group at the same meal, not 
because, as it is sometimes stated in popular literature, the 
body is harmed by receiving several sorts of starch at one 
meal, or because one would overeat of starchy foods, but 
because the meal would be better balanced as well as more 
in accord with good practice if it included other types of 
vegetables instead of duplicating those of similar composi- 
tion. Green vegetables, such as beet tops, kale, spinach, 
chard, and other pot herbs, fruits like tomatoes, green corn, 
green peas, and string beans, and the highly flavored root 
vegetables, such as parsnips and turnips, should be used in 
combination with the more nutritious kinds, not only for the 
sake of their flavor, but also for furnishing the body with 
valuable chemical substances, especially mineral elements. 

Dried beans, peas, cowpeas, and lentils contain a good deal 
of nitrogenous material as well as starch, and can be used 
with economy to lessen the amount of meat. Thus the old 
custom of serving baked beans, peas, and bacon, and similar 
dishes, as the heavy dish of a meal is justified on the ground 
of nutritive value. 

The custom of finishing dinner with a sweet dessert is 
almost universal in this country and is, on the whole, a rea- 
sonable one. Badly cooked pastries and puddings very often 
cause digestive disturbance, but the simpler kinds, properly 
made, are wholesome and are fairly nutritious, and fruits, 
fresh, dried, or cooked, and nuts are always in order and easy 
to serve. The desserts that require much time and labor to 
prepare are usually not worth while for ordinary family use, 
though suitable enough for special occasions. On days when 
the housework is especially heavy it may be good manage- 
ment to substitute fresh fruits or preserves with cakes or 
cookies for a "made " dessert. If the rest of the meal is light, 
a nutritious dessert is in order, and milk, eggs, butter, and 
sugar are ingredients which contribute materially to the food 
value of such dishes. 

Supper is usually a much lighter meal than dinner, 
although in many families it includes one hot dish and a sec- 



The Department of Agriculture and the Housekeeper. 157 

ond course of preserves and cake. Here, as at breakfast, some 
kind of bread with butter and a hot beverage form the basis 
of the meal with an appetizing dish of eggs, meat, cheese, or 
vegetables to supplement them. This is the meal at which 
the capable housekeeper most shows her ability in using up 
left-overs, providing appetizing surprises which do not re- 
quire much new material or time. It is mistaken economy 
to add a good deal of expensive materials in order to use up 
things of little value or to attempt fussy dishes that require 
long preparation. As far as everyday supper is concerned, 
it is usually good policy to avoid elaborate dishes and let the 
most of the time and strength expended for such things go 
to the main meal of the day. This is especially true where 
the women of the family do all the work. 

While noon dinner and supper are the rule in most rural 
districts and smaller communities, in other parts of the coun- 
try, as everyone knows, lunch and evening dinner take their 
place, as is inevitable where the wage earners must be away 
from home all day long. In such cases, what has been said 
about supper applies to lunch. If some of the family carry 
their lunch away with them, bread and butter again form the 
usual basis of the meal, with cold meat, cheese, hard-boiled 
eggs, or some other appetizing as well as nutritious food, 
and perhaps fruit and cake to complete and vary it. 

LABORATORY WORK AND COOKING PROBLEMS. 

Modern science has been applied to the problems of cook- 
ing as in the case of menu making. It explains and tests 
the old-fashioned methods, helps in the finding out of new 
ones, and shows the relation of the preparation of food to 
dietetics, physiology, and hygiene. From the scientist's 
point of view, cooking is, ordinarily, applying heat so that it 
produces desirable physical and chemical changes in the raw 
material. It also sterilizes food, if need be, as any parasites, 
molds, or bacteria, etc., that may be present are destroyed by 
the heat. Sometimes, as in the case of a cereal like oatmeal, 
the consistency of the material is so changed that what 
would otherwise be a hard mass difficult to bring into condi- 
tion to be worked upon by the digestive juices is in proper 
condition for eating. In other cases, as with broiled and 
roasted meats, pleasant flavors are developed. In some 



158 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

instances, as in the case of bread making, the changes are 
much more complicated. The proportion of yeast or other 
leavening agent to be used with different kinds of flour 
and with different methods of mixing dough has been care- 
fully tested in connection with the nutrition investigations, 
as has also the digestibility of bread made from different 
sorts of flour. Well-made bread of all kinds is nutritious 
and very thoroughly digested. The use of several kinds is 
an easy way of securing variety in the diet. 

The effect of cooking upon vegetables has been noted, and 
the reason given for such points as the strong odor and 
supposed indigestibility of cabbage. As the cabbage cooks, 
the heat breaks down the compounds which give the charac- 
teristic flavor to it and volatile bodies are given off, some of 
which contain sulphur. If the cooking is done in a well- 
ventilated place, these persistent odors are carried away. 
If the cabbage is cooked too long, it changes color, any green 
portion becoming yellow or brown, and the white portion 
dark-colored. The flavor also becomes more strong, and 
there is good reason to believe that overcooked cabbage is a 
common cause of any digestive disturbance experienced with 
it and that cabbage cooked only until tender does not cause 
such disturbance. It is generally true that overcooking 
green vegetables should be avoided, as it injures flavor as 
well as appearance. Asparagus, string beans, and green peas 
are vegetables easily injured by too long cooking. They are 
at their best when cooked just long enough to make them 
tender, but not to destroy their attractive color. 

Other technical studies have shown the changes which 
occur when meats are cooked in different ways and the 
digestibility of the different kinds and preparations of meat. 
The results indicate that the differences are much less than is 
commonly supposed, all kinds and cuts prepared in the usual 
ways being very thoroughly digested. 

FOOD AND ITS CARE IN THE HOME. 

People used to think that cleanliness was mainly a matter 
of personal preference. Since the bacteriologists have shown 
that diseases as well as decay and loss of material are often 
caused by micro-organisms which are commonly harbored 
in filth and dirt, we have come to know that dirt is not only 



The Department of Agriculture and the Housekeeper. 159 

disagreeable, but is also dangerous, and that cleanliness is 
nowhere more necessary than in all that pertains to food. 

Perishable food materials are particularly likely to spoil 
if they are exposed to dust or kept in warm, damp places 
which encourage the growth of molds and bacteria. One of 
# the popular bulletins of the department discusses the care 
of food in the home and suggests practical, inexpensive ways 
of keeping it properly. Every up-to-date dairyman and the 
public, too, know the importance of absolute cleanliness in 
handling milk. If one applies the same reasoning to other 
food materials it is evident that the kitchen and pantry 
need to be taken care of as scrupulously as the dairy and that 
the housekeeper ought to be as careful in cooking the food 
she serves as must those who handle milk. So much has 
been said about the danger of flies as carriers of diseases that 
it seems as if everyone must realize the importance of keep- 
ing them out of the house, especially out of that part of it 
where food is kept or eaten; yet thorough screening is still 
far from usual, even in kitchens and dining rooms, and many 
families seem careless of this very real danger. 

AVOIDING WASTE OF MATERIALS AND TIME. 

Another problem which vexes the thrifty housewife is that 
of waste. From the dietary studies conducted by the depart- 
ment, and from other data, it has been estimated that in 
American families the waste varies from practically nothing 
to one-fifth of the edible portion of the food purchased. The 
waste may be due to careless buying, improper storage, buy- 
ing materials which contain large amounts of more or less 
useless substances, such as meat bones or the skins, seeds, or 
tough stems and leaves of vegetables; preparing foods in a 
careless way, so that little is eaten and much wasted; or, 
what is perhaps the most common fault of all in this country, 
providing and serving more than the family will eat and not 
using up all suitable left-overs for making appetizing dishes. 
It takes considerable skill to estimate exactly how much of 
each dish should be prepared for a given meal, but therein 
lies one of the great secrets of economical catering. Such 
skill must be acquired largely by experience, but the more 
the housekeeper knows the ways of observing and recording 
data and of the nature of her materials and their properties. 



160 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

the easier it will be for her to profit by her experience. In- 
formation on these and related topics has been obtained in 
connection with the study of food and nutrition problems. 

The waste of materials is not the only waste that is found 
in the household. There is often a waste of the housekeeper's 
time and strength which, though it may not show in the cash 
account, is just as bad economy. A good housekeeper 
considers the labor involved in preparing a meal just as much 
as she does the materials, and will weigh the question whether 
this simple or that more elaborate dish is really economical 
or worth while when the labor supply is short. She will see 
that the cookstove, sink, cooking table, and other kitchen 
furniture are so placed that she can work conveniently and 
not waste time and strength by walking needlessly from one 
to the other. She will also try to plan the preparation of 
the meals so that one part of the work will dovetail into 
another and, in general, try to make "her head save her 
heels." 

This question of saving work in the kitchen leads to the 
very important one of household conveniences and labor- 
saving devices. The housekeeper on the farm, or in the 
small town, has the advantage of home-grown vegetables 
and other foods, and with a little time and trouble supplies 
her table with much which is costly in larger communities. 
No one can deny, however, that the city housekeeper usually 
has an advantage with respect to conveniences, for her 
kitchen invariably has running water, a good sewerage system, 
and often a gas stove and a convenient ice box, not to men- 
tion its nearness to markets and to bakeries and shops, where 
she can buy things ready to eat in an emergency. In far 
too many rural homes, on the other hand, water must be 
carried in and out, coal or wood and ashes must be carried 
long distances, and often even such simple conveniences as 
sinks, window boxes for keeping food cool, etc., are not found. 
Although it is often harder to get help in the country than in 
town, and outside aids to housekeeping, such as laundries, 
are seldom accessible, there are generally fewer of the labor- 
saving devices, such as washing machines and other laundry 
devices and labor-saving cooking utensils, in use in the coun- 
try than in town households of corresponding means. Many 
progressive farmers realize that it is not only unfair but poor 



The Department of Agriculture and the Housekeeper. 161 

economy in the end not to give the housekeeper her share of 
new equipment. Family welfare depends much more upon 
having the home maker in good health and spirits than it 
does upon a few extra dollars in the bank, and making the 
farm as attractive as circumstances allow is one of the surest 
ways of preventing the children from becoming dissatisfied 
with country life. Information on such matters as home 
conveniences is contained in bulletins which the Department 
of Agriculture has issued. 

CONCLUSION. 

This survey of some of the results of the nutrition investi- 
gations and of the problems to the discussion of which the 
nutrition publications contribute shows how the whole 
question of home betterment is bound up with food and its 
preparation. If the housewife can learn to make a wiser use 
of her resources and can economize her time and strength 
by careful planning and by adopting labor-saving devices, 
she can provide her family with as wholesome and econom- 
ical and at the same time more healthful meals, and can 
lessen her household labors, and so can have more leisure 
and energy to cultivate other interests also. 

The Department of Agriculture feels that one of the most 
interesting results of its work is that people at large have 
come to regard it as a bureau of information. This is as 
true of the studies of food and its nutritive value and other 
features which bear on domestic science as of any other 
branch of its work, and it is a gratification to find that each 
year more housekeepers present their problems and ask for 
information regarding food and other matters of home man- 
agement. Such close relations with the housekeeper and 
with educational institutions seem to demonstrate not only 
that this work of the department for the homemaker is of 
scientific value, but also that it is of direct practical aid to 
the housekeepers of the United States in their efforts for 
efficient and rational home life. 

No one realizes more clearly than those concerned in it 
how broad is the field for such work and how few relatively 
of the housekeeper's problems have had the careful study 
which they merit. Clothing, household equipment, labor- 
saving devices, home conveniences, home sanitation and 

27306°— TBK 1913 11 



162 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

hygiene, the relation of right methods of work to the preven- 
tion of fatigue — these are some of the topics which are as 
much in need of study as are questions of food and economics 
of the household. Methods of study and ways of bringing 
the results of laboratory research to the housekeeper already 
tried and found good in department work are available and 
as well adapted to the study of these problems as to those in 
which they have been already tested. It speaks well for the 
housekeeper's interests in the future that the Department of 
Agriculture is giving the matter attention and endeavoring 
so to adjust its activities that it may still further meet the 
housekeeper's needs, for it realizes that the housekeeper is 
the great factor in determining the use of agricultural prod- 
ucts, and, more important still, that in her hands is the 
welfare of the family. 



PRACTICAL TREE SURGERY. 

By J. Franklin Collins, 
Forest Pathologist, Bureau of Plant Industry. 

INTRODUCTION. 

SOME eminent botanical writers have stated that if all 
the external factors which influence the growth of a 
tree are favorable there is no theoretical reason why it should 
not live in a healthy condition and increase in size indefinitely. 
These statements obviously are based upon the well-known 
fact that the increase in the size of. a tree trunk is due mainly 
to the new layer of wood which is formed each year beneath 
the bark on the outside of the old wood. If a tree were 
never attacked by insects or by organisms which cause 
decay, never injured or broken by storms or mutilated by 
men or animals, there undoubtedly would be a much greater 
number of large and healthy trees than exist at the present 
time. Probably no tree ever experienced the ideal condi- 
tions suggested above, not even for a comparatively brief 
period of its existence. Consequently, the conditions that 
we commonly regard as normal or average for tree growth 
are really far from ideal. Throughout its life a tree is sub- 
ject to injury by insects, mechanical forces, and disease. 
Again, trees, like human beings, may become unhealthy as 
a result of improper food, air, or water, or an insufficient 
amount of either, or they may become sickly and die from 
the effects of noxious gases. 

In considering the subject of tree surgery it is important, 
first, to become familiar in a general way with the parts of 
a tree which are directly involved, their structure, their 
importance to a living tree, and how they are affected by the 
surgical methods employed. Owing to the lack of this 
knowledge, many serious blunders have been made in connec- 
tion with the care of mutilated, injured, and diseased trees. 

163 



164 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

PARTS OF A TREE AND HOW THEY WORK. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION. 

A tree is composed of three main parts — the root, the stem 
(trunk and branches), and the leaf. The roots serve not only 
for anchorage, but are the main passages for the entrance of 
water into a tree. Practically no water enters elsewhere. 
It enters chiefly through the very small roots, passes into the 
larger roots, then up the trunk, and out into the larger and 
smaller branches to the leaves. In moving from the roots to 
the leaves it passes mainly through the sapwood (PI. XVI, 
fig. 1,6), that portion of the wood which lies immediately 
beneath the bark and cambium. The sapwood is of a lighter 
color in many trees than the heartwood (PI. XVI, fig. 1, a) 
in the central portion of the trunk and limbs, and varies 
in thickness from a quarter of an inch to 2 inches or more, 
according to the kind of tree. The heartwood is practically 
dead tissue and gives rigidity to the tree. It is not active 
in conducting sap, and thus it may often be partially or com- 
pletely removed without causing serious injury to the tree 
beyond impairing its strength. 

Not so with the sapwood, for if any great amount of this, 
as measured around the trunk, is removed, the tree may be 
seriously injured or killed. Since the sap moves upward 
primarily through the microscopic tubes which run length- 
wise in the sapwood of roots, trunk, and limbs, it is possible 
to remove a long and narrow strip of sapwood extending par- 
allel with these tubes with less injury to the tree than would 
result from cutting out a shorter and smaller, but broader, 
area to an equal depth. This is due to the fact that the 
broader cut severs and renders useless a greater number of 
these sap-conducting tubes. 

When the water finally reaches the leaves, the larger part 
of it escapes in the form of vapor. Unless the water which is 
lost by evaporation is promptly and constantly replaced 
from the soil by the roots, wilting will result. Should this 
wilted condition continue for any great length of time the 
tree, or portions of it, may be permanently injured. Wilting 
may also result from certain abnormal conditions, such as a 
sudden application of common salt or other chemicals to the 
soil around the roots, or the removal of portions of the sap- 
wood, or the cutting of the roots. 



Practical Tree Surgery. 165 

The tree manufactures its own food. In its simpler forms 
this consists of sugar and starch, which are made from car- 
bonic-acid gas and water. This work is done only during 
daylight and almost entirely in the green leaves. Mineral 
substances are dissolved in the water which enters the tree 
from the ground. Some of these are of vital importance to 
the tree and are used in the making of certain more complex 
kinds of food, though not in the formation of sugar and 
starch. When formed, the foods are carried through micro- 
scopic conducting tubes in the inner bark to those parts of 
the tree where growth and repair are actively going on and 
are soon transformed into new tissues or stored at convenient 
places for future use. While being transported, the foods are 
dissolved in water, which is present in great abundance in 
all living parts of the tree. 

If a ring of bark completely encircling (girdling) a limb be 
removed, practically all of the food matter formed in the 
leaves beyond the girdled area will remain in the limb. This 
usually results in an enlargement of the limb immediately 
above the girdled area or in an unusual enlargement of fruits 
or flowers, provided there are many healthy leaves and only a 
few fruits or flowers beyond the girdled area. The flow of 
water in the sapwood from the roots to the leaves is not 
immediately affected to any extent by removing the bark, 
although the limb later dies as the sapwood becomes dry 
beneath the girdled area. If both bark and sapwood are 
removed, the limb beyond dies very soon. 

CAMBIUM. 

From the standpoint of tree surgery the most important 
portion of a tree is the very thin, usually watery, layer of 
young tissue located between the bark and wood of all healthy 
parts of a tree. This is the cambium (PI. XVI, fig. 1, c). 
It is the layer that splits or slips so easily when the bark is 
removed in making the familiar willow whistles in the spring. 
During the growing season it is constantly giving rise to new 
cells on both sides; on the outer to new layers of bark cells, 
on the inner to new layers of wood cells. This results in the 
youngest wood being on the outside of the old wood and the 
youngest bark on the inside of the old bark. If a portion of 



166 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

the cambium is killed, no more new wood or bark can again 
be formed under or over this area. The living cambium 
surrounding the dead area will, however, give rise each year 
to a new layer of wood and bark unless growth is inhibited 
by disease or further injury. This new growth will grad- 
ually push out over the dead area and may eventually cover 
it (PI. XVI, figs. 2, 3, and 5). Such dead spots furnish 
favorable points for the entrance of insects and organisms 
which cause decay. 

The formation of all new wood and baric and the healing 
over of all cut stubs and dead areas are due solely to the 
activity of the living cambium; consequently, it is of utmost 
importance that the cambium be protected from injury at all 
times. Many failures in tree-surgery work have been due 
wholly to injuries to the cambium. During the winter the 
cambium remains alive but inactive, and is then least liable 
to injury. In the spring, when the buds and leaves are 
unfolding, it contains much water, is actively growing, and 
is then most susceptible to injury. 

CORKY OUTER BARK. 

The oldest bark is on the surface of the trunk and limbs 
and is composed of dead, corky tissues which are constantly 
being worn away in the form of small fragments by the action 
of wind, rain, and other external agencies (see PI. XVI, 
fig. 1, e). Parasitic diseases and organisms which cause 
decay can rarely gain entrance into the interior of a trunk 
or limb if this dead, corky bark and the cambium beneath 
it remain uninjured. 

OBJECT OF TREE SURGERY. 

It is a well-known fact that trees are subject to all sorts 
of injuries, from sources too numerous to mention. In a 
great majority of cases these injuries are allowed to remain 
untreated — often for years. Rot-producing fungi commonly 
gain entrance at these places, and eventually the original 
inconspicuous or unobserved injury develops into a com- 
paratively large area of decay. The real aim of tree surgery 
is to repair the damage resulting from such neglected injuries 
and rotted areas. 



Practical Tree Surgery. 167 

PRINCIPLES INVOLVED. 

In most tree-surgery work a few fundamental principles 
must be observed in order that permanent good results may 
be realized. These may be summarized as follows: (1) 
Remove all decayed, diseased, or injured wood and bark. 
When on small limbs, this can often best be done by removing 
the limb. On larger limbs or on the trunk it may at times 
mean the digging out of a cavity. (2) Sterilize all cut sur- 
faces. (3) Waterproof all cut surfaces. (4) Leave the work 
in the most favorable condition for rapid healing. This will 
often mean the filling of deep cavities. (5) Watch the work 
from year to year for defects. If any appear they should 
be attended to immediately. 

QUALIFICATIONS OF WORKMEN. 

Tree surgery, or, more properly, tree repair work, is not a 
mysterious art known only to a favored few who alone are 
fitted to undertake it, as some interested persons would have 
tree owners believe. It can be undertaken by any careful 
man who has a good general knowledge of the structure and 
life history of a tree, its normal manner of covering wounds, 
and how insects and decay organisms cause damage, provided 
he can handle a gouge and mallet, a saw, and a tar brush and 
applies in a practical manner his knowledge of the anatomy 
of a tree, together with a generous admixture of good com- 
mon sense. For work in the tops of trees he will also need a 
clear head and ability to climb. Many tree owners and many 
persons in charge of private estates are well qualified to under- 
take tree surgery if the requisite time is available and they 
will familiarize themselves with the fundamental principles 
and operations underlying the work, at least to the extent 
presented in this article. 

The impression should not be gathered from what has 
just been said that there is no advantage in practice and 
training of the proper kind. On the contrary (in commer- 
cial work, particularly) , practice and training develop speed 
in working and quickness in determining the right thing to 
be done, but they do not necessarily mean any greater care 
or thoroughness in the work. It is safe to say that a man 
who takes care of his own trees or carefully supervises the 



168 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

work of those attending to them will be likely to know 
definitely whether or not the work is thoroughly and prop- 
erly done. 

METHODS IN TREE SURGERY. 

PREVENTIVE MEASURES. 

It is no easy matter to find a place where the well-worn 
phrase "prevention is better than cure" could be applied 
with greater appropriateness than in connection with tree 
surgery. Ice or wind may break limbs or uproot trees which 
injure others as they fall. Horses commonly gnaw away 
portions of the bark of street trees unprotected by tree 
guards. Telephone, telegraph, and electric linemen with 
their climbing spurs and saws are notorious mutilators of 
shade trees, especially in towns where the trimming of trees 
is not regulated by law. Poorly insulated electric wires of 
high voltage often discharge heavy currents through the 
trees. Wheel hubs frequently tear away large pieces of 
bark. After a few years, decay may penetrate into the 
interior of the tree from any or all of these injured places 
(PI. XVI, fig. 4) . This decay may increase from year to year 
until large limbs, or the trunk itself, become so weakened 
that they are easily broken by violent storms (PI. XVI, fig. 6) . 
It requires comparatively little time and expense to clean 
and paint a fresh injury. It often requires much time and 
expense to treat properly the same injury after it has been 
neglected for a few years. Almost every large decayed 
cavity has resulted from an injury which would have 
required comparatively little time and effort to clean, ster- 
ilize, and waterproof at the time it occurred. The most 
economical and reliable remedy for a decayed area consists 
in attending to an injury as soon as it is made, perhaps 
20 or 30 years before it becomes a menace to the tree. This 
fact should never be forgotten by tree owners or persons 
who are charged with the care of trees. If put into prac- 
tice, it will insure a profit of many hundred per cent on the 
original outlay. 

TYPES AND SCOPE OF WORK. 

In its simplest type, tree surgery, as it is popularly under- 
stood at the present time, consists in removing dead or 
decayed limbs or stubs from a tree and treating the scar 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XVI. 




Properly Treated Injuries, Showing Normal Healing, and Untreated 
Injuries, Showing Normal Progress of Decay. 

Fig. 1.— Cross section of a tree trunk showing location of parts: a, heartwood; 6, sapwood; c, 
cambium; d, bark; e, corky outer bark. Fig. 2.— A scar beginning to heal over. (Note that 
it heals more rapidly at the sides than at the top and bottom.) Fig. 3.— A scar about three- 
quarters healed over. Fig. 4. — Cross section of a 7-year-old blaze on a quaking aspen which 
has nearly healed over. ( Note the large area of decay which originated at the ax cut. The 
lino on the wood indicates the proper shape of the cavity if this had been excavated.) Fig. 
5.— A scar from a cut limb entirely nealed over. Fig. 6.— End of a log, showing a small open- 
ing into the large decayed area; only a shell of sound wood remains. 






Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XVII. 




Removal of Large Limbs, Showing Proper and Improper Methods. 

Fig. 1. — A heavy limb improperly cut, showing the stripping ns the limb falls. (Compare 
with Figs. 2, 5, and 4.) Fig. 2. — Removing a heavy limb; thefirsteutontheundersideisto 
prevent stripping. Fig. 3. — Removing a heavy limb; the oval scar has been somewhat 

f)ointed with a gouge above and below to facilitate healing. F'ig. 4. — Removing a heavy 
imb; tho third cut to remove the stub shown in fig. 5 has been completed. Fig. 5.— Remov- 
ing a heavy limb; the second cuteompleted; the limb has fallen withoutany stripping. Fig. 
6. — Improperly cut and untreated stubs. The bark of these stubs died mainly as a result 
of severing all the food-producing organs (leaves) above: decay has entered the trunk from 
these stubs. (Note that the successive stages in removing a heavy limb are shown in figs. 
2,o, 4, and 3, in the order indicated.) 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XVIII. 




Long Cavities Excavated through Several Openings and a Short Cavity 
Excavated through One Opening. 

Fig. 1.— Cavities in two trees excavated through small openings cut in the trunk. It would 
be better to make the openings oval and pointed rather than square or round. Fig. 2.— 
An old injury caused by horses gnawing the bark. Fig. 3.— The injur}- shown in fig. 2 exca- 
vated and ready for tarring prior to filling. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XIX. 




Detailed Views of Excavated, Bolted, and Cemented Cavities. 

Fig. i. — Cross section of a young tree trunk showing how the new wood and bark prow into an 
unfilled cavity from the'margin. (The line on the wood indicates the amount of excavating 
that would be needed before filling the cavity.) Fig. 2.— Cross section of a cavity in a trunk, 
snowing the mannerof usingasingle-headed bolt and of placing nails when there is little or no 
undercutting. Fig. 3.— Cross section of a tree trunk showing the manner of using two sin- 
gle-headed bolts to brace a cavity. Fig. 4.— The oval washer (the best kind to use) showing 
the proper method of countersinking and bolting. (Compare also figs. 2 and 3.) Fig. 5.— 
Cross section of the tree trunk shown in fig. 2 after it is filled with cement. (Note that the 
surface of the cement conforms with the general shape of the woody portion of the trunk and 
reaches only to thecambium.) 



Practical Tree Surgery. 169 

with an antiseptic and waterproof covering to prevent decay 
while healing. Another type consists in cutting out the 
decayed and diseased matter in trees and filling the cavities 
with cement or other material to facilitate the normal 
healing-over process. This is often referred to as "tree 
dentistry," a term which very aptly indicates the character 
of the work. Filled cavities do not increase the strength of 
the trunk or limb to the extent that is generally supposed. 

DEAD OR DISEASED BRANCHES. 

The work under this heading can be regarded as compris- 
ing but two essential operations: (1) Removing the branches 
in a manner that will prevent injury to the surrounding bark 
and cambium, and (2) sterilizing and waterproofing the scars. 

REMOVING BEANCHES. 

For the work of removing branches, the most essential im- 
plements are a good-sized saw with teeth so set as to make 
a wide cut, a gouge, a chisel, a mallet, and a strong knife. 
For cutting limbs near the ground these are the only neces- 
sary implements. For limbs situated elsewhere a ladder 
may be needed; also, at times, a rope. 

A large limb should never be removed by sawing through 
from the upper side, as this usually strips the bark and wood 
below the scar (PI. XVII, fig. 1) . The proper way is to make 
the first saw cut on the under side, from 6 inches to a foot 
beyond the point where the final cut is to be made (PI. XVII, 
fig. 2) . It should reach from one-fourth to one-half through 
the limb. A good time to stop cutting is when the saw 
becomes pinched in the cut. The second cut is made on 
the upper side of the limb, an inch or two beyond the first 
one. This is continued until the limb falls (PI. XVII, fig. 5). 
After the limb has fallen, a third cut is made close to the 
trunk and in line with its woody surface (PI. XVII, fig. 4). 
When nearly sawed through, the stub must be supported until 
completely severed, so as to avoid any possibility of strip- 
ping the bark below as it falls (PI. XVII, fig. 1). The first 
and second cuts to prevent stripping may be omitted when 
small limbs which can beheld firmly in place until completely 
severed are being cut. 



170 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

When the scar is not naturally pointed above and below, 
it is a good practice on most trees to remove a short trian- 
gular piece of bark from the upper edge of the scar and 
another from the lower edge (PL XVII, fig. 3), so as to an- 
ticipate its dying back at these points. This makes the scar 
pointed at both ends, the most favorable shape for healing. 
It is important that some good shellac be applied with a 
suitable brush over the edge of the bark, especially the 
cambium, immediately after the cut is made. If the scar 
is a large one, it is a good plan to use the knife for one or 
two minutes and then shellac the freshly cut surfaces, re- 
peating the operation until all the bark around the scar has 
been shellacked. The full benefit of the shellac will not be 
achieved if many minutes elapse between the cutting and 
the shellacking, unless the freshly cut surfaces are visibly 
moist with sap. 

If necessary, the woody surface of the scar may now be 
smoothed off with a chisel and mallet to conform in general 
shape with the tree trunk. It is bad practice to leave a stub 
projecting from a trunk, as shown in Plate XVII, figure 6. 

ANTISEPTIC AND WATERPROOF DRESSINGS. 

The final operation is to sterilize and waterproof the surface 
of the exposed wood and bark. For this purpose many prep- 
arations have been used. Recent extensive tests by special- 
ists in timber preservation indicate that some of the creosotes 
stand far ahead of all other tested preparations in their power 
to destroy and prevent the growth of certain wood-destroying 
fungi and that ordinary creosote, although it does not head 
the list, is far better than other preparations except some of 
the less known and less available creosotes. Furthermore, 
creosote penetrates the wood better than a watery anti- 
septic. In using commercial creosote, it can be applied with 
an ordinary paint brush over every part of the exposed 
wood. The entire shellacked and creosoted surface must 
finally be waterproofed by painting it with heavy coal tar. 
A single application of a mixture of creosote and coal tar 
(about one-fourth or one-third creosote) has been quite ex- 
tensively used with good results. Although one coating of 
this mixture may at times be sufficient, it is always safer 
to follow it with a heavy coat of coal tar. 



Practical Tree Surgery. 171 

A good grade of lead paint can be substituted for the tar, 
if desired, although it is not generally considered as satis- 
factory; or grafting wax may serve satisfactorily for small 
surfaces. Asphalt and various preparations containing 
asphalt are excellent waterproof coverings and would doubt- 
less be more generally used were it not necessary to apply 
them hot. A good and possibly more permanent method 
of treating the scars is to char the surface slightly with a 
gasoline or alcohol blast torch and then cover the hot surface 
with heavy tar or hot asphalt. Although heat is an ex- 
cellent sterilizing agent, it does not penetrate so well as 
creosote and it kills back the cambium to a greater extent. 

Permanent waterproofing can be secured only when the 
treated surfaces are watched from year to year and recoated 
when any tendency to crack or peel is observed. This is an 
important step, which is almost invariably neglected by tree 
owners and tree surgeons. 

TREATMENT OF CAVITIES. 

During the last few years there has been a widespread 
popular interest in the treatment of decayed places in old 
trees. Many inquiries addressed to the Department of 
Agriculture refer solely to methods employed in cementing 
cavities. This is a logical result of the present extensive 
use of cement in filling tree cavities. This type of work will 
first be considered. It can be regarded as comprising three 
essential operations: (1) Removing all decayed and dis- 
eased matter, (2) sterilizing and waterproofing all cut sur- 
faces, and (3) filling the cavity in a manner that will favor 
rapid healing and exclude rot-producing organisms. 

TOOLS. 

The necessary tools for digging out decayed matter are 
few. As a rule, two outside-ground socket-handled gouges 
(one with a curved cutting edge of about three-fourths of an 
inch and the other, perhaps, 1J inches), a chisel, a mallet, 
a knife, and an oilstone are sufficient for ordinary work. 
The gouges, chisel, and knife should never be used near the 
cambium when they lack a keen edge, as dull tools will 
injure it. In cutting out deep cavities, longer interchange- 
able handles for the gouges may be necessary. A ladder or 



172 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

a stepladder will be required if the work is more than 5 feet 
from the ground. 

EXCAVATING. 

Usually an old decayed spot may be partially or wholly 
covered by a new growth of wood and bark at the edges 
and the visible decayed area be small as compared with that 
which is hidden. (See PI. XVI, figs. 4 and 6.) In such cases 
it is usually necessary to enlarge the opening with the gouges 
and mallet in order to make sufficient room in which to use 
the gouges in the interior. This opening should not be any 
wider than is necessary, for reasons already stated in dis- 
cussing sapwood, but it may be sufficiently long to reach all 
the decayed and diseased heartwood with little or no addi- 
tional injury to the tree. 

If the decayed and diseased wood extends some distance 
above or below the external opening, it is a common practice 
to cut one or more holes above or below the main opening 
in order to facilitate the removal of the diseased wood 
(PL XVIII, fig. 1) . This results in one or more bridges of wood 
and bark spanning the long interior cavity. This practice is 
of doubtful value, partly because it is often impossible to 
see whether the diseased wood has been entirely removed 
from the under side of the bridges, but mainly because there 
is a strong tendency in most trees for the bark and sapwood 
of the bridges to die and decay as a result of severing the 
sap-conducting tubes both above and below. If the holes are 
pointed above and below, there is less trouble from this 
source. A practice that permits a more thorough cleaning 
out of the cavity is to make a narrow opening, pointed at 
both ends and sufficiently long to include all the diseased 
wood. This often extends some distance above and below 
the visible discolored area. 

The most important feature of this stage of the work is to 
remove all the diseased and insect-eaten wood (PI. XVIII, 
figs. 2 and 3). This excavating must continue on all sides of 
the cavity until sound, uninfected wood is reached. (See 
PI. XVI, fig. 4.) All discolored or water-soaked heartwood 
should be removed, as this is the region inVhich the rot- 
producing fungus is most active. In decayed areas of many 
years' standing there may be only a thin shell of uninfected 
wood around the cavity (PI. XVI, fig. 6) , in which case there is 



Practical Tree Surgery. 173 

danger of the tree being broken by storms unless braced or 
guyed, as indicated later under "Guying." 

DRAINAGE. 

The bottom and all other parts of the cavity should be so 
shaped that if water were thrown into the cavity it would 
promptly run out and none remain in any hollow. This fea- 
ture is commonly called "drainage." It is bad practice to 
have a deep water pocket at the bottom of a cavity with 
drainage through an auger hole bored from the exterior. 
An open hole of 'this sort often becomes a favorable lodging 
place for insects or fungous spores. 

UNDERCUTTING. 

Another important point to be borne in mind in shaping 
a cavity that is to be filled is to have the sides undercut if 
possible, so as to hold the filling firmly in place. Care must 
be taken, however, not to have the wood at the edges of the 
opening very thin, as this promotes the drying out of the 
bark and sapwood at these points. Ordinarily the edges 
should be at least three-fourths of an inch thick; an inch and 
a half would be better (PI. XVI, fig. 4, and PI. XIX, fig. 1). 
Inrolled bark at the edges of an opening should be cut back 
in nearly parallel radial planes, as a rule, to a point which 
will permit the surface of the completed cement filling to 
conform with and continue across the cavity the general con- 
tour of the woody part of the trunk (PI. XIX, fig. 1). If it is 
not possible to undercut sufficiently to hold the filling firmly 
in place, the alternative method described under "Nailing" 
can be adopted (PI. XIX, fig. 2). 

As already stated, great care must be exercised in working 
around the cambium, and all cutting tools must be kept 
very sharp. The final cutting along the edges of the bark 
and sapwood can usually best be made with a very sharp 
knife. This cutting must be followed immediately by a 
coating of shellac, which should cover the edges of both 
bark and sapwood. 

BOLTING. 

Before cementing a long cavity it is advisable to place 
through it one or more bolts, so as to hold the wood and 
cement more firmly in place. A cavity 2 feet or less in 



174 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

length will not usually require a bolt, but long cavities, as a 
general rule, should be bolted every 18 to. 24 inches. Often- 
times a single bolt can be placed so as to support both sides 
(PI. XIX, fig. 2) . In certain cavities it may be necessary to 
place bolts at different angles (PL XIX, fig. 3). In any case 
a strip of uninjured cambium at least an inch wide should 
be left between the edge of the cavity and the bolt. On 
medium-sized trunks, after deciding where the bolts can 
most efficiently be placed, a very sharp half-inch bit, suffi- 
ciently long to reach through the trunk and cavity, can be 
used to bore the hole for the bolt. On large, heavy trunks 
a larger bit should be used. Heavy oval or round iron or 
steel washers, about three times the diameter of the bolt, 
should be countersunk into the wood by carefully cutting 
away the bark at both ends of the hole with a sharp gouge 
or chisel (PI. XIX, figs. 2, 3, and 4) . The washers should 
be heavy and ample, but not so broad as to necessitate 
cutting away a large piece of bark. In most trees when 
round washers are used it is advisable to have this counter- 
sunk area somewhat pointed above and below the washer, for 
reasons already mentioned. By holding the two washers 
in place, the length of the steel machine bolt can be deter- 
mined by measuring through the hole. The bolt must be 
thick enough to fit snugly in the hole and should project 
beyond each washer for at least one-fourth inch. The thread 
at each end of the bolt must be sufficiently long to permit 
drawing in the sides of the cavity a little as the nuts are 
screwed up against the washers. A chamfered single- 
headed bolt may be used, if preferred. Before the bolts are 
finally put in place the countersunk cuts and bolt boles 
should be tarred or creosoted, and after the bolts are in 
place all exposed parts of the bolts and nuts should be 
tarred. 

All split cavities must be securely bolted, particularly 
near the upper part. If the split comes from a crotch, all 
decayed and diseased wood should be removed from the 
split and creosote and tar applied, after which it can be 
bolted just beneath the crotch, so as to close the crack or 
at least bring the parts back to their normal position in case 
decayed matter has been excavated from the crack. If the 
split is a recent one, a washing of creosote only will usually 



Practical Tree Surgery. 175 

be sufficient before drawing the sides together with bolts. 
Under certain conditions, particularly in large trees, it may 
be necessary to use a rope and tackle blocks to pull the limbs 
together some distance above the crotch, in order to properly 
close the crack before bolting it. When the tackle blocks 
are used, care must be taken to have an abundance of 
bagging or other padding between the bark of the limbs and 
the encircling ropes. All exposed edges of- the crack must 
now be covered with thick tar. Limbs above split crotches 
may be guyed. If there is a cavity in the crotch, the limbs 
above it must be guyed before this cavity is filled. 

NAILING. 

If the cavity has a comparatively large opening or has 
little or no undercutting, it is the custom to drive flat- 
headed wire nails into the wood in the interior in order to 
hold the cement filling firmly in place. In medium-sized 
cavities nails 2\ or 3 inches long are usually driven into 
the wood for about half their length (PI. XIX, fig. 2). The 
heads of the nails finally are completely embedded in the 
cement (PI. XIX, fig. 5). If the cavity is already bolted, it 
may not be necessary to use many nails, because the bolts 
help to hold the cement in place. 

TREATING. 

After the decayed and diseased matter has been com- 
pletely excavated and the edges of the sapwood and bark 
shellacked, the next step is to sterilize the interior of the 
cavity in order that all germs of disease or decay which are 
present may be killed and that any which may come in con- 
tact with the cut surfaces during subsequent operations may 
be destroyed. As already stated, creosote appears to be one 
of the best preparations to use. Every cut part of the 
wood and bark must be creosoted, and over this a heavy 
coating of tar or hot asphalt should be applied before the 
cavity is filled. 

MIXING THE CEMENT. 

A good grade of Portland cement and clean, sharp sand 
free from loam (1 part of cement to 3 or less of sand) should 
be used. The mixing can be done in a mortar bin, a wheel- 



176 Yearbook of {he Department of Agriculture. 

barrow, a pail, or in. any other available receptacle tbat is 
sufficiently large. A quantity of dry cement and sand suffi- 
cient to fill the cavity should be thoroughly mixed before 
the requisite amount of water to make a rather stiff mortar 
is added and the whole mixture worked to an even con- 
sistency. In large cavities fine gravel free from loam is 
sometimes substituted for the sand. 

CEMENTING. 

For placing the mixture in the cavity a mason's flat trowel 
and an ordinary garden trowel with a curved blade will be 
found convenient. A tamping stick, 1 or 2 inches thick and 
1 to 3 feet long, according to the size of the cavity, will be 
needed; also some rocks and a pail of water if the cavity is a 
large one. A layer of cement 2 or 3 inches deep can now be 
placed in the bottom of the cavity with the garden trowel 
and tamped firmly in place. This operation is repeated until 
the cement is 8 to 12 inches thick. Wet rocks of various sizes 
may be embedded in the cement provided they do not reach 
within an inch or two of its outer face. If the mixture is too 
wet, it will tend to run out of the cavity under the operation 
of tamping. If too little water has been used, it will not pack 
down promptly. The top of the 8 to 12 inch block of cement 
is then smoothed with the flat trowel so that it will slant 
slightly downward from back to front, in order to facilitate 
drainage. Over the top of this cement block a double or 
single sheet of tarred roofing (or thinner) paper is placed after 
it has been cut so as to fit the cavity. On top of this, another 
block of cement is built as soon as the first block is sufficiently 
hard to stand the weight and tamping without forcing any of 
it out at the bottom of the cavity. If the interior of the 
cavity extends well above the level of the external opening, it 
may occasionally be necessary to bore or cut a downward 
slanting hole from the outside to the top of the interior cavity, 
through which a watery mixture of cement may be poured to 
fill the upper part of the cavity and the hole. The main 
opening of the cavity must be completely closed with the 
stiffer cement before this watery mixture is introduced. 
When a block of the cement has partially hardened, it will 
be necessary to carefully smooth the outer surface or cut it 
down with the flat trowel to the level of the cambium, taking 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XX. 




Cement Cavity Fillings, Showing Different Types and Successive Stages. 

Fig. 1.— A large cavity in an elm filled with cement blocks separated bv layers of tarred 
paper. Fig. 2.— An excavated cavity ready for treating and filling. Fig. 3.— The cavity 
shown in fig. 2, which has been nailed and partly filled with cement. The ends of the rods 
for reinforcing the concrete are sprung into shallow holes in the wood. The wire dam is 
sometimes allowed to remain embedded in the cement, though it is usually removed as soon 
as the cement has partially set. Fig. 4.— A later stage of the work shown in fig. 3. The 
height of the wire dam has been increased. Fig. 5.— The same cavity shown in figs. 2, 3, 
and 4, several days after the filling was completed. 






Yea'book U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1 91 3. 



Plate XXI. 




A Damaged Cement Filling, Types of Uncemented Cavities, and Cross 
Section Showing Method of Attaching a Guy Chain. 

A cement filling badly shattered by cold weather and swaying of the tree. Fig. 2.— 
ross section of a tree trunk, showing method of covering cavities with sheet metal. Fig. 3. — 
Section of a tree trunk, showing a simple method of attaching a guy chain to a hook bolt. 
Fig. 4. — \ long cavity with nails and cement reinforcing rods in place, ready for filling. 
This cavity should have been bolted. Fig. 5.— An open shallow cavity ready for creosote 
and tar. Shallow cavities of this type are not usually filled with cement. 



Fig 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 1913. 



Plate XXII. 




Views Showing Proper Method of Fastening Guy Chains and Bolts and 
Improper Method of Attaching Wires. 



Fig. 1.— Limbs of an elm guyed by several Independent eha 

rig. 2.— A split crotch that has been guyed l>y means of a Ion 



hains 1") feet above the crotches. 

. . .1 guyed by means of a long bolt about Is inches above the 

crotch. J-ig. .!.— A tupelo tree nearly strangled bv telegraph wires wrapped arr.ntid the 



Practical Tree Surgery. 177 

great care that the latter is not injured in the operation 
(PL XIX, fig. 5, and PI. XX, fig. 1 ). If the cement is allowed 
to become too hard to trim with the trowel, it can still, with 
more or less difficulty, be cut back to the cambium line with 
a cold chisel and hammer. It is a rule with most tree sur- 
geons to trim back the outer surface of the cement to an eighth 
of an inch or more below the cambium and then use a layer 
of stronger cement (one part of cement to one to two of sand) 
to raise it to the level of the cambium, after the filling has 
partially hardened. 

The thinner mixtures of cement will set more firmly. If 
any mixtures thinner than the one already mentioned are 
used to fill a cavity, some sort of cloth or wire dam will have 
to be used to hold the cement in place until it is hard. For 
this purpose strips of burlap wrapped tightly around the tree 
so as to cover the lover part of the opening may be sufficient 
if the mixture is not very thin; otherwise, a more closely 
woven fabric, ouch as canvas or carpet, may be used. This 
dam at first should cover about a foot of the lower part of the 
opening. The cavity is then filled with cement to the top of 
the dam. Wet rocks may be embedded in the cement if they 
are kept well back from the face of the filling. The top is 
smoothed and covered with tarred paper, as already described, 
the height of the dam is increased, and the operation repeated. 
Before the cement has become too hard, the dam is removed 
and the surface of the cement finished in the usual manner, 
either to the level of the cambium at once, or it may be cut a 
little farther back and a finishing layer of stronger cement 
applied to bring the surface to the proper level. The surface 
of the cement must be wet before the stronger finishing layer 
is applied. 

A very large proportion of the cemented cavities which are 
seen in trees at the present time are made in one piece, with- 
out the use of tarred-paper partitions. Long cavities of this 
sort are particularly subject to the defects mentioned under 
the next topic, and one-piece fillings are not recommended 
except for short cavities where these particular objections do 
not apply. The method employed is only a slight modifica- 
tion of that already described and will readily be understood 
by a study of Plate XX, figures 2, 3, 4, and 5, and the legends 
which accompany them. These figures show successive stages 
of work in the same cavity. 

27306°— YBK 1913—12 



178 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

The edges of cement fillings in the crotches of limbs are 
especially difficult to keep water-tight. Besides bolting the 
cavity and guying the limbs above it, the crevices at the edges 
of such cement fillings must be made as nearly waterproof as 
thick tar or asphalt can make them. 

After the cement filling has become thoroughly dry, the 
outer face may be painted with coal tar or paint, especially 
around the edges where cracks are likely to appear. This 
should not be done for several weeks after the cement has 
been put into the cavity. 

DEFECTS IN CEMENT WOEK. 

Although fillings made with cement mixtures (cement 
mortar and concrete) have many, and oftentimes serious, 
defects, this material is so cheap and so easily handled that no 
other at the present time is so generally used for the purpose 
in this country. The most serious defects in cement mix- 
tures are directly due to the hardness and rigidity of the 
cement after it has become dry. This inflexibility results 
in cracks appearing across the cement of long fillings (where 
not put in in sections or blocks, as recommended here) as the 
tree sways back and forth in the wind (PI. XXI, fig. 1). Rods 
for reenforcing the concrete are often placed in large cavi- 
ties which are to be filled in one block (PL XXI, fig. 4). 

During a cold period in winter, particularly one that has 
been preceded by warm weather, the wood of an unbolted 
cavity may draw away from the cement, often leaving a 
comparatively wide crack (PL XXI, fig. 1). Sometimes, by 
the contraction of the wood on a cold day, the tree itself will 
split above or below the filling, or oven through the cement 
when the cavity has been nailed but not bolted. This 
cracking may be prevented to some extent by having nailed 
cavities with a vertical partition of tarred paper extending 
throughout tbe length of the filling. On the other hand, the 
cement filling forms a surface over which the new wood and 
bark can form during the growing season, and if the de- 
cayed and diseased matter in the cavity is entirely removed 
before the cement is used, it very largely, if not entirely, 
checks further decay. If cracks appear in the cement, or the 
wood draws away from the cement, or the work is not prop- 
erly done, decay organisms may again gain entrance at the 
edge of the cement and cause further trouble. 



Practical Tree Surgery. 179 

ASPHALT. 

There is such abundant promise of future good results 
from the use of asphalt and asphalt mixtures for covering 
pruning wounds and filling cavities that it seems desirable 
to say a few words regarding asphalt, although at the present 
time the use of this substance to fill cavities has not passed 
beyond tbe experimental stage. For covering large wounds 
it apparently is not equaled by any substance that has been 
mentioned in this article. The great objection to its use is 
the fact that it has to be kept melted and applied while hot. 
This makes the process rather cumbersome and inconvenient, 
which in itself is a serious objection from many points of 
view, although a coating of asphalt, properly applied at the 
outset, will often last for years without special attention. 
The use of asphalt will doubtless eventually overcome many 
of the serious faults which exist in cement as a cavity filler. 

TINNED CAVITIES. 

Sheet tin, zinc, and iron have been quite extensively used 
to cover cavities. When properly applied, these coverings 
often serve to keep out disease and insects for a long time. 
Oftentimes they are improperly applied, or the cavity is not 
properly treated. Under such conditions these tin-covered 
cavities are a greater menace to the tree than open cavities. 
In preparing a cavity for a sheet-metal covering, all the 
decayed, diseased, and insect-eaten wood is removed in the 
manner indicated under cement fillings, with two exceptions : 
There is no need of undercutting the cavity and there should 
be a narrow half-inch ledge of wood around the edge of the 
cavity to which the margin of the sheet metal can be tacked. 
The excavated cavity must be thoroughly sterilized and 
waterproofed. The sheet metal should be trimmed so that 
its edges will exactly fit along the edges of the bark. The 
metal can then be placed on a block of wood and holes an 
inch or less apart punched or drilled along its margin, through 
which long, slender, flat-headed brads may be driven into the 
ledge of wood around the cavity. The edges of the cavity 
and the inner side of the metal should now be freshly tarred. 
The metal is then put in place and nailed with a light hammer, 
allowing the center of the metal to curve outward, so as to 
conform to the general shape of the trunk (PL XXI, fig. 2). 



180 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

The curving of the sheet metal will reduce the danger of its 
being ripped off at one or both edges as a result of the expan- 
sion and contraction of the wood caused by changes of tem- 
perature. Two or more pieces of sheet metal with over- 
lapping joints should never be used unless these joints are 
soldered air-tight. The final operation is to tar or paint the 
outer surface of the metal cover, taking special care that the 
tacked edges are made as nearly air-tight and waterproof as 
tar or paint can make them. If the insect tunnels were not 
all gouged out, the cavity should be fumigated by saturating 
a wad of cotton waste with carbon disulphid and suspending 
it in the top of the cavity by means of a string for 12 hours 
or more before the tin is finally nailed at the top. During 
the fumigating process the cavity must be tightly closed. 

OPEN CAVITIES. 

In a tree which is not considered of sufficient value to 
warrant cleaning and filling the decayed areas or covering 
them with tin, these may be excavated, sterilized, and water- 
proofed (PI. XXI, fig. 5). In this condition they can often 
be safely left for years if the waterproof covering is renewed 
as soon as cracks or blisters appear. Cavities treated in this 
way are probably as safe as ordinary tinned or cemented 
cavities and have the advantage of easy inspection from time 
to time. Shallow cavities in valuable trees may be very 
satisfactorily treated in this manner. The new wood and 
bark produced by the cambium along the margins will form 
an inwardly rolled edge (in the manner shown in PI. XIX, 
fig. 1), as there is no cement or tin to force it across the 
cavity. 

WHEN TREE SURGERY MAY BE UNDERTAKEN. 

As a general rule, tree surgery can be safely undertaken at 
almost any time of year when the sap is not running too 
actively and the weather is not cold enough to freeze the 
cement. In most trees the sap wdl interfere with the work 
only from the time the buds begin to expand in the spring 
until the leaves are full grown. Cement work will be ruined 
if it is frozen before it is hard. It is not likely to be injured 
by frost after it has been drying for a week. 



Practical Tree Surgery. 181 

GUYING. 

Closely associated with the work of tree surgery proper, 
and often an indispensable adjunct, is the guying of limbs 
to prevent the splitting of the crotches or to check further 
splitting. The best place to put these guys depends largely 
upon the shape and position of the limbs to be braced. 
This varies so widely in different trees that it will be impos- 
sible to give very specific directions for this kind of work. 

A simple method of guying a crotch is to place a hook 
bolt through each limb, with the hooks in the two limbs 
toward each other and from 3 to 10 feet or more above 
the crotch (depending upon the size, position, and length 
of the limbs) and slipping the end link of a stout chain 
over one of the hooks (PI. XXI, fig. 3) , while at the proper 
place in the chain to make a sufficiently taut guy a link is 
slipped over the other hook. The rest of the chain can then 
be cut away, if desired (PI. XXII, fig. 1) . Modifications of this 
method may be used where three or more adjoining limbs 
are to be guyed collectively. A simple method is to place 
a hook bolt through each limb at the proper place and 
then hook a link of the chain over each bolt hook at any 
desired point, one of the hooks serving to hold the two end 
links of the chain. The precautions already mentioned 
under "Bolting" should always be followed, so far as they 
apply to boring and tarring the hole and countersinking the 
washers of the bolts. 

A turnbuckle rod or bolt is much better than a chain 
when the guy is to be kept perfectly taut at all times. 
Furthermore, this rod permits "a ready tightening of the 
guy within certain limits, should it later become necessary. 
If for any reason the guy is to be placed within a foot or 
two of the crotch, a single long bolt can often be used to 
better advantage (PI. XXII, fig. 2), and sometimes a single 
long bolt can be used in place of a chain or a turnbuckle 
rod where the guyed limbs are not likely to twist much as 
they sway in the wind. 

Occasionally it may become necessary to guy a whole 
tree in order to prevent the breaking of the trunk where an 
unusually large cavity leaves only a thin shell of sound 
wood, or to prevent the tree from tipping over. This can 
be accomplished by attaching four guy chains or ropes to 



182 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

the tree about halfway from the ground to the top of the 
tree and having these slant downward at an angle of about 
45° to four short, stout posts set firmly in the ground about 
equidistant around the tree (e. g., on the north, east, south, 
and west sides of the tree). The method of attaching the 
guys securely to the posts is immaterial. The method of 
attaching them to the tree is important. If the guying is 
for temporary purposes only, two broad bands of leather 
or stout canvas or other strong, material, each long enough 
to make a loop at least twice the diameter of the trunk or 
limb to be encircled and 4 to 6 inches wide, may be passed 
around the tree or some favorably situated limb and two 
adjoining guys attached to each loose loop. If a more per- 
manent guying is needed, two eyebolts (or hook bolts) can 
be placed through parallel creosoted holes in the trunk or 
limb about halfway up the tree, one about 6 inches above 
the other. The eye of one bolt should be on the opposite 
side of the tree from the other. Two guys from two adjoin- 
ing posts are attached to each eyebolt. The chafing of a 
limb against a guy can be prevented by padding the guy 
if the latter can not be so placed as to clear all limbs. 

Limbs or trees should never be guyed by passing wires, 
chains, or ropes tightly around them. These may eventu- 
ally strangle the portions beyond the encircling band. En- 
circling fence wires, telegraph wires, clotheslines, or guy 
wires will act in the same way, killing all parts of the tree 
beyond the wires if these remain tightly drawn around the 
limb or trunk for any great length of time — occasionally in 
less than a year (PL XXII, fig. 3). 

TREES WORTH REPAIRING. 

Most ornamental and shade trees having only a few dead 
limbs are unquestionably worth attention. Others which 
have many dead limbs or numerous decayed areas may 
not be worth the expense, particularly if they are naturally 
rapid-growing, short-lived trees. No one can decide better 
than the owner of a tree whether it is worth the attempt 
to save it, because usually the actual commercial value of 
an ornamental or shade tree has little or nothing to do 
with the decision. It is generally a question merely of 
esthetic value, or historic associations, or rarity of the 
species. A man who has had experience in repairing muti- 



Practical Tree Surgery. 183 

lated or diseased trees may be able to say definitely whether 
it is possible to save the tree, but the owner, who pays the 
bill, is the one who will have to decide whether the tree is 
worth the price it will take to repair it. Often the owner 
will realize a greater degree of satisfaction by having a 
badly diseased or mutilated tree replaced. In expert hands 
the moving of large trees is no longer a hazardous under- 
taking. 

COMMERCIAL TREE SURGERY. 

GENERAL DISCUSSION. 

For a number of years, but particularly within the last 
decade, the demand for reliable men to repair decaying 
ornamental and shade trees has greatly increased. This has 
led many persons and firms to take up this class of work, 
often as their main line, though more commonly in con- 
nection with some nearly related line of work. At the pres- 
ent time there are numerous firms upon whom the property 
owner may call if he prefers to hire commercial tree surgeons 
to attend to his trees. In this line of work, as in others, 
will be found the honest and dishonest man, the reliable 
and unreliable firm, competing for contracts to care for 
trees. The earlier pages of this article have been devoted 
primarily to the interests of the man who prefers to attend 
to his own trees, or to have one of his regularly employed 
workmen do it, or to supervise personally the work being 
done by others. The remaining pages will be devoted pri- 
marily to the interests of the tree owner who hires com- 
mercial tree surgeons to attend to his trees. 

CONTAGIOUS DISEASES. 

The writer's observation of the workmen employed in 
commercial tree surgery leads to the conclusion that few 
have any knowledge of the manner of growth of fungi which 
cause disease in trees, or, if they do know something about 
it, they apparently do not allow this knowledge to modify 
their methods appreciably. It is extremely important that 
special precautions be taken when a contagious disease, 
such as the chestnut bark disease, is infecting a tree. As 
an illustration of how two types of firms have handled 



184 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

matters of this nature : n the past, two cases out of many 
which have come to the writer's attention are cited. 

A few years ago a firm of tree surgeons obtained a con- 
tract to repair the trees on a Long Island estate. Among 
the trees was a very large old chestnut, which was much 
prized hj the owner, who desired to have it saved. The 
tree was badly infected with the bark disease and was far 
beyond recovery at the time the work was undertaken. 
However, this did not deter the contractors from doing a 
great amount of work on it, including excavating a cavity 
in the interior of the tree more than 20 feet long and from 
3 to 4 feet in diameter. The foreman in charge informed 
an inquirer that more than 5 tons of cement (concrete) had 
been used in filling this one cavity and that it had taken 
several men a certain number of weeks to do the work. 
On the clay the work was completed the spore threads of 
the disease-producing fungus were present in great numbers 
in the furrows of the bark over a large portion of the trunk. 
The tree was entirely dead in less than 12 months, although 
the superintendent of the estate was assured by the fore- 
man in charge of the work that the tree would be "alive 
and flourishing at the end of five years' time." 

In contrast, another well-known firm, of a different type, 
was asked to repair and prune a large chestnut tree on 
Long Island. The price was to be governed by the amount 
of work actually done. This tree had several dead limbs 
and was supposed to be defective in other ways. Before 
undertaking the work, a man who was well acquainted 
with the chestnut bark disease was asked by the firm that 
expected to get the contract to examine the tree. This 
was done. The examination revealed the fact that the tree 
had numerous areas of the disease on the trunk and that 
some larger limbs had been killed by it. Upon receipt of 
this information the firm declined to undertake any work 
on the tree, although a half day had been consumed in 
hauling ladders, tackle, and three men in a two-horse team 
to the tree in order that a thorough preliminary examination 
might be made. 

The natural inference is that one firm had no interest 
beyond collecting a good sum of money for work that was 
worse than useless, while the other placed the maintenance 
of a good reputation ahead of everything else. One firm 



Practical Tree Surgery. 185 

was the worst type of enemy to honest commercial tree 
surgery; the other, a worthy supporter of it. 

IGNORANT WORKMEN AND FAKERS. 

Unfortunately for tree owners and the trees themselves, 
many men who are set at work by an unreliable contractor 
know little or nothing of the fundamental principles con- 
cerning the life history of a tree. In their ignorance, such 
workmen are likely to make serious blunders through 
neglecting to do certain important things the reason for 
which they can not understand. The faker will always 
slight any stage of the work, no matter how important, if 
evidence of his neglect can be effectually obliterated or 
hidden by subsequent operations. There are few more 
favorable opportunities for practicing frauds of this nature 
than in the operation of filling cavities in trees. The 
decayed and diseased wood may be only partially removed, 
improper or no antiseptic coatings used in the cavity, or 
no proper drainage provided, yet no one can tell the differ- 
ence after the cavity has been filled or covered unless the 
filling or covering be removed. A cavity filled with cement 
or other material before the decayed and diseased wood has 
been wholly removed is nearly comparable to a tooth from 
which the decayed matter has been only partially removed 
by the dentist before it is filled. 

MISUSE OF THE PRUNING HOOK. 

Too commonly the ordinary workman will get into the 
top of a tree and use his long pruning hook to break off 
the small dead branches, in the same manner that he would 
use a club for a like purpose. When so used, the pruning 
hook will inevitably cause many injuries to the young bark 
of adjoining branches and make wounds through which 
disease and decay germs can enter. In this manner many 
new openings for the possible entrance of disease may be 
created, in addition to the one already existing in the dead 
branch, for it must be remembered that merely breaking 
off the branch does not prevent decay from continuing at 
this point, while every new bruise or wound may furnish a 
new point for decay to enter. 



186 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

CLIMBING DEVICES. 

On various occasions we have seen workmen in the employ 
of well-known tree-surgery firms repeatedly jab their 
climbing spurs into the bark on horizontal limbs where it 
would have been much easier for them to move about without 
using spurs at all. The use of climbing spurs on trees 
should be avoided, or at least severely discouraged. It 
would be best if they were never used. Every wound 
made by one of these spurs may become the center of a new 
region of decay if conditions favorable for the growth of 
decay organisms exist. The use of spurs should be strictly 
prohibited on all parts of a tree subject to a contagious 
disease above ground, especially if the disease is known to 
exist in the vicinity. A man who uses spurs on the trunk 
or on limbs that can readily be reached by a light ladder 
should never be allowed to work on trees. Firms who 
permit their workmen to do this should be classed as unde- 
sirable or dangerous firms to deal with and accordingly 
avoided. Many trees have been irreparably damaged and 
left in far worse condition after ignorant or indifferent 
workmen equipped with climbing spurs and pruning hooks 
have worked in them than if nothing had ever been done 
to them. The edges of the soles and heels of leather shoes, 
to say nothing of protruding nails, commonly cause con- 
siderable injury to soft and tender bark. Probably the best 
and safest footwear, from the point of view of preventing 
injury to the tree, is some form of rubber-soled shoe, such 
as tennis shoes or "sneaks." All properly equipped firms 
of tree surgeons have ladders that will reach 40 or 50 feet 
or more into a tree. Ladders, ropes, and rubber-soled 
shoes will allow a man to reach practically every part of a 
tree that can be reached by climbing spurs. 

Reliable estimates indicate that it takes somewhat longer 
(perhaps 25 per cent on an average) to do the required work 
on a tree when ladders, ropes, and rubber-soled shoes are 
used instead of climbing spurs. Consequently, it may be 
expected that contractors will have their workmen use 
spurs unless these are specifically prohibited. 



Practical Tree Surgery. 187 

RESPONSIBILITY OF TEEE OWNERS. 

Owners who contract with a firm of tree surgeons to 
attend to their trees are occasionally quite as much to be 
blamed for the resulting poor work as the men who do it. 
This statement refers to those owners who get an estimate 
for having their trees repaired in a proper manner by men 
who make a business of caring for trees, and then say, in 
effect, "I've got only half that amount of money for the 
work, and you will have to do it for that or I will get some 
one else to do it." The reliable man who has named a 
price that will insure at least reasonably good work has to 
do one of two things under those conditions; either he 
must decline to do the work or he must lower his price. 
When these conditions arise, the work is often undertaken 
at a reduced price. This generally means that the work 
has to be of a cheaper grade, possibly done by inexperienced 
men, in order that a profit can be realized. A wiser course 
for the owner would have been to put his available money 
into repairing in a proper manner the more valuable of his 
trees, leaving the less valuable ones untreated. 

Perhaps in other cases the owner, after getting the esti- 
mate for good work from a reliable firm, will go to another 
firm, possibly a notoriously unreliable one, and obtain a 
considerably lower price for the work. Commonly in 
neither instance have any specifications been considered 
covering just what should be done to the trees beyond the 
assurance of the contractor that the trees would be fixed 
up "as they should be" or "in fine condition." With no 
more definite understanding than this, too much of the 
work in the past has been done. In many cases, two or 
three years later, the owner learns to his chagrin (usually 
from his own observations) that the work was not properly 
done and that his money was little better than thrown 
away. Property owners who have passed through expe- 
riences of this sort are often the bitterest opponents of tree 
repairs and the most caustic and indiscriminate critics of all 
persons engaged in this type of work. It might be well 
for such tree owners to ask if, in refusing to pay the price for 
good work, or in permitting incompetent men to do it 
merely because they make a lower bid than any reliable 
man could afford to, they themselves are not equally to be 



188 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

blamed for the poor work. Two men may have very differ- 
ent standards as to what should be done to a tree or what 
they intend to do to it. 

With the completion of tree-surgery work, owners usually 
fail to realize the importance of keeping close watch of their 
trees, in order that defects which appear in the work may 
be remedied promptly and that new injuries elsewhere on 
the tree may have immediate attention. If a tree is con- 
sidered by its owner of sufficient value to warrant having it 
properly and carefully treated by a tree surgeon, it certainly 
is worth the slight expense of subsequent annual or biennial 
inspection and the immediate repair of newly discovered 
injuries at a time when the expense necessary to keep the 
tree in good condition will be comparatively small. 

It should be borne in mind that scars remaining after 
large limbs have been removed or large cavities cemented 
are commonly unsightly spots for years, even under the best 
of conditions. If the scar is a large one, it may never en- 
tirely heal over and may consequently remain a conspicu- 
ous defect. It might so happen that a particularly large 
scar would be too unsightly and conspicuous to please the 
owner, should the decayed matter be removed properly 
and the cavity filled. Under such conditions he may 
realize a greater amount of satisfaction in the end by having 
the diseased tree replaced with a healthy one. For several 
years at least one well-known firm of nurserymen has been 
moving large trees (with trunk diameter of a foot or more) 
with remarkable success; at the same time demonstrating 
the possibility of moving good-sized healthy trees without 
their showing apparent adverse symptoms afterwards. 
Thus it is possible often to replace a diseased tree with a 
healthy one of similar size without having to wait 15, 20, or 
more years for it to attain the size of the displaced one. 

CONTRACTS. 

In order to secure better results in the future than have 
generally been attained in the past, and to put commercial 
tree surgery on a basis that will tend to eliminate the fakers, 
owners are urged to have a definite written contract with 
tree surgeons whom they employ to take care of their trees. 



Practical Tree Surgery. 189 

The best results can generally be attained when payment is 
to be based upon the amount of work done plus the cost of 
materials used. Probably most persons, however, will pre- 
fer to have the trees examined and a definite price agreed 
upon before any work is undertaken. In either case there 
should be a definite written understanding concerning at 
least certain important phases of the work, in addition to 
price and methods of payment. The following is suggested 
as a model for such contract: 

(1) No climbing spurs shall be used on any part of a tree. 

(2) The shoes worn by the workmen shall have soft rubber bottoms. 

(3) Ordinary commercial orange shellac shall be applied to cover the 
cut edges of sapwood and cambium within five minutes after the final 
trimming cut is made. 

(4) All cut or shellacked surfaces shall be painted with commercial 
creosote, followed by thick coal tar. 

(5) All diseased, rotten, discolored, water-soaked, or insect-eaten wood 
shall be removed in cavity work and the cavity inspected by the owner 
or his agent before it is filled. 

(6) Only a good grade of Portland cement and clean, sharp sand in no 
weaker mixture than 1 to 3 shall be used to fill cavities. 

(7) The contractor shall repair free of expense any defects that may 
appear in the work within one year. 

If the owner prefers to have a cavity filled with asphalt or 
other material instead of cement, the contract can be altered 
accordingly. If it is desirable to substitute some other 
preparation for shellac, this can be done. Similarly, under 
certain conditions, various other modifications may be 
made, although alterations in Nos. 1, 2, 5, and 7 should be 
made with caution. It may so happen that if all insect- 
eaten wood is removed, the tree may be dangerously weak- 
ened; under such conditions the diseased matter can be 
removed to solid wood and the cavity fumigated, as de- 
scribed under "Tinned cavities," or the tree may be 
guyed. If certain crotches are split or particular limbs 
on some trees need guying, it may be well to include these 
items in the contract. It may be desirable to include a 
statement of just what limbs shall be removed from partic- 
ularly choice trees, and some provision should always be 
made for the regular inspection of the trees every one or 
two years. 



190 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

CONCLUDING REMARKS. 

At the present time the science of tree surgery has not 
attained the recognition and approval from tree owners that 
it deserves. This may be due in part to the unfavorable 
impressions created from experiences with fakers, but prob- 
ably primarily from the disinclination of the owners to spend 
much money in preserving their trees or from their ignor- 
ance of the benefits that may accrue from tree surgery when 
properly done. Reliable tree surgeons are doing much in a 
practical way to educate the public as to the benefits of tree 
surgery Unfortunately, the unreliable tree surgeons are 
doing much to offset it. 

There are methods connected with the work that may in 
the near future prove to be far superior to some now in com- 
mon use and recommended here. At present, experiments to 
test the efficiency of some of these have not been conclusive. 

The Department of Agriculture invites correspondence, 
either from individuals or firms, concerning new methods of 
treatment or prospective methods, and will be prepared to 
advise for or against any particular method so far as expe- 
rience and the results of experiments will permit. It is only 
by cooperation of this sort that tree surgery can ultimately 
attain the position that it deserves in the estimation of the 
general public. 

Finally, tree owners are urged to remember at all times 
the axiom: The need of tree surgery 15 or 20 years hence may 
be very largely obviated by promptly attending to the fresh 
injuries of to-day. 



SUPPLEMENTING OUR MEAT SUPPLY WITH FISH. 

By M. E. Pennington, 
Chief, Food Research Laboratory, Bureau of Chemistry. 

SUBSTITUTES FOR MEAT. 

MEAT shortage was an old problem to other nations 
when our Nation was in its infancy. To supplement 
their supply of meat they turned to the sea for fish and to 
the poultry yard for fowls, both eminently desirable and 
economical sources of nitrogenous foodstuffs. 

The United States must now deal with the problem of 
meat shortage. The settlement of our vast cattle ranches 
and the breaking up of the great pasturage areas into cul- 
tivated farms have interfered with one of our natural sources 
of a meat supply. At the same time the increase in the 
value of corn has made cattle raising for meat purposes a 
difficult problem on the small farm. We, too, apparently 
shall have to turn to the sea and to the poultry yard for 
nitrogenous food. 

We have scarcely begun to utilize our fisheries, while the 
possible development of poultry raising and egg production 
is so common a topic in the popular press, as well as in the 
more stable advice and instruction furnished by the many 
agencies now assisting the faimer, that it is reasonable to 
expect more poultry and better poultry within a compara- 
tively short period. Poultry must be raised. This neces- 
sarily requires some time, even though it be much shorter 
than that required for cattle production. The supply of 
fish, on the other hand, is literally in sight and may be had 
for the catching, a process which requires some capital and 
trained labor, but which is infinitely simpler than the hatch- 
ing, feeding, housing, and slaughtering involved in poultry 
raising. 

One of the greatest difficulties in the way of utilizing our 
piscatorial resources is the ignorance of the American people, 
especially of the native-born, well-to-do people, in regard to 
the kinds of food fishes, their desirability as foods from the 
viewpoint of both nutriment and palatability, and the 
methods of cooking which tend to enhance their food value. 

191 



192 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



We have been so accustomed to meat as the nitrogenous 
piece de resistance oi any meal that fish, if eaten at all, is 
merely an entree used more in deference to the established 
customs of the Old World, or to religious tenets, than in 
response to a demand on the part of the American diner. 
Yet Americans are delighted at the delicacy of English 
whitebait, at the fine flavor of the sole cooked in Paris, and 
at the appetizing aroma of the smoked salmon in the sand- 
wich so universally served in Germany. 

We quite forget that the sand dab of the southern Cali- 
fornia coast more than equals the English sole; that the 
pompano of our southern waters, the whitefish of the Great 
Lakes, and the mackerel and bluefish of the east coast are 
not surpassed by any of the finny delicacies served in Europe, 
and that the delicious salmon in the German sandwich is 
more than likely the product of our own Pacific fisheries 
exported to Germany because it finds comparatively scant 
favor at home. 

There is also a common belief that fish does not furnish us 
with as much high-grade food material as meat. Analyses 
of meat and fish, however, show an encouraging similarity 
in protein content, as may be seen from the following figures : 

Protein content of meat and fish. 



Kind of meat. 


Per cent 
of protein. 


Kind offish. 


Percent 
of protein. 




17.9 
17.0 
19.7 
17.9 
16.4 
16.1 
14.8 




20.0 






18.8 






18.1 






13.8 






16.7 






18.0 






17.3 






18.1 




Weakfish 


17.3 






22.2 









The foreign-born population of the United States are the 
fish consumers of the Nation. They have brought fish-eating 
habits with them from nations where fish, not meat, is the 
more common nitrogenous food. Whereas we have done 
comparatively little to stimulate our fisheries, the older 
nations have expended, and now are expending, every effort 



Supplementing our Meat Supply with Fish. 193 

to gather the crops that the waters yield so abundantly, and 
to deliver them cheaply and in prime condition to their 
people not only along the coast but to extreme inland towns. 

THE FISHERIES OF ENGLAND. 

England knows she can produce only a portion of her meat 
supply, but she believes she can produce all her fish supply 
and also export to other countries. England's fisheries, as a 
source of her food supply, are considered of very great impor- 
tance, and the fishing fleet is recognized as bearing an 
important relation to her navy. An enormous quantity of 
fish is caught in the fisheries of the United Kingdom (in 1912 
the catch amounted to 2,698,400,544 pounds, valued at 
$64,405,334), and it is distributed speedily and in very good 
condition. All these factors help to make fish not only a 
relatively cheap food article but also a popular one. Her- 
ring is the most important catch, and the most important 
fish export going salted or cured in large quantity to Russia 
and Germany. 

HOW GERMANY ENCOURAGES FISHING. 

While the United Kingdom encourages her fisheries, it has 
remained for Germany to take up active pioneer work in 
developing the production and extending the consumption 
of fish, especially in the fresh condition. 

The German Government has expended large sums for the 
construction of fish harbors at Geestemunde, Emden, Cux- 
haven, and other ports. To encourage herring production, 
the State has been paying about $952 as bounty toward the 
building of each sailing vessel, and adding from $952 to $1,428 
to that sum for equipment. German ports have exempted 
all fishing vessels, regardless of nationality, from the payment 
of tonnage dues. Such methods have resulted in a decided 
growth of Germany's fishing fleet. Por example, between 
1899 and 1909 the sailing luggers engaged in fishing increased 
from 101 to 190, and the steam luggers from 9 to 62. The 
number of steam drifters increased from 108 to 217 between 
1904 and 1911. Yet Germany, as we shall see later, can not 
begin to supply her growing demand for fish. 

Low transportation rates have been made to encourage 
the shipping of fish to inland districts. For example, fish 
are sent by express freight at the ordinary freight rate, 

27306°— YBK 1913 13 



194 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

which is one-half of the express rate. The fastest passenger 
trains are also used for fish shipments, the freight rate in 
this case being again one-half of that regularly charged. In 
other cases, such as when fish are caught by German vessels 
and salted at sea, a certain number of miles is deducted from 
the distance to be traversed, thereby reducing the total cost. 
From Geestemunde, alone, from 3 to 7 fish trains are made 
up daily and dispatched inland. 

The efforts of the Government to extend fisheries are 
supplemented by the German Sea Fishery Association. To 
this association the trawling companies pay $16.60 per 
vessel, the funds being used for the advancement of the 
industry in general. 

EDUCATING THE GERMANS TO USE FISH. 

One phase of the work of the association and one which is 
supported by the Government, is the education of the people 
regarding the kinds of fish and their desirability as a food. 
"A series of cookery lessons was started in Berlin and other 
large cities, using moving pictures to show the methods of 
fishing and the varieties of fish, and to aid in explaining their 
food value. This movement was enthusiastically received 
and at present articles are frequently being written and 
issued in pamphlet form which contain helpful and heretofore 
little known facts regarding sea fish and the best methods 
of preparing them for the table. As a consequence the taste 
for fish has spread amazingly and the various trawling con- 
cerns have entered upon an era of prosperity which seems 
likely to be permanent." 1 Naturally, such an educational 
campaign has created an exceptional demand for fish, not 
only near the sea, but more especially inland, where the peo- 
ple, like our own inland population, know practically nothing 
of sea fish nor how to cook them. 

Germany has very wisely turned her attention to the 
handling of fish so as to preserve quality and prevent waste. 
Her vessels, like our own, go long distances for their catch. 
Hence the fish must be packed with care if they are to 
reach the market in good order. Some of the newer ves- 
sels are provided with refrigeration to aid in preserving 

1 Daily Consular Report, Jan. 25, 1913. 



Supplementing our Meat Supply with Fish. 195 

freshness. At Geestemunde, especially, much attention is 
given to the preservation of food fish, thereby preventing 
market gluts and utilizing as food many fish that would 
formerly have been turned over to fertilizer or oil factories. 

IMPORTATIONS OF FISH INTO GERMANY. 

Though Germany has placed an import duty on fish not 
caught in German vessels, she is still forced to draw heavily 
on other than German fisheries for her supply. She never 
has enough herring, despite the fact that Great Britain sends 
over a million barrels of the salted fish yearly; Scotland finds 
Hamburg its best market for its herring trade; and Norway, 
Sweden, and the Netherlands each contribute heavily. We 
send to German markets some of our very best fish, espe- 
cially salmon, for which Germany is, by far, our biggest 
customer. Between 1905 and 1910, inclusive, we sent to 
her over $11,500,000 worth of fresh and cured salmon, most 
of which came from our North Pacific fisheries. 1 Germany 
uses part of this fish fresh — we send the splendid " steelhead " 
salmon hard frozen — and smokes most of the fish which 
is sent in pickle. 

The smoked-fish industry in Germany is very important, 
and by the clever methods in use many fish rather unpopular 
in the fresh condition are rendered salable at relatively 
high prices. 

DISTRIBUTION AND PRICE OF FISH IN GERMANY. 

Many ways of distributing fish have been devised in 
Germany, ranging from auctions at large fish ports to munic- 
ipal sales in the large cities. Berlin, for example, has held 
semiweekly sales of fish at cost in the public market halls 
to reduce the cost of living. The sales were said to be suc- 
cessful and were extended to certain department stores 
which retail fish. The fish sold by the Municipal Market 
Hall Committee were from 1.7 to 1.9 cents per pound cheaper 
than those sold by the retailers. Under any circumstances, 
however, the price of fish in Germany is much lower than 
the price of meat, as may be seen from the comparisons 
following. 

i Cobb, John N. The Salmon Fisheries of the Pacific Coast. Bureau of Fisheries, Doc. 
No. 751. 



196 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

Com parative Prices oj Meat and Fish in Germany. 



Kind of meat. 



High-grade beef in Berlin, 1911. 
Fresh-carcass veal In Berlin; 

1911 

Fresh-carcass mutton in Berlin, 

1911 

Fresh-carcass lamb in Berlin, 

1911 



Price per 
pound. 



Cents. 
16.Stol9.2 

17. 9 to 23. 8 

13.0 to 18. 6 

15. 1 to 19 9 



Kind of fish. 



Haddock, at auction at Cux- 

haven, March, 1913 

Cod 

Mackerel 

Sole 

Halibut 

Whiting 



Price per 
pound. 



Cents. 
2.2 to 9.6 
1.7 to 4.9 
.8 to 1.1 
18. C to 32. 4 
8. 7 to IS. 8 
1.4 to 2.6 



Despite these prices for fish, however, our fishermen are 
sending hard frozen steelhead salmon in carload lots from 
the Pacific to Germany because the German market is a 
good one, and because "Germany will pay the price for a 
high-grade fish and our people will not." 

The esteem in which fish is held in Europe may be illus- 
trated by the rapid decrease in the number of factories 
making fertilizer, oil, etc., out of excess catches or of fish 
not hitherto considered as edible. In Sweden, for example, 
20 factories were operating in 1895-96, producing 12,300 
barrels of oil and 14,170 tons of fertilizer. Now but two 
of these factories are running, because all the herring avail- 
able for food that Sweden can spare are being used as food in 
Germany and England. 

THE FISHERIES OF NORWAY. 

Norway also has a growing fishing industry and neces- 
sarily so, since her agriculture seems to be practically sta- 
tionary. Formerly agriculture stood first, lumbering, in- 
cluding paper manufacturing, second, and the fishing 
industry third in the employment of people. The value 
of the crops of hay, grain, and potatoes in 1903 was $56,- 
796,436, while in 1912 they realized only $57,834,400. The 
value of the fish caught in Norway during 1911 amounted 
to more than fourteen million dollars. The herring trade 
alone amounted to nearly three million dollars and canned 
sardines (bristling) were valued at nearly four million. 

Manufacturing has greatly increased in Norway during the 
past five years, and this tendency is reflected in the growth 
and development of fish canneries and fish by-product fac- 



Supplementing our Meat Supply with Fish. 197 

tories. The increased production which marks each" year is 
quickly and readily absorbed, however, and still Germany 
wants more herring. 

CANADIAN FISHERIES. 

Our next-door neighbor, Canada, reported for the year 
1911 to 1912 a fish industry which totaled $34,667,872. 
Never before had the value reached the thirty-million mark. 
The most valuable fish to Canada is the salmon, aggregating, 
in 1912, 113,673,200 pounds, worth $10,333,070. Lobsters 
stand second, with a value of nearly five million. Canada 
sends fish to practically the whole importing world, and is 
awake to the resources of both sea and inland waters. 

UNITED STATES FISHERIES. 

The size of the industry in the United States has not been 
reckoned with certainty since 1908. During that year the 
amount of our fish and fishery products, exclusive of Alaska, 
was 1,893,454,000 pounds; including Alaska, we produced 
2,111,267,415 pounds. The distribution of this catch was as 

follows : 

Fish catch of the United States in 1908. 



■ 


Pounds. 


Value. 




1,344,665,000 
117,723,000 
176,150,000 
148,284,000 
106,632,000 
217, 813, 415 


$35,474,000 




4,825,000 




6,839,000 




3,125,000 




3,767,000 




11,847,443 






Total 


2,111,267,415 


65, 877, 443 







It will be seen that the Atlantic coast produces 69 per cent 
of the products if Alaska is excluded, and the Pacific coast 
ranks second, with products valued at 13 per cent. The 
fresh-water fisheries, with a value of 13 per cent, are also seen 
to be enormously productive. 

The Alaskan fisheries have developed very rapidly during 
the last few years, both in quantity produced and in breadth 
of distribution. In 1912 the value of all Alaskan fish and fish 
products was $18,877,480, a gain of more than seven million 
dollars in four years. Of this sum $311,307 represents the 



198 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



value of Whale oil, fertilizer, and baleen, an almost negligible 
quantity when compared with the total. 

The most valuable fish to Alaska is the salmon, which is 
canned, pickled, frozen, and shipped fresh-caught. 

Statistics of Alaska salmon. 



Preparation for market. 


• Quantity. 


Value. 








4, 056, 021 

4, 195, 843 

34, 750 

1,338,923 

451,043 

2,157 


816,295,490 








399,852 


Pickled 






307,422 


Fresh caught. . . . 




pounds.. 

do.... 


101,463 

20,287 






do 


8,628 










Total 




17, 133, 142 









THE PISH SUPPLY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The nations of Europe, with the exception of Kussia, 
are forced to depend upon their sea fisheries for the bulk 
of the supply. We have not only our great length of Pacific 
and Atlantic coasts, but we have also the Gulf of Mexico 
and the Great Lakes, sources from which our inland territory- 
may readily be supplied. These waters are practically 
inexhaustible. We hear constantly of the great decrease 
in the catch of certain fish, such as the shad and sturgeon, 
and of the practical annihilation of some fish in definite 
localities, such as the salmon in New England, but it must 
be remembered that these statements apply only to those 
fish which make their way into rivers to spawn, entering in 
great numbers during a comparatively short period of time 
and so rendering their capture simple. It must be remem- 
bered, also, that many of the fish spawning far up fresh- 
water streams die as soon as spawning is over. The propa- 
gation of the race, therefore, depends upon the preservation 
of the fry. Our industrial growth has taken but little 
account of these tiny fish. We have constructed dams 
and power wheels and permitted factories to discharge 
poisonous chemicals, and in many most effectual ways de- 
stroyed the nurseries that had harbored the young fish until 
they were strong enough to swim to the sea, and too large 
to be a comfortable mouthful for the voracious big fish, 
many of which are almost unbelievably cannibalistic. 



Supplementing our Meat Supply with Fish. 199 

Our eastern coast has almost lost the sturgeon and the 
salmon, and the run of shad is dwindling. The west coast is 
facing a like diminution, if not extinction, of the salmon, 
unless it heeds the warning of the East and insures protection 
for the river-traYeling fish against the ever increasing 
manufactories, and provides sufficient spawning and nursery 
grounds for the development of the youngsters. 

For example, myriads of salmon travel up the Columbia 
River each year to spawn in the little mountain streams, 
and die there after the spawning is over. In the olden days 
these fry worked their way down the little streams, where 
their enemies were comparatively few, into the lakes that 
emptied into the rivers, and there they lived and grew until 
4 or 5 inches long — -"fingerlings," as the fish culturists say — 
when they were strong enough to compete with the river 
fish on their run to salt water. Now the agriculturist and the 
manufacturer of the western slope have found those lakes 
ideal reservoirs for irrigation purposes, or, very often, for 
power, so they have built dams and great turbines — and 
what can a "fingerling" do against such obstructions as 
those ? The fishermen on the west coast say it is just a case 
of the survival of the most profitable— if agriculture and 
manufacturing are to dominate, the salmon finally mu3t go. 
But those who are interested in supplying this great country 
with food hope that before it is too late enough runs and 
nurseries will be provided to preserve to the people a supply 
of these splendid fish that are already world renowned. 

Not even in the dimmest distance, however, can we see any 
diminution in the number of fish in the ocean. Even in 
our Great Lakes it would seem that we have an unlimited 
supply. According to practical fishermen, there were more 
fish in sight in the Great Lakes in the season of 1910 than 
ever before. 

THE UNCERTAINTY OF CATCHES. 

For uncertainty of harvest, however, fishing exceeds even 
the most unreliable crops with which agriculture has to deal. 
With all the sea to swim in, with powers of speed and endur- 
ance, with habits that are quite unknown to us, even such 
universal market fish as bluefish and mackerel are sometimes 
taken by the fishermen in enormous quantities and again are 
almost absent from the catches for a long time. These flush 



200 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

and scarce periods may exist for years, giving rise to the 
statements of depletion, but sooner or later large schools 
again frequent the old grounds and the catches, both in num- 
bers and weight, are undiminished. The seasons for the mi- 
gratory fishes are as sharply defined as they are for agricultural 
products. When the season has passed the fish disappear 
and are not seen again until the following year, or they may 
run biennially, triennially, or quadrennially. Even when 
the run is on, a storm, a change of wind, or some inexplicable 
cause may turn the fish quite aside from their usual course 
where traps, nets, or other fishing gear await them, or may 
cause them to take to deep water where they can not be 
caught. Even the staple varieties may give the fishermen 
the slip, hence it can readily be seen that with fresh-caught 
fish only to depend on, market prices may fluctuate widely, 
since the number of varieties known to the consumer is com- 
paratively small. Since fish have been preserved by freezer 
storage there has been greater uniformity of supplies and 
prices 

TRANSPORTATION OF FRESH-CAUGHT FISH. 

As a general rule the dominant fish in a market are pro- 
duced comparatively near by. The catch of the Atlantic, 
for example, stays almost entirely east of the Alleghenies, 
except that which is canned or otherwise preserved, which, 
of course, goes all over the country and is exported. The 
Gulf and the Lakes and the Mississippi supply the interior and 
ship but little over the eastern range. The Pacific coast, on 
the other hand, sends two staple varieties of fish throughout 
the country, namely, halibut and salmon. These fish are 
sent (on express schedule) across the continent in carload 
lots, packed in fine ice, and constitute, with red snapper from 
the Gulf, most of the salt-water fish supply of the interior. 
The distribution of Pacific salmon and halibut extends also 
to the Atlantic coast cities, which are heavy consumers. 
For some of our fish we are sending to Canada. Smelts, 
lobsters, and salmon come to us in quantity from Canadian 
waters, as does, also, much of the "winter caught" fresh- 
water fish. The latter are obtained by cutting a series of 
holes through the ice, stringing gill nets from hole to hole, 
and pulling the nets up through the holes to remove the 



Supplementing our Meat Supply with Fish. 201 

catch. This fishing is done when the temperature is below 
the freezing point, sometimes at 40° below zero, Fahrenheit, 
and the fish are, therefore, frozen almost immediately upon 
their removal from the water. They are boxed and held on the 
ice until hauled by teams to refrigerator cars and so shipped 
to cold-storage plants in cities. The unparalleled freshness 
of low temperature weather frozen fish, even after months of 
storage, is a strong argument for the installation of fish 
freezers as near the source of production as possible. 

VARIETIES OF FISH IN THE MARKETS. 

The usual consumer near the seacoast has no idea of the 
many kinds of fish that are to be found in his market, nor of 
their seasonal variation. The east coast housewife asks her 
fish dealer for halibut, cod, bluefish, weakfish, or pan fish; the 
West coast housewife has a little wider range, yet even with her 
halibut and salmon are so decidedly in the ascendancy that 
sole and shad go a-begging at 5 cents a pound retail. In 
point of fact, the eastern coast markets carry the following 
"staple varieties" which may be had the year around: 

Staple varieties offish. 





Salt-water fish. 


Fresh-water fish. 


Bluefish. 




Pollock. 


Ciscoes (lake herring) 


Cod. 




Porgies or scup. 


Lake trout. 


Flukes or 


flounders. 


Salmon, western. 


Whitefish. 


Haddock. 




Sea bass. 


German carp. 


Hake. 




Smelts. 


Buffalo carp. 


Halibut. 




Shad. 




Herring. 
Mackerel. 




Weakfish. 

Whiting (silver hake 


')• 



Certain other varieties are produced in smaller quantities, 
but fairly continuously, and are known as "limited staple 

varieties." 

Limited staple varieties offish. 

Salt-watet fish. Fresh-water fish. 

Butter fish. Skate. Pike perch. 

Bonitas. " Sheepshead. 

Blackfish (tautog). Sea trout, southern. 

Eels. Squid. 

"Fancy varieties" come in such small quantities or during 
such limited seasons or from such a distance that the supply 
can not be relied upon. 



202 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

Fancy varieties offish. 

Brook trout. Striped bass. Salmon trout. 

Kingfish. Sturgeon. Searing. 

Pompano. Spanish mackerel. White bait. 

Red snapper. Salmon (Atlantic). White perch. 

Even this long list does not by any means include all the 
fishes that are sold for food in our markets. The Middle 
West would ordinarily add catfish, suckers, yellow perch, 
sunfish, and blue pike; the west coast would add barracuda, 
sand dabs, sole, tomcods, and turbot; and the markets on 
the Gulf would display an amazing collection of sea food of 
strange form and color, but most appetizing when prepared 
for the table according to the French methods still in vogue 
in that region. 

A visit to any large wholesale fish market in the United 
States is a voyage of discovery to most consumers. They 
will there see more kinds of fish for sale than they had sup- 
posed in the sea. But such a market displays little variety 
when compared with the fish market of the "Halle Centrale" 
in Paris, or the wonderful market on the Grand Canal in 
Venice. Spread out in trays, garnished with green and red 
and brown seaweeds, arranged to catch the eye by beauty of 
color and design, are delicacies that our fishermen never 
trouble to bring on shore because we do not consider them 
desirable food. The praised soup served in Naples was made 
from a member of the cuttlefish family — a "squid" — eaten 
here only by Italians, and used for bait by our fishermen. 
The much desired "raie au beurre noir" of Paris is, in plain 
English, just a piece of skate, or ray, that would not be 
salable in an American market. 

WHOLESALE PRICE OP FISH IN THE LARGE CITIES. 

In these days of high prices for nitrogenous foodstuffs it 
is of interest to note the prices of fresh-caught fish prevailing 
in Fulton Market, New York City, for the five-year period 
between 1907 and 1911. 1 Ten staple varieties of fish are 
chosen, namely, halibut (western), salmon (western), cod, 
haddock, pollock, bluefish, weakfish (or sea trout), flukes (or 
flounders), roe shad, and sea bass. The accompanying table 
shows the maximum and minimum wholesale prices for the 

i Fowler: Prices on Fish. Hearings, Committee on Manufactures, U. S. Senate, 62d Cong. 
Foods Held in Cold Storage, pp. 440-468. 



Supplementing our Meat Supply with Fish. 203 

month of January, because that is the month in which fresh- 
caught fish are highest priced. It will be observed that 4 
of the 10 varieties- — cod, haddock, pollock, and flukes — 
could always be purchased for less than 10 cents a pound 
even at the time of greatest scarcity, and generally they 
could be obtained for less than 5 cents. 

A similar table made for a summer month such as July 
would show that these four varieties rarely exceed 5 cents 
a pound and are more commonly sold for 3 cents or less while 
even the higher priced fish, such as the bluefish and halibut, 
seldom reach 10 cents a pound. 

Maximum and ■minimum wholesale prices ' on fresh-caught fish in January, 
1907-1911, Fulton Market, New York City. 





1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


Kinds of fish. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Halibut (western) 
Salmon (western) 
Cod 


$0.14 
.10 
.07 
.07 
.065 
.235 
.14 
.055 
2.00 
.0775 


SO. 115 
.0975 
.035 
.0275 
.04 
.175 
.09 
.045 
1.12 
.0775 


$0. 1375 
.20 
.0925 
.07 
.075 
.225 
.155 
.09 
1.25 
.1375 


$0. 1125 
.13 
.045 
.05 
.055 
.20 
.125 
.045 
1.00 
.09 


$0. 145 
.25 
.075 
.06 
.05 
.215 
.075 
.065 
1.50 
.11 


$0,085 
.1075 
.02 
.015 
.025 
.1475 
.045 
.0325 
1.15 
.05 


$0.16 
.1425 
.05 
.05 
.04 
.25 
.1425 
.09 
2.12 


$0,085 
.085 
.035 
.036 
.025 
.205 
.10 
.03 
1.875 


$0.19 
.21 
.085 
.065 
.065 


$0.17 
.105 
.065 




.035 


Pollock 


.04 






Weakfish 


.115 

.075 

2.875 

.095 


.095 




.0375 




.80 




.065 











i Prices are given per pound on all fish except shad, where the prices are given per fish 
averaging 4i pounds. 

FEEEZER-STOKAGE FISH. 

The foregoing statements apply to fresh-caught fish only, 
and it must be remembered that winter fishing is of but small 
moment. Most of the fishermen tie up when winter comes 
and do not ply their trade until spring. Fortunately for the 
stability of the markets, but even more fortunately for the 
supply of food, the practice of freezing the excess summer 
catch and holding it at temperatures close to zero Fahrenheit 
until winter time has become so general that from October 
1 to April 30, which mark the limits of the storage-stocks 
season, we have a continuous course of fish in excellent order 
from the warehouse to the market to be disposed of, generally, 
at lower prices than the fresh-caught article. For example, 



204 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

hard-frozen shad sell from December to March for 40 to 50 
cents for a 4^-pound fish, while the fresh-caught is generally 
over $1 and may be more than $2. It is also fair to mention 
the fact that freezer-storage shad, put in promptly when in 
prime condition in the spring, are usually much better fish 
than those winter shad caught in southern waters and poorly 
handled on their journey to the northern consumer. Only the 
consumer's lack of information prevents the relative prices 
of fresh-caught and freezer-storage shad in winter time from 
being reversed. 

The prices of other varieties of frozen fish are also much 
less than those of the fresh-caught. Frozen western salmon 
runs from 6J to 8 cents a pound wholesale, frozen bluefish 
from 9 to 15 cents, frozen pollock from 2 to 4 cents, and flukes 
from 2 to 5 cents. 

RETAIL PRICES OP FISH. 

The prices already discussed are wholesale prices. To 
them the retailer adds his margin of profit. That profit varies 
greatly according to the class of consumers. It is the custom 
for a host of peddlers in New York City to take zinc-lined 
baskets to the Fulton Market, buy their supply, and carry it 
to their districts, where it is distributed at minimum cost 
charges. The fish dealer in the residential districts, how- 
ever, has a multitude of charges to be added, and he is also 
handicapped by the fact that his customers will buy only a 
few staple varieties, be they high or low priced. When some 
of the unknown varieties are offered to the housewife, be- 
cause they are plentiful and oftentimes cheap, she declines 
to buy, first, because the low price indicates to her absence of 
quality, and, second, because she does not know the variety 
nor its palatability. 

The prevailing ignorance concerning frozen fish is even 
greater than that concerning fresh fish. There is probably 
not one in ten thousand American housewives who would 
not refuse hard-frozen salmon at 15 cents a pound in favor 
of fresh-caught cod at 18 cents a pound. Yet most of them 
would doubtless consider salmon more or less of a delicacy. 

Another difficulty in fish distribution is the relatively large 
sale on Fridays. The fishermen hold fish for the higher price 
of Friday's market, thereby losing the high quality so neces- 
sary if consumption is to be increased. The retailer does not 



Supplementing, our Meat Supply with Fish. 205 

buy daily supplies for a continuous trade, as he does with 
meat, but lays in stock for Fridays only. Consequently, the 
housewife who would substitute fish for meat on other days, 
finds but scant choice unless she goes to the wholesale market. 
The foreign-born population in the congested areas of our 
large cities are not prejudiced in favor of certain varieties; 
provided the price is within their means the name of the fish 
is a secondary matter. And if the fish is palatable the fact 
that it is hard frozen does not weigh against a low price. 
Consequently, we find hard-frozen whiting and other plentiful 
fish selling for a few cents a pound in inland towns as well as 
on the coast, when the shops in the residence districts are 
charging double the price for the same article thawed to 
simulate fresh-caught fish and sold as fresh, a condition di- 
rectly traceable to the ignorance of the consumer. 

PREPARATION OF FISH FOR THE TABLE. 

The person who has enjoyed the appetizing and satis- 
fying fish served so universally in Europe, or even in New 
Orleans, finds a woeful lack of ability on the part of the 
American cook to utilize to the best advantage even the 
high-class fish, and a hopeless incompetence when the less 
desirable varieties are used. The many attractive sauces 
that add flavor and piquancy are unknown. The many ac- 
cessory dishes, such as salads, croquettes, pat6s, etc., that 
may be made from fish are never considered. A very great 
gain would accrue to this Nation if some agency would follow 
the example of Germany and institute classes in the art of 
cooking fish. 

Fish is now the poor man's food in the United States. 
To it, more than to any other nitrogen-rich product, must we 
look for a food supply to supplement the meat which we can 
not hope to have in the future as in the past, either in price 
or in quantity. All food taken from the sea is a net gain to 
the land. This food in no way impoverishes the soil, and in 
fact adds to the fertilizing elements of the country. On the 
other hand, food raised on the land necessarily takes elements 
from the soil, and this tends to impoverish the fertility of our 
farms unless the elements withdrawn are artificially re- 
stored. This is true of every animal raised for meat purposes, 
although, of course, the depletion of the soil on which meat 
animals are fed is not so direct as when corn or some other 



206 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

product is raised and shipped away to be consumed in some 
distant section. There is, moreover, a limit as to the amount 
that can be produced on the land. The fish in the seas, on 
the other hand, feed and breed unaided and practically in 
unlimited numbers. Like many another of our resources, 
we have not yet begun to fathom the value of the fish in our 
waters. Only time and necessity will teach what they mean 
to our Nation. 



ECONOMIC WASTE FROM SOIL EROSION. 

By K. O. E. Davis, 
Scientist in Laboratory Investigations, Bureau of Soils. 

IF you have ever been in a forest during a storm when the 
rain was coming down in torrents, you have probably 
noticed that the leaves and litter forming a layer on the 
surface of the soil act as a big sponge to soak up the water, 
and not until great quantities have fallen do streamlets be- 
gin to appear from under this layer of humus. You have 
noticed also that the water in these streamlets, or even in a 
stream having its origin in a forest, is generally perfectly 
clear. Perhaps, on the other hand, it has been your fortune 
to observe the work of such a torrent in an open field with a 
rolling surface. Here the result is quite different. With 
nothing to break their fall, the drops of water strike the bare 
soil in quick succession. The effect is that of thousands of 
little hammers beating upon the soil; its surface is com- 
pacted, the grains are forced closer together, preventing the 
absorption of water, and the finer material is so agitated 
that it remains suspended in the water collected on the sur- 
face. Almost immediately streamlets form, and, unless 
something impedes their progress, join together shortly to 
form a muddy torrent. You may have observed these 
things and understood perfectly well the reason for the dif- 
ference in results in the two cases. But did it ever occur to 
you that this difference is costing the United States millions 
of dollars yearly; that the amount of good soil material 
passing yearly to the sea by just such processes exceeds by 
more than two times the total amount of material removed 
in digging the Panama Canal? If such are the facts, we 
should study more closely the actual waste from water attri- 
tion and the means applicable for its prevention. 

THE NATURAL PROCESS OF EROSION. 

In the natural state, that is, the state in which the soil is 
covered with native vegetation, the soil is maintained in an 

207 



208 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

open, or porous, condition. Water from rain or melting snow- 
is largely absorbed by the soil, passes down to deeper layers, 
and by seepage eventually comes to streams in the lowlands. 
But if the water is supplied to the soil more rapidly than the. 
soil is able to absorb it, the collection on the surface begins 
to flow to lower levels- With leaves, litter, grass, or other 
vegetal coverings, the movement is retarded by the ob- 
struction offered, as well as retained through capillary attrac- 
tion on and between the surfaces of the material. In this 
way the velocity of the water over a vegetal-covered surface 
seldom attains such proportions that it is able to carry any 
great burden of suspended matter. 

Hillside erosion is not a simple process, for in it are in- 
volved the relation of the velocity of moving water to the 
slope of the soil, the amount of organic matter incorporated 
in the soil, the vegetal covering, the mechanical composition 
of the soil, and the rate at which water is supplied to the sur- 
face. In addition to the surface conditions of the soil, the 
character of the subsoil has a profound effect upon the tend- 
ency to erode. Thus it comes about that two fields of the 
same slope may show a marked difference in the rate of 
erosion. The fact that a soil is or is not covered with forest 
or grass, or contains much organic matter, or is clayey or 
sandy, influences the rate at which it absorbs water and the 
amount of erosion caused by the surface run-off of the water. 

ACTION IN FORESTS. 

In forests the movement of water is slow, it does not collect 
into streams, and as a general thing erosion is almost negli- 
gible. These conditions are well illustrated in the southern 
portions of the Appalachian Mountains. Under the natural 
conditions of forest cover in those regions the rate of erosion 
is slow and there is gradually established a state of equilib- 
rium in which the slope assumed becomes almost constant 
so long as the forest cover and the rainfall remain the same. 
A balance once established between the slope and the rainfall, 
the surface remains nearly the same for hundreds of years. 
Oidy occasional cloud-bursts or extraordinary rains produce 
a deepening of the valleys. The streams supplied by such 
slopes show marked characteristics. Only occasionally do 
they carry enough sediment to appear turbid, and even then 



Economic Waste from Soil Erosion. 209 

much of the suspended matter is organic in origin. The 
streams rise more slowly after storms, remain in flood for a 
longer period of time, and fall again more slowly than similar 
streams in cleared areas. Such streams have been described 
by the Geological Survey in the Appalachian Mountains in 
western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. Cane River 
from Mount Mitchell and streams in the Toxaway section 
never become muddy, no matter how swollen from continued 
rains. Such streams maintain deep channels and have their 
beds over pebbles or bowlders. They seldom change their 
courses and are in equilibrium with the region, an equilibrium 
which is disturbed only on clearing the land, when the relation 
of surface slope to stream gradient is changed. 

It is not uncommon in passing through the forests to find 
gullies started by the dragging or "snagging" of logs down 
the hills. Water accumulating in these smoother, bare 
places soon gathers momentum and sweeps soil and rocks 
down the slope with it. Often, however, erosion in a forest 
starts in the lowland or on the hillside adjoining the lowland. 
A region visited recently by the writer had a typical gully 
of such an origin. By undercutting and caving the gully 
has gradually eaten back into the forest until now it is more 
than 2 miles long and at its head nearly 60 feet in depth. 
It is not uncommon for it to advance 5 or 10 feet during an 
exceptionally heavy rainfall, carrying down the largest trees 
into its depth. (PI. XXIII.) 

The feeling one has on gazing up this yawning gulch is 
that only extraordinary means can stop its progress. And, 
indeed, this is true, for it has forced its way across roadways, 
through field and forest, right up to the front door of a 
dwelling. This, too, in a short time will be offered as a sac- 
rifice to the ever-increasing appetite of this monster. While 
one of such, gullies causes a feeling of wonder and disgust 
at the carelessness which permits a small wash, easily stop- 
ped in the beginning, to grow until it almost defies the inge- 
nuity of man to check its progress, we can not fail to realize 
the enormous economic waste produced when in a ride of 5 
or 6 miles eight or ten of those immense gulches are observed. 
Although really important in character, the peculiar soil con- 
ditions favorable to the formation of such gulches in the 
forest are rather exceptional. (PL XXIV, fig. 1.) 

27306°— YBK 1913 14 



210 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

ACTION ON CLEARED LAND. 

The greatest losses occur on cleared lands. In passing 
eroded sections one will notice the differences caused by the 
character of the soil and will naturally begin to classify the 
lands according to the character of erosion. In some re- 
gions it is possible to cultivate the soil on very steep hill- 
sides without any washing. This security is often due to 
the mechanical composition of the soil. The soil is more or 
less of a permanently loose and porous nature and the water 
falling on it is practically all absorbed. 

Other lands are subject to what is known as surface wash 
or sheet erosion, in which there is removed from every por- 
tion of the surface of the entire area an almost equal amount 
of soil material. This action is characteristic of close, heavy 
soils. Each heavy rain removes, as it were, a layer or sheet 
of soil material. Eventually this results in the appearance 
over the surface of the hillside of incipient gullies parallel to 
each other, often known as erosion of the parallel gully or 
shoe-string type. Gullies thus formed have sloping sides 
and more or less rounded edges. While the losses from this 
type of erosion are great, the result is hardly so disastrous, 
the devastation so rapid, or the possibility of reclamation so 
remote as in the case of the caving gully. (PI. XXIV, fig. 2.) 

The caving gully as described is the most destructive and 
the hardest to check. Its sides are almost perpendicular 
or slightly concave. The top layer of soil is generally of a 
heavy type which holds well, but, once a gully is started 
and this top layer is broken through, the underlying softer, 
micaceous or sandy layer is removed very rapidly, and cav- 
ing results. (PI. XXV, fig. 1.) 

The rarest type of erosion is probably the landslide. Land- 
slides occur generally where a thin layer of soil rests upon a 
glazy surface of rock. 

RELATION TO LUMBERING. 

The relation of erosion to lumbering is twofold. Much of 
the erosion in forests is started by the careless handling of 
cut timber, but a second and more serious result is that 
much of the land is destroyed even for future forest. Often 
the lumberman has cut away all timber, using what he could 



Economic Waste from Soil Erosion. 211 

and destroying what could not be used. On a recent visit 
by the writer to a sawmill situated in a section very subject 
to erosion, the owner was found to be entirely indifferent to 
any effects of his lumbering operations other than the amount 
of lumber that could be produced. In a near-by field, where 
the entire forest growth had been removed, great gullies had 
appeared and had ruined the field for agricultural purposes. 
(PI. XXVI, fig. 1.) One of the gullies was followed for over 
a half mile to a bottom along a creek bed. This originally 
had been a fertile field, but now was covered in most places 
with sand from 1 to 3 feet thick. The state of this field may 
be judged from an accompanying photograph. (PI. XXV, 
fig. 2.) When the owner was asked regarding his treatment 
of the land, he remarked that all he expected to get from it 
was the lumber. When asked if he expected to sell the land, 
he replied he did not suppose he could ; " didn't think it worth 
anything as farm land, it washed so bad." And yet by the 
ruthless cutting of timber he was destroying its value either 
as forest land or for reforestation. 

RELATION TO MINING. 

The lumberman, howevei, is not the only person who is 
contributing to the devastation of land by soil erosion. The 
miner, too, though to a less extent, contributes something to 
this economic waste. In some sections, through the com- 
plete destruction of forest in order to obtain timber for mine 
construction, erosion has resulted. In other sections placer 
mining has indirectly induced erosion on hillsides and filled 
channels of streams with the material washed from the hills. 
Following certain mining industries a secondary effect pro- 
duced is the destruction of near-by vegetation and the re- 
sultant devastation from erosion on the bare hillsides. Such 
results follow notably the mining of copper. An example is 
found in the Ducktown area of Tennessee. 

RELATION TO POWER DEVELOPMENT AND NAVIGATION. 

The losses from the filling of stream channels and storage 
reservoirs secured by building enormous dams can be touched 
on only. In many places the sediment collects so rapidly 
that the maintenance of storage reservoirs has been found 
impossible, and the practice of keeping simply a channel open 



212 ' Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

has been adopted. This means a great loss in water power 
and in navigation. In the rivers of the Southeastern and 
Southern States this constitutes one of the serious difficulties 
in the development of power sites. Owing partly to the fact 
that practically the whole precipitation both in the valleys 
and at the headwaters of these rivers is in the form of rain, 
and partly to the soil conditions, the rivers in general carry a 
large burden of sediment. Storage reservoirs are impossible 
because of rapid filling, and where dams are built for the 
development of power the reservoirs thus formed are also 
rapidly filled. W. S. Lee testified before the Agricultural 
Committee of the House of Representatives in 1908 that the 
capacity of certain reservoirs on the Catawba and Broad 
Rivers in South Carolina was so reduced that in a few years 
only the flow of the rivers would be available. At some sites 
dredging has been resorted to, but in general this has been 
found so expensive that finally no effort has been made to 
dredge more than enough to keep the stream channel open. 

Many river bottoms fill so rapidly that continual dredging 
is required to maintain channels sufficient for navigation. 
The waters coming from the hills bring with them a burden 
of silt and other solid material in suspension which is de- 
posited in the bed of the stream as it nears or reaches its 
flood plain. To prevent the filling of the stream bed and 
keep it open to navigation dredging must be continually 
resorted to. Otherwise the formation of sand bars and the 
change in the position of the channel are a constant menace 
to navigation. The Geological Survey reports the amount 
of silt carried by the Hudson River as 240,000 tons a year; 
by the Susquehanna, 240,000 tons; by the Roanoke, 3,000,000 
tons; by the Alabama, 3,039,900 tons; by the Savannah, 
1,000,000 tons; by the Tennessee, 11,000,000 tons; and by 
the Missouri above Ruegg, 176,000,000 tons. 

RELATION TO AGRICULTURE. 

Important as all these losses are, they are small in com- 
parison with the losses to agriculture and to the soil itself. 
To appreciate the intrinsic value of soil we should consider 
its nature, how it is formed. Ordinarily we do not think of 
rock and soil as the same, and yet in composition they are 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXIII. 




Fig. 1.— Erosion in Pasture Resulting from Destruction of Grass 

Cover. .. ... 




Fig. 2.— Erosion in Orangeburg Clay Loam. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXIV, 




Fig. 1— Erosion in Coastal Plain Uplands. 




Fig. 2.— Erosion in Clarksville Silt Loam. 






Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



P LATE XXV. 




Fig. 1.— Erosion in Clay Loam with Sandy Subsoil. 




Fig. 2.— Bottom Land Ruined by Sand Brought Down from Near-by 

Hills. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXVI. 




Fig. 1.— Erosion in Sandy Loam. 




Fig. 2.— Erosion Following Abandonment Retarded by Natural Growth 
of Pine, Shrubs, and Grasses. 



Economic Waste from Soil Erosion, 213 

very similar. If we were to take rock and break it into 
many fine pieces, some of it to powder, we should change the 
character of the material but not its composition. This is 
partly what happens to form soil. In addition, the disinte- 
grated mass is acted upon chemically by air and water, pro- 
ducing the weathered product we call soil. But that the 
freezing and thawing or changes in temperature, the action 
of water and of air should produce this material from rocks, 
requires, as may readily be imagined, a very long time. It is 
estimated that hundreds of years are required for the forma- 
tion of an inch of soil. Considering the rate at which soil is 
formed, is it not criminal to allow its abuse and destruction ? 
The result of one hard rain may remove the soil nature has 
prepared through centuries, much of its material being 
carried out to sea. Whenever the soil has been removed 
down to the underlying rock, it can not be replaced except 
by artificial means. 

Under the original process of nature the soil was continu- 
ally wearing away on the top, but more was forming, and the 
formation was somewhat more rapid than the removal. The 
layer of soil on hillsides represented the difference between 
the amount formed and that removed. After clearing, the 
rate of removal is greatly increased, but the rate of formation 
remains the same. Special m,eans should therefore be 
adopted to prevent this removal of excess material. 

Perhaps the power of water to remove this mantle of soil 
may be more clearly shown by a consideration of the great 
depth to which some rivers have cut. The Columbia River 
and the Colorado River have cut gorges 2,000 and 5,000 feet, 
respectively. Where the material is loose and incoherent 
the results produced by running water are much greater. 
It has been estimated that the Mississippi River, which 
drains over one-third of the area of the United States, 
delivers to the Gulf of Mexico from 370 to 680 million tons 
of suspended material yearly. Accepting the lower figure 
and assuming a lower rate for the rest of the United States 
(500 million tons), the total amount of soil material carried 
to the seas amounts to 870 million tons a year. Assuming 
that one-half of this is unnecessary waste, there is an annual 
loss of over 400 million tons of soil material. This means a 



214 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

preventable waste yearly of more material than was removed 
in digging the Panama Canal. But this is only part of the 
story, for only a small portion of the soil brought down from 
the hills is carried to the mouths of the rivers. What pro- 
portion it is impossible to estimate. 

Assuming an average removal of 3 inches from the top, or 
500 tons per acre, this lost material would mean 800,000 
acres ruined, which at a very low average loss of $5 per acre 
in value to the land would mean $4,000,000 per annum in 
depreciation alone. 

An estimate of the solid material carried by the Potomac 
River places the amount removed at 400 pounds per annum 
for every acre drained by it. The James River, with a flood 
of 10-foot crest, is reported to remove 275,000 to 300,000 
cubic feet of solid material in 24 hours and yearly removes 
three to four million cubic yards from the hills above Rich- 
mond in Virginia. The amount removed by erosion from the 
Piedmont region of North Carolina is said to amount to $3 
per acre yearly in decrease in crop value alone, making a total 
loss in this region of over $2,000,000. The value of the soil 
itself, washed away, is small in comparison with the loss in 
fertility, or from forced abandonment and idleness of land 
due to erosion. Land that should be producing is left idle, 
or is only slightly cared for, so that the returns each year 
become smaller, and abandonment follows. It is next to 
impossible to estimate the millions of dollars lost in this way 
each year. Some idea of the extent of this loss may be 
gained from the fact that the National Conservation Con- 
ference in 1909 reported nearly eleven million acres of 
abandoned farm land in the United States, most of it 
damaged and over one-third or about four million acres 
actually destroyed by erosion. At an average original value 
of $10, the loss amounts to $40,000,000. The loss from non- 
production is probably as much yearly. Added to this the 
losses to navigation and water power and in the expense of 
keeping open channels will almost double the amount, so 
that annually the United States is suffering the loss of 
seventy-five to one hundred million dollars through the 
agency of erosion. 



Economic Waste from Soil Erosion. 215 

UTILIZATION OP RAINFALL. 

The problems existing in the relation of erosion to the 
various industries are all subsidiary to the problem of the 
utilization of rainfall. This is the key problem of the whole 
series, of which navigation is the last. As has been stated, 
the natural process involves the absorption of most of the 
water where it falls. The problem is then put up to each 
individual owner of land. The water falling on an acre may 
be turned to good, lost as it runs away, or doubly lost if it 
carries a burden of soil particles with it. 

By having the soil in such condition that absorption is 
easy, a portion of the water passes down to the seepage 
water, carrying with it harmful soluble materials ; a portion 
returns to the surface to feed the plants, and a very small 
portion perhaps runs off the surface. There need be no 
uneasiness that too much water will be absorbed by soils 
where erosion is likely to take place, for in this country the 
crops can utilize all the rain during the growing season, and 
most of that falling at other seasons. 

If the surface run-off is thus reduced to a minimum the 
water absorbed increases the fertility of the field and passes 
into the seepage water which emerges into the streams free 
from all sediment and suspended matter; river channels are 
not filled with sand, flood plains are not covered with gravel, 
reservoirs are not made useless, and the mouths of rivers are 
not filled up with fine silt. An observation of the extent 
to which absorption will take place was made following a 
rainfall of over an inch. On an uncultivated soil the water 
had penetrated less than 2 inches, while on a cultivated soil 
well supplied with organic matter the water had penetrated 
to 6 inches. On the soil not in condition to absorb the rain- 
fall more than three-fourths had been lost in the surface 
run-off. 

NATURAL RECOVERY FROM EROSION. 

It is true that nature generally adapts itself to changing 
conditions, and for this reason a field abandoned because of 
erosion soon shows these efforts of nature to prevent the 
devastation. Volunteer trees spring up in the ditches, and 
briers cover the sides of the gullies. These, by the spread- 
ing of their roots and the addition of small amounts of organic 



216 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

material to the soil, furnish a lodging place for detritus and 
slowly check the devastating work of the running water. 
(PL XXVI, fig. 2.) The process is very slow, however, and, 
while it may be possible to have a field reclaimed in this 
way, it is the slowest method, and one that permits of great 
waste during its accomplishment. (PL XXVI, fig. 2.) 

This natural growth often furnishes a clue to the best 
method of reclaiming through reforestation. From the 
character of the natural growth, the kind of trees and shrubs 
best suited to the purpose can be determined. In one of 
the States having a section so subject to erosion that the 
State officials have become aroused to the danger of losing 
much of the land, the problem of reclamation has been seri- 
ously attacked. With a forester, especially selected for the 
purpose, working with the State geologist and the soil 
experts, it is hoped that lands that offer no hope of agricul- 
tural profit may soon be reforested, that proper methods of 
preserving the present forests may be introduced and the 
agricultural lands protected. 

The natural reclamation of flood plains covered with sand 
can be accomplished slowly, but only after the cause, the 
erosion on the hillside, has been stopped or largely checked. 
If the velocity of the water from the hillsides be reduced the 
sand will be deposited before reaching the bottom lands and 
only the finer material will reach the plains. In times of 
flood the stream overflowing the plain will deposit a layer of 
silty material, and eventually a soil may be built up that is 
capable of use agriculturally. However, of all lands dam- 
aged by erosion, perhaps it is hardest to produce productive 
soil on lands that have been covered to some depth with 

sand. 

RECLAMATION. 

Many farmers when approached on the subject of erosion 
show interest and agree that the loss is great. They will say, 
"Why, yes, some of my fields are badly washed, but it doesn't 
pay to try to do anything with them." They expect recla- 
mation, if it is ever accomplished, to be undertaken by the 
Government, and it is only with difficulty that they can be 
induced to make an attempt at stopping the ravages of 
erosion. It has been cheaper in the past to move to newer 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXVII. 




Fig. 1.— Terraced Slope. 




Fig. 2.— A Well-Terraced Field. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXVIII. 




Fig. 1.— Poorly Kept and Broken Terraces. 




Fig. 2.— A System of Mangum Terraces. 



Economic Waste from Soil Erosion. 217 

lands. But with the increased value of lands the necessity 
of utilizing that already in their possession will be impelling. 

Any reclamation will employ the same principles that 
must be used for prevention. 

Take as an example of the profit in reclaiming eroded land 
a place west of Johnson City, Tenn. Two years ago it was 
badly eroded, with several gullies 2 to 12 feet deep. The 
present owner paid $53 an acre for 38 acres, when adjoining 
land was selling at $100 to $150 an acre. The purchaser filled 
in the gullies with debris and by back-furrowing until no sign 
of them was left on the fields. He then incorporated much 
organic matter into the soil by putting on 200 loads of stable 
manure. Then by plowing the entire field to a depth of 10 
inches it was put into such condition that practically all rain 
falling on it was absorbed. A crop rotation of rye, peas, and 
corn or wheat was adopted. Before the end of the second 
season $100 an acre had been offered and refused. The total 
cost of reclaiming the 38 acres — an accurate account was 
kept — was $376, or approximately $10 an acre; but the value 
of the land had increased $47 . This particular soil is of heavy 
cohesive type and the erosion is not especially difficult to 
control, the incorporation of organic matter and deep plowing 
generally being sufficient to prevent gullying of its surface. 
This method is the most obvious one for preventing erosion. 

The forest has been cut from some soils that should never 
have been deprived of their original growth. As a result, in 
some sections the devastation has been almost unbelievable, 
and the only possible way of reclaiming the soil or preventing 
much greater depredation is by reforesting. The type and 
kinds of trees best suited to this work in the various localities 
must be determined by the forester. This in many cases 
will be the best way of reclaiming eroded lands, even though 
it be possible to utilize them for agricultural purposes. 

METHODS OF PREVENTION. 

Of course it is much better to prevent the destruction of 
soil by erosion than it is to take eroded and worn-out land 
and attempt to reclaim it. The methods of prevention must 
be practiced in reclamation also, in order to prevent months' 
work from being lost through the agency of one hard rain. 



218 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

In general there are two classes of methods employed. 
Those of the first class increase the porosity of the soil, 
enabling it to absorb a greater proportion of the water falling 
on it, while those of the second class decrease the velocity of 
the surface run-off. Increase in porosity is accomplished by 
the incorporation of organic matter in the soil and by break- 
ing the soil to considerable depth. A reservoir is thus 
formed for the storage of water during times of storm. Deep 
plowing is being supplemented considerably by the use of 
dynamite for breaking up the subsoil layers. Deep plowing 
alone is not so beneficial as when used in conjunction with 
the incorporation of organic matter in the soil. The organic 
matter causes the particles of soil to granulate, thus leaving 
larger spaces between them. And it increases not only the 
absorptive capacity but also the water-holding power of the 
soil. 

The second class of methods is composed of those that 
place some impediment in the path of the surface run-off. 
All kinds of terraces belong to this class. (PI. XXVII.) 
A distinct prejudice against terraces exists in some sections 
where erosion is bad. Yet the beauty of a well-terraced 
field is only slightly less than that of a field with check rows. 
That there exist some disadvantages in the terrace, or hill- 
side ditch and terrace, is readily admitted. The main one is 
connected with the use of harvesting machinery. However, 
when asked why he does not terrace his fields, the farmer has 
most often replied, "It wastes too much land." Perhaps he 
does not consider it wasted to have each year the best of 
his surface soil removed and deposited at the mouth of some 
river, hundreds of miles away. Any comparison on this 
basis is decidedly in favor of the terrace. It is mainly a 
question of whether we will retain for use part of the land 
or lose it all. If you doubt this, visit some of the sections 
where erosion is difficult to control. There you will find 
farms abandoned from one cause, namely, the terraces were 
allowed to break down. (PI. XXVIII, fig. 1.) 

There has lately come into prominence a terrace designed 
to eliminate the bad qualities and retain the good ones of the 
old-style terrace. This is the Mangum terrace, first con- 
structed by Mr. P. H. Mangum, of Wake County, North 
Carolina. Its construction has been described often, so thai. 



Economic Waste from Soil Erosion. 219 

it will be described here only briefly. The Mangum terrace 
is a broad bank of earth with gently sloping sides contouring 
a field at a grade of approximately 1£ inches to 14 feet. The 
most ordinary way of constructing it is by back- furrowing 
along the grade lines, although a road scraper or other means 
may be employed. The Mangum terrace is well adapted to 
most types of soil suited to agricultural uses, especially where 
the land is moderately rolling. The effect of such a terrace 
is to give a gradually sloping side, both above and below its 
highest point, so that cultivation may be carried on right 
across the ridge in any direction. (PI. XXVIII, fig. 2.) It 
also permits of the use of machinery, designed for extensive 
cultivation, and accomplishes the saving of considerable 
labor. While providing the same protection as the old-time 
terrace, it eliminates the waste of land and the breeding 
places for insects afforded by the weeds or grass growing on 
the ridges. For soils of a clayey or loamy nature it furnishes 
the ideal terrace. 

Another method that has merit but is expensive is that 
devised by Mr. John A. Adams, of Johnson County, Missouri. 
His method is to build across the lower part of his field a dam 
of earth or stone, which would stop the surface run-off and 
hold it on the field. But the distinctive thing about the 
plan is the way in which storm waters are cared for. Passing 
through the dam is a sewer pipe connected on the upper side 
with an upright pipe. The water runs down and fills tb e val- 
ley until it reaches the height of the upright pipe, when it 
flows down into the next field. The water left standing be- 
low the mouth of the upright pipe is disposed of by a tile drain 
laid along the valley and passing to the sewer pipe. The 
result of the system is that the rushing water is checked in 
the valley and gives up its burden of sediment, the water is 
removed from the valley largely by seepage into the tile 
drain, and the ground remains in good condition for working. 

Other types of terraces are in use, and many modifications 
are often adopted to suit particular kinds of soils. 

In some sections, and suited to certain uses, a combina- 
tion of the two methods of prevention is employed. Strips 
of grass maintained between strips of equal width growing 
some cultivated crop afford a protection that is adequate 
if the soil does not show too great a tendency to wash. In 
orchard culture often a sod mulch is maintained upon the 



220 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

ground, one of its purposes being to prevent the erosion of the 
soil. 

Methods of prevention have not been widely employed 
in this country. In China, where lands have been used for 
agricultural purposes for centuries, the terraces have been 
developed with great care, and the tilling of the soil has been 
pushed far up on the steep hillsides. Terraces are often 
formed by the use of retaining rock walls on their lower 
sides. Similar methods are used in Europe to allow cultiva- 
tion of steep hillsides. However, in this country it will 
hardly become necessary for some time to resort to such 
expensive methods to save the lands. If taken in time 
the waste of the less steeply situated land may be saved by 
some of the simple methods mentioned. 

Methods of preventing stream erosion consist mainly 
in maintaining deep, clean stream beds, and if the headwaters 
are properly taken care of it should be no great task to 
control the stream in the plains. At times the character of 
the soil along the banks is such that there is a continual 
undermining and cutting of the banks. A protective wall 
may be the only remedy, though often willows or other 
quick-growing plants may afford protection against erosion. 
In some sections of Europe, where the headwaters of the 
streams are looked after with great care, the whole bed of 
the stream in its upper course may be found lined with brick 
and built in regular terraces. The erosion of the stream is 
prevented near its source, and the filling of the stream bed 
near its mouth is avoided. 

From this survey of the economic aspect of erosion it is 
readily seen that the fertility of the fields in many hilly 
sections is being reduced by the bodily removal of the soil 
material, resulting in an annual loss of millions of dollars 
in crop production. Further losses are entailed in manu- 
factures, power development, navigation, and other in- 
dustries. The retention of the water where it falls would 
also prevent many destructive floods. The only way to 
stop the enormous waste is for each farmer to prevent erosion 
on his land. That reclamation even is profitable has been 
shown. Public sentiment should be aroused against the 
carelessness or indifference which permits eroded hillsides. 



THE GRAIN SORGHUMS: IMMIGRANT CROPS THAT 
HAVE MADE GOOD. 

By Carlbton R. Ball, 
Agronomist, Office of Cereal Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry. 

INTRODUCTION. 

THE world is being searched for new plants for the Amer- 
ican farm and garden. Some of those introduced in com- 
paratively recent years have become staple and valuable crops. 
Among these are durum wheats, Swedish Select and Kher- 
son Sixty-Day oats, and others. We call them no longer for- 
eigners but Americans. Other introductions which now seem 
strange and new will become familiar in the next decade or 
two. Many others will never become known because they are 
not adapted to our environmental or economic conditions. 

The grain sorghums are rather stout and mostly tall plants 
of the grass family, distantly related to corn. The grain is 
not found in ears, for they have none, but in heads which 
they bear where corn carries its tassel. There are several 
groups of these grain makers, known by different names. 
Among them are the durras, including feterita, and the 
milos, which have mostly short, fat heads and large flat seeds; 
the stout, broad-leaved kafirs, which have longer heads, full 
of small, egg-shaped seeds, and the slender, dry-stemmed 
kaoliangs with mostly small, oval seeds borne in heads of 
various shapes. 

While not of wide adaptation under present conditions, the 
grain sorghums are so perfectly adapted and so evidently 
supreme in their particular domain that they achieve an impor- 
tance in excess of their statistical rank as farm crops. To 
those who wonder why their use has not developed more 
rapidly, in view of their proven value, it can only be said 
that changes in crops or cropping methods must necessarily 
be slow. Progress must be measured not by years but by 
decades if stability of production is to be assured. Farmers 
are confessedly conservative. It is well. Were it not so the 
world might face famine as often as business faces panic. 

221 



222 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

IN THE ANCESTRAL HOME— USERS AND USES. 

Wherever the white man's love of adventure and discovery 
has led him, he has always found primitive peoples using 
strange new plants for food. The early explorers and colo- 
nists of America found the Amerinds cultivating maize and 
the native Indians of the Titicaca plateau in Peru, at eleva- 
tions of 11,000 to 14,000 feet, making use of quinoa, a kind 
of lamb's-quarter (Chenopodium quinoa). The traders and 
adventurers who first touched India and China gained their 
principal impressions from the port cities and recorded that 
the people of those countries lived chiefly on rice, a fiction 
that still persists. Later travelers, who reached the interior, 
found wheat, sorghums, and millets to be staple articles of 
diet. The sorghums were used mainly by the poorer classes 
or in times of scarcity. 

In India the two large southern presidencies, Bombay 
and Madras, nearly 1,500 miles long and half as wide, are 
the best-known areas of sorghum production. The crop is 
important, however, in the States lying farther to the north. 
It was estimated a few years ago that the area annually 
devoted to sorghums in India was 25,000,000 acres. More 
than 300 varieties have been imported from there and grown 
by the United States Department of Agriculture. A great 
diversity of forms was found, the plants varying from dwarf 
and stocky to tall and slender (PL XXIX, fig. 1 ) and the heads 
having as wide a range of variation. Some curious varieties 
were found, having two seeds in each spikelet instead of the 
customary one, a phenomenon occurring regularly in occa- 
sional spikelets of cultivated sorgos in this country. Other 
forms had long and pointed glumes, like the hulls of oats, 
projecting far beyond the apex of the seed. 

In China, Manchuria, and Chosen (Korea) a distinct group of 
grain-producing sorghums, the kaoliangs, have been developed 
(PI. XXIX, fig. 2). They range from Yunnan, on the 
mountainous frontier of Tibet, to far Manchuria, a stretch of 
more than 2,000 miles. Dwarfs less than a yard in height 
and slender sapling stems 20 feet or more tall are found 
(PI. XXIX, fig. 3). Between these are all the intermediates 
one might well expect. In head forms and seed colors the 
gamut is equally complete. 

It is among the frugal and industrious Chinese and Man- 
chus that the grain sorghums are put to the most varied 



The Grain Sorghums. 223 

uses. Besides the meal and porridge made from the seeds 
and the fodder derived from the whole plant, the thrashed 
heads are used for fuel and certain sorts for brooms; the 
leaves are used for fodder and for mats; the stalks for 
baskets, light bridges, fences, fuel, hedges, house-building 
material, kite frames, laths, matting, playthings, posts, 
thatching, trellises, windbreaks, withes, and window shades, 
while even the roots and attached stubble are carefully dug 
and saved for fuel. The seed is also commonly used to make 
a fermented drink, or beer. 

When wo survey Africa, however, the real abundance and 
diversity of the cultivated members of the sorghum family 
are seen. They are found in every nook and corner of the 
great peninsular continent. Five thousand miles from 
northern sea to southern cape she lies, and 4,000 from ocean 
to ocean. From Morocco to Egypt, from Egypt to the Cape; 
again from the Cape northward to the old Slave Coast; and 
throughout the length of the Sudan, from Senegal on the 
west to Abyssinia on the east, this crop occurs. On the dry 
plains, in the oases of the Sahara, on high plateaus, and in 
mountain valleys, in tropical jungles and temperate veldts, 
throughout the length and breadth of Africa, sorghum is the 
one ever-present crop, though the forms are as diverse as the 
conditions under which they grow. The plants vary in 
height from 3 or 4 to probably 20 feet (PI. XXX, fig. 1). 
The heads vary in shape and structure from ovate and densely 
compact to loosely cylindrical, to fan-shaped forms, and to 
long and flowing feathery plumes. In length they vary 
from 5 to 25 inches. The seeds vary in color from white to 
pink, red, brown, and yellow, with an occasional tinge of 
blue. Everywhere they are used by the native tribes for 
human food, for the making of fermented drinks, and as 
fodder for live stock where such is owned. 

IMMIGRANTS IN A NEW COUNTRY. 

THE DTJRRAS. 

In 1874, two durras, Brown and White, arrived at the 
port of San Francisco, though whether by first cabin, second 
cabin, or steerage is not recorded. Their passage had been 
booked from Egypt, but it is now known that their African 
home was in the old Barbary States of Algeria and Tunis 
and in the oases of the Sahara. Out to the ranches in the 



224 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

two great inland valleys of the State they went and proved 
their entire ability to withstand the far-famed California 
climate. During the next few years they were allowed to 
occupy the wide space between rows of young grapes, 
almonds, and plums until it was needed by the growing 
fruits. In return, they fed the rancher's work stock, cows, 
and chickens. 

THE KAFIKS. 

While this little foreign colony was being planted in Cali- 
fornia, something was doing on the Atlantic coast, 2,500 
miles away. In the year 1876 a great international exposi- 
tion was held in Philadelphia to commemorate the hun- 
dredth anniversary of American independence. Among the 
many foreign exhibits at the Centennial Exposition was that 
of the Orange River Colony, later known as the Orange Free 
State, and now a part of the great Union of South Africa. 
In this exhibit were two samples of small, hard, egg-shaped 
seeds, one white, the other a red-brown (see PL XXXI, 
fig. 1, Cand D), two varieties of the so-called " Kafir corn" 
(PI. XXX, fig. 2) of South Africa. 

How slender is the chain which connects these two samples 
of seed lying in a Philadelphia exhibit with the thriving 
industry of the dry-land West! Probably hundreds and 
thousands of visitors looked at the strange new seeds and 
thought no more of them, or noted only that they were 
sorghums from South Africa, whence had come, some 20 
years before, the sorgos or sweet sorghums which America 
still hoped would one day fill her sugar bowl. Of all these 
sightseers, only two, so far as we have any record, were 
interested enough to ask for samples. Perhaps these two 
had come in touch at Philadelphia; who knows? One was 
a Georgia planter, Mr. J. A. Meeker, of Marietta, who took 
the seeds home and grew the plants for a few years, but 
finally lost his stock of seed by mice and rats. The second 
was an English officer from Egypt, said to have been a 
Gen. Graves, who traveled through the South after visiting 
the exposition. He left a very small quantity of the white 
seed at the Georgia State Department of Agriculture, during 
his stop in Atlanta. 

On February 14, 1877, a thimbleful of the seed was sent 
by Dr. T. P. Janes, then State commissioner of agriculture, 
to Dr. J. H. Watkins, of Palmetto, Ga. For eight years, 
from 1877 to 1884, he grew it, selected it, and increased his 



Yea-book U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXIX. 




Fig. 1.— Plants of Different Varieties of Sorghum from India. 
(Photographed by author.) 




Fig. 2.— Field of Kaoliang Curing in the Shock, Harbin, Manchuria. 
( Photographed by Frank X. Meyer.) 




Fig. 3.— Five Varieties of Kaoliang. 

Lett to right: C. I. No. 273 (S. P. I. No. 21078), Vallev Brown; C. I. No. 293 (S. P. I. No. 
22011), Shantung Dwarf; C. I. No. 309 (S. P. I. No. 22911), Vallev Brown; C. I. No. 272 (S. 
P. I. No. 210771, Mukden White; C. I. No. 310 (S. P. I. No. 22912), Barchet Blackhull. 
(I'hotographcd by author, 1908.) 





Fig. 1.— Plants of Two Abyssinian Sorghums. 

S. P. I. No. 11084, tall an<l still growing, September 26, 
1906, and S. P. I. No. 110C2,3 feet tall and in fruit, Sep- 
tember 16, 1905. (Photographed by author.) 



Fig. 2.— Heads of Four Varieties of Kafir. 

A, White kafir; li, Guinea kafir (Guinea corn of the 
West Indies): C, Blaekhull kafir; D, Ked kafir. 
(About one-fifth natural size.) 






Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 






* * % •* 

♦ % ft ft ft 

• % * ft * 



PLATE XXXI. 



V ' 



Fig. 1.— Seeds of Grain Sorghums. 

A Milo- B White durra; C, ISlackhuU kafir; Z>. Red kafir; E, Brown kaoliang; F, Shallu. 

(Slightly reduced.) 




Fig. 2.— Plat of Dwarf Milo, Showing Pendent (Gooseneckedj Heads. 
(Photographed by author.) 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXXII. 




Fig. 1. -Three Plants of Blackhull Kafir, 5.5 Feet High, Selected for Low 
Stature and High Yielding Power. 

( Photographed by author.) 




Fig. 2.— Original Plat of Dwarf and Early Blackhull Kafir (C. I. No. 340.) 
(Photographed by author.) 



The Grain Sorghums. 225 

stock of seed. In 1885 and 1886 he began to distribute it 
personally and through the Georgia State Department of 
Agriculture, and in 1886 through Hon. Norman J. Colman, 
United States Commissioner of Agriculture. 

THE MILOS. 

Just at the time the White kafir was being sent out on 
its first missionary journeys to the dry-land West, there 
appeared a new sorghum immigrant in the South. It was 
first brought to notice in South Carolina, but no one knows 
just when or whence it came. Almost certainly, however, it 
arrived from Africa, and perhaps as a stowaway. Relatives 
have since been found in irrigated Egypt, but the same plant 
has not again appeared. In this country it was first known 
as "yellow millo maize." The crop most commonly known 
at that time as "millo maize," however, was a white-seeded 
variety (see PI. XXX, fig. 2, B) from the West Indies, called 
there "Guinea corn" by the English and "petit millet" by 
the French. The yellow-seeded immigrant never became 
well known in the South, but was carried westward early by 
emigrating planters and soon became established in Texas. 

FIGHTING DROUGHT ON THE PLAINS. 

While the immigrant crops already described were finding 
place in the older settled States, the thin skirmish line of 
pioneer farmers had been thrown far out into the Great 
American Desert. These were followed closely by the larger 
army of settlers seeking homes on the newer, cheaper lands 
of the West. 

Kansas bore the brunt of the battle against the desert. 
Oklahoma was largely closed to settlement until 1890, and 
much of western Texas was occupied and dominated by 
immense cattle ranches. Within the borders of Kansas, 
however, the influx of settlers was very rapid. The popula- 
tion increased more in the three years 1871-1873, inclusive, 
than in the entire decade previous. This was due partly to 
the early history of the State, partly to encouragement given 
to settlers by State agencies, and partly because of the early 
building of two transcontinental railways across the Com- 
monwealth. 

Settlers from the older and more humid States, good farm- 
ers under the conditions with which they were familiar, 
poured out into the Plains area during the decade beginning 

27306°— tbk 1913—15 



226 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

with 1871. The crop varieties used were those adapted to 
more humid conditions. The principles of dry farming were 
then unknown, and experiments to determine them were not 
yet begun. 

Disappointment and discouragement awaited many of the 
new settlers, especially those in the farthest West. Climatic 
conditions were much more severe than they had experienced 
or expected. Years of deficient rainfall and drought occurred. 
Sometimes gales of wind in spring destroyed young crops and 
moved vast quantities of soil from the fields to fence rows, 
farmyards, and other drift-making shelters. Hot and 
scorching winds in midsummer sometimes blasted crops in a 
single day. Immense swarms of hungry grasshoppers moved 
to and fro during 1874, devouring growing crops almost in a 
night. They appeared again in some sections for periods of 
two and three years thereafter. These conditions, espe- 
cially the destructive winds and recurring drought, were 
wholly new and strange to most of the farmers. 

Successive periods of drought rolled back the advancing 
wave of settlement time after time, now here, now there, 
leaving deserted farms and ruined villages in their wake. 
Settlers surveying the grass-covered and flower-tinted prai- 
ries in the warmth and beauty of spring could not realize the 
pitiless sky and parched earth of many a midsummer. It 
seemed to them incredible that so fair a prospect could be 
utterly mocked by the lack of a few inches of rain. Nor was 
the advice given them always of the best. As late as the end 
of 1880, a year of great drought, Kansas settlers were assured 
by the then professor of meteorology at their State Univer- 
sity that increased rainfall with increased settlement was 
practically a certainty. Doubtless he was misled by the 
unsuspected incompleteness of early rainfall records from 
frontier army posts and by a certain apparent periodicity of 
precipitation in that area. At any rate, most who heard 
believed, because it was what they wanted to believe. Bad 
as 1880 had been, 1881 was far worse. Corn was a complete 
failure in the western counties, and the average acre yield 
for the entire State was less than 20 bushels. The native 
vegetation of the Plains consists of types which can with- 
stand such adverse conditions, through one adaptation of 
another. Manifestly farm crops and farm practices also 
must have special adaptations in order to be successful in 
such an environment. 



The Grain Sorghums. 227 

NEW CROPS AND A NEW HOPE. 

Under the conditions described, one may well believe tbat 
earnest search was made for adapted crops. Sorghums were 
quickly in the minds of many. Sorgos or sweet sorghums 
had been grown by the earliest settlers and their drought 
resistance proved. Were all sorghums drought resistant? 
No one knew, but plenty were willing to try. Out in Cali- 
fornia, the two dun-as, there called "Egyptian corn," had 
been found to grow well on dry farms. They were brought 
to Kansas in 1879 and in the years 1880-1882 over 30,000 
acres were grown annually, after which their production de- 
clined. In spite of their ability to withstand drought, they 
were not profitable. Of low stature and scanty foliage, they 
yielded little fodder where fodder was greatly in demand. 
The heads were pendent and troublesome to gather. The 
grain also shattered badly in the field in windy weather and 
during harvest. So sorgos were grown for forage and the 
•search for an adapted grain crop continued. 

In 1885 Dr. Watkins and the Georgia State Department 
of Agriculture first began to distribute the White kafir, and 
in 1886 the United States Department of Agriculture took 
part in the propaganda. As soon as it reached the dry 
lands it was seen to be adapted to the conditions. By 1888 
it was appearing on the farms of Kansas. It was as drought 
resistant as any sorghum in the peculiar ability to suspend 
growth through considerable periods of drought and to 
resume growth when favorable conditions were restored. 
The stalks were erect and leafy and remained green until the 
seed was ripe, thus making good fodder as well as grain. 
The seed remained firmly held in the glumes while the crop 
cured in the field, thus preventing any waste. Here was the 
ideal crop for the dry country. Farm settlement took a 
fresh start, and the new crop and the new farm developed 
together. 

Data on the acreage of kafir were first available for 1893, 
when there were 47,000 acres in Kansas. The acreage 
increased 100 per cent annually for the next three years and 
continued to increase to the end of the first decade covered 
by statistics, reaching high-water mark at three-quarters 
of a million acres in 1902. This maximum followed the 
seriously unfavorable season of 1901, when corn was a total 
failure in the western sections and yielded little more than 



228 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

6 bushels to the acre for the entire State. Two or three 
years more favorable to com and the lack of a profitable 
market for surplus kafir then checked the increase for the 
next eight years. From 1903 to 1910 the Kansas grain- 
sorghum acreage varied between 530,000 and 740,000 acres 
annually. In Oklahoma from 1904 to 1910 the area varied 
between 390,000 and 685,000 acres, the maximum occurring 
in 1909. 

Meantime chemical analysis had shown the grain sorghums 
(PI. XXXI, fig. 1) to be very similar to corn in composition. 
Digestion trials and feeding tests had proved them to have 
90 per cent of the value of corn for feeding purposes. A 10 
per cent advantage in drought resistance and consequent 
average yield would make the grain sorghums equal to corn 
as farm crops. This advantage they had, and more. At the 
same time field experiments with these crops were showing 
the need of new theories to account for the behavior of dif- 
ferent varieties under similar conditions. 

RESISTING OR ESCAPING DROUGHT. 

That sorghums of all kinds were drought resistant was very 
early apparent. That some sorts escaped from as well as 
resisted drought was slower to be realized. Such varieties 
as did best in dry seasons were thought to be more drought 
resistant in some way than other varieties. Gradually came 
a better knowledge of the movement and storage of soil 
moisture and of its transpiration by dry-land crops. It was 
seen that earliness aided a crop to escape drought by short- 
ening the period during which water was required. Dwarf 
stature and small leaf area also helped to reduce the quan- 
tity of water needed in any given period. 

Thus was recognized the existence and value of characters 
which enable drought-resistant crops further to escape and 
evade drought. Dwarf plants with small leaf area may 
escape drought when it occurs because they use the stored 
soil water more slowly than larger plants with larger leaf 
areas. Thus the stored supply may last until they are 
mature or until the drought is broken. Earliness aids the 
plant to evade drought by bringing it to maturity before the 
drought occurs or beco'mes severe. When these principles 
became fully recognized, the quest for dwarf and early 
strains was given a great impetus. The need of such strains 



The Grain SorgTiums. 229 

for use farther north and at higher elevations had. been felt 
before. To this need was now added the equally pressing 
need for drought escapers. 

BREEDING DROUGHT ESCAPERS. 

The search for dwarf and early strains to meet these needs 
and conditions was begun promptly by the United States 
Department of Agriculture. While explorers ransacked the 
corners of the earth for desirable forms, breeding was com- 
menced with the most promising material in hand. 

A dwarf strain of milo (PI. XXXI, fig. 2) , its origin unknown, 
was already here, needing little improvement except in the 
matter of pendent heads. The White kafir as originally 
introduced in the Plains was fairly dwarf and early, but it 
had one serious defect, namely, the tendency of the heads to 
remain partly included in the boot. This must be overcome 
if it was to be of value. Dwarf strains and early strains of 
Blackhull kafir, the favorite crop, were yet to be created. 

From the many strains of Blackhull kafir under test a 
large number of head selections were made from stalks having 
low stature (PI. XXXII, fig. 1) and other desirable characters. 
In the summer of 1908 an extra dwarf row appeared in the 
series of dwarf selections. From this row was bred the 
Dwarf kafir (PL XXXII, fig. 2), now becoming so popular. 
It reaches a height of only 3 to 4 feet and matures 7 to 10 
days earlier than ordinary acclimated strains of Blackhull 
kafir. It can thus be grown in a shorter season than other 
strains and is also more drought escaping. At the same time 
and from the same source was produced an early-maturing 
strain which retains the height of the ordinary kafir. In 
Plate XXXIII are shown the comparative earliness of the 
Dwarf and Standard Blackhull kafirs, growing side by side 
on the high plains of northwestern Texas. 

. In 1907 another immigrant came to us out of Africa. 
This time it was from the wild and turbulent region of the 
British Egyptian Sudan — from historic Khartum, where 
"Chinese" Gordon wrought and ruled and where he finally 
perished in the fanatical uprising that closed the Sudan for 
long and bitter years. This durra variety, known as feterita, 
or Sudan durra (PI. XXXI V, fig. 1), is marked by erect heads, 
white seed, fairly dwarf stature, and early maturity. These 
are all desirable characters, and it gives promise of some 



230 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

value as a dry-land crop. Just now enormously inflated 
values are being ascribed to it because in many cases it 
produced grain in 1913 when kafir and even milo failed. 
However, its larger, softer seed and somewhat weaker ger- 
mination cause rather thinner stands than are obtained from 
kafir and milo. In the dry season of 1913 these thin stands 
were its salvation, as has been noted also in other seasons. 
What its permanent place and value shall be it is yet too 
early to predict. 

It was soon found that the milos and durras could not be 
depended upon to furnish grain as far north as Nebraska and 
South Dakota. The heat units available, especially at night, 
seemed insufficient. Could sorghums be found which had ac- 
quired, through the centuries, that acclimation and adaptation 
to northern climates needed in this case? The southern 
boundary of South Dakota is in latitude 43° and the north 
line about 46°. The only region in the world which grows 
sorghums abundantly as far as 40° from the equator is Man- 
churia. Many varieties of the kaoliang from northern China, 
Manchuria, and Korea were obtained, tested, and classified. 
(See PI. XXIX, fig. 3.) The earliest of all proved to be a 
plant of medium size from Manchuria (PL XXXIV, fig. 2), 
which was described and named Manchu Brown (C. I. Nos. 171, 
261, and 328). While not a heavy yielder, it has consistently 
outyielded corn in the central part of South Dakota and is 
now being distributed to South Dakota farmers by the State 
experiment station and the United States Department of 

Agriculture. 

MAKING GOOD. 

During those years when the grain-sorghum acreage was 
increasing most rapidly, as also in the later 8-year period 
when it remained stationary, the area devoted to corn was 
steadily enlarged. Corn was king, his supremacy as yet 
unchallenged. To deny his royalty was treason. But the 
appreciation of kafir and milo as comparatively safe crops 
in dry seasons was increasing. So was the knowledge that 
corn was a doomed crop in a year of drought. Land sellers 
still said corn was the crop to grow; ergo, corn must be grown. 
But facts are stubborn things. The theory of increasing rain- 
fall had long since been dried out of the most credulous miads. 
Empty pockets and empty stomachs speak louder than 
tongues and are far more efficient in opening eyes and dis- 



The Grain Sorghums. 



231 



arming prejudice. Promoters and growers alike began to see 
a great light. Reduction of the corn acreage was openly ad- 
vocated. Farmers, farm papers, scientists, merchants, bank- 
kers, land men, and railroads all joined in an aggressive cam- 
paign to promote the growing of kafir and milo instead of corn 
in the drier Plains. In Oklahoma it was even seriously pro- 
posed that credit and loans be denied to any farmer not 
planting at least a certain acreage of kafir. Doubtless some 
foolish talk was indulged in and much foolish advice given 
during the campaign, but of the results there can be no doubt. 
There was a decided decrease in the acreage of corn and a com- 
paratively enormous increase in the area devoted to grain 
sorghums. 

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Fio. 5.— Graphic presentation of the comparative area in millions of acres of 
grain sorghum and corn in Kansas for the ten years 1904-1913, inclusive. 

The coincidence of the declining corn area and the increas- 
ing acreage of kafir and milo in Kansas can be seen at a 
glance in figures 5 and 9. Figure 5 tells the story for 
Kansas as a whole and figure 9 for the 46 counties comprising 
the western half. In this State the grain-sorghum area 
jumped to 1,093,000 acres in 1911, 1,605,000 acres in 1912, 
and 1,633,000 acres in 1913. The maximum area devoted 
to corn in Kansas was 8,590,000 acres grown in 1910. In 
1911 and 1912 the area decreased nearly 1,000,000 acres a 
year. 

What caused the rapid change in comparative acreage? 
A growing knowledge of comparative acre values! Mere 
acres count for little unless they produce profits. Figure 6 
shows the acre value of both crops in Kansas during the last 
10 years. For the entire State the average acre value of 



232 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

kafir and milo was $2.14 greater than that of corn. The 
production of these crops is also more regular and evenly 
distributed. These statistics, taken from the reports of the 
Kansas State Board of Agriculture, are not wholly fair to 
corn, however. They include the value of both grain and 
stover in grain sorghums, but only the grain value of the corn. 
If the stover value of corn were included the average values 
would be more nearly equal. 

How nature helped to swing the pendulum is seen when 
corn yields are considered. For 1907 to 1909 the average 
yield in Kansas was only about 20 bushels per acre; in 1910 
less than 18 bushels; in 1911 less than 13 bushels; in 1912 it 



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Fig. 6 — Graphic presentation of the annual acre value in dollars per acre of grain 
sorghum and corn in Kansas for the ten years 1904-1913, inclusive, and average 
acre value for the 10-year period. 

increased to nearly 23 bushels, but in 1913 was only 2.75 bush- 
els. It would be very interesting to compare the yields of 
grain sorghum and corn, but unfortunately statistics of the 
former are given in tons of crop and of the latter in bushels of 
grain. 

While this was being done in Kansas, Oklahoma also was 
making history. Figure 7 tells the story of Oklahoma's 
acres, while figure 11 shows what happened in the 21 counties 
contained in the western third of the State. She produced 
625,000 acres of grain sorghums in 1910 and 873,000 acres in 
1911, an increase of a quarter million acres. No data for 
1912 and 1913 are available, but there is every reason to 
believe, from the vigorous campaign waged, that the in- 
crease was proportional to that in Kansas. Oklahoma 
reached her maximum corn area in 1909 with 5,135,000 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. 


of Agriculture 


1913. 






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Fig. 1 .—A Plat of Dwarf Blackhull Kafir (C. I. No. 340 1, August 31 , 1911. 

Compare its carlincss with that of standard Blackhull kafir (fig. 2) planted on the same day. 
(Photographed by author.) 



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Fig. 2.— A Plat of Blackhull Kafir iC. I. No. 71 I, August 31, 1911. 

Compare the stage of development wilh that of the Dwarf Blackhull kafir in figure 1, planted on 
the same day in an adjacent plat. (Photographed by author.) 



Yearbook U. S. Deot. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXXIV. 




Fig. 1.— A Plat of Feterita, Showing Thin Stand and Uneven Growth. 
(Photographed by author, August 31, 1911.) 




Fig. 2.— Plat of Selected Manchu Kaoliang (C. I. No. 171). 
(Photographed by author.) 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXXV. 



f* m «► f^ $ 

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Fig. 1.— Milo Seeds, Hulled and Unhulled, and a Small Branch of a Head. 

iNatural Size. i 




Fig. 2.-Milo Field in Shock, XIT Ranch, Channing, Tex., September 1 8, 1 906. 
( Photographed hy author.) 




Fig. 3.— Field of Milo as Improved by Selection, from 4 to A'< Feet Tall, 

Slender, Without Branches, Heads Mostly Erect. 

(Photographed by author.) 



The Grain Sorghums. 



233 



acres. In 1910 and 1911 the decline was at the rate of more 
than a million acres a year, as shown in figure 7. 

Figure 8 shows the acre value of both crops in Oklahoma 
for eight years, beginning in 1904. Corn has an average ad- 

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Fig. 7.— Graphic presentation of the comparative area in 
millions of acres of grain sorghum and corn in Okla- 
homa for the eight years 1904-1911, inclusive. 

vantage of $2 .26 per acre for the period. This reversal of the 
Kansas figures is due to three or four things which profit corn. 
Oklahoma lies in a more southerly latitude than Kansas. 
The Oklahoma statistics include the stover, value of only a 
small part of the grain sorghum. The grain sorghums are 
largely restricted to the drier western third of Oklahoma. 
(See fig. 11.) The very unfavorable season of 1913 is not in- 
cluded, for lack of data. 



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Fig. 8.— Graphic presentation of the annual acre value in dollarsper acre 
of grain sorghum and corn in Oklahoma for the eight years 1904-1911, 
inclusive, and average acre value for the eight-year period. 

In Oklahoma the average yield of corn in 1907 and 1908 
was less than 19 bushels; in 1909 less than 14 bushels; in 
1910 less than 12 bushels; and in 1911 little more than 6 
bushels. Statistics of production for 1912 and 1913 are not 
available, but it is certain that the average yield in 1913 was 
very small. Such yields for the entire State usually mean 



234 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

almost complete failure of corn in the western portions. The 
actual annual yields of the grain sorghums would be very- 
desirable here, also, but a portion of the crop is reported in 



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Fig. 9.— Graphic presentation of the area in millions of 
acres of grain sorghum and corn in the 46 comities com- 
prising the western half of Kansas and lying wholly- 
west of the ninety-eighth meridian, for the 10 years 
1904-1913, inclusive, and average area for the 10-year 
period. 

bushels of grain and the remainder in tons of crop and the 
acreage is not separated. 

Where then should kafir and milo be grown in preference 
to corn? Figures 9, 10, 11, and 12 assist in answering this 
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Fig. 10.— Graphic presentation of the annual acre value in dollars per acre of grain sorghum 
and corn in the 46 counties comprising the western half of Kansas and lying wholly west 
of the ninety-eighth meridian, for the 10 years 1904-1913, inclusive, and average acre value 
for the 10-year period. 

question. Half of Kansas, containing 46 counties, lies west of 
the ninety-eighth meridian. Figure 9 shows the area of grain 



The Grain Sorghums. 



235 



sorghum and corn in those counties. Nineteen of them 
already grow more kafir and milo than corn. The average acre 
value for this area, as shown in figure 10, proves the grain 
sorghum to be the more profitable crop. We have already 
seen that for the whole State of Kansas the average acre 
value of the grain sorghums was $2.14 higher than that of corn 
during the 10-year period, while in the western half of the 
State it was $3.51 higher. These figures include the value of 
the grain-sorghum stover, but not that of corn. However, 
corn stover is scanty and worth but little in dry areas. After 
allowing a fair price for it, the grain sorghums are still worth 
considerably more per acre than corn in the drier portion of 



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Fig. 11.— Graphic presentation of the annual area in mil- 
lions of acres of grain sorghum and corn in the 21 counties 
comprising the western third of Oklahoma and lying wholly 
west of the ninety-eighth meridian, for the 8 years 1904- 
1911, inclusive. 

the State. This fact, together with their more uniformly 
certain production, ought to cause further increase in the 
acreage of kafir and milo in western Kansas. 

A comparison of figure 9 with figure 5 shows that fully 
half of the Kansas grain sorghum is grown in the eastern half 
of the State. The acre value for the entire State indicates, 
moreover, that it pays to grow it in eastern Kansas, at least 
on the uplands. 

Similarly, one-third of Oklahoma, containing 21 counties, 
lies west of the ninety-eighth meridian. Figure 11 shows the 
acreage in this area of the two crops under discussion. Nine 
of these counties in 1911 grew more kafir and milo than corn. 
Figure 12 tells why they did it and why more of them 
probably were doing it in 1913. In sharp contrast to Kan- 
sas, a comparison of figure 1 1 and figure 7 shows only about 
one-fifth of the grain-sorghum crop grown in the eastern 



236 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



two-thirds of the State. When we consider the acre values 
given in figure 8 for all Oklahoma and in figure 12 ior the 
western third, there is developed a deep suspicion that it 
would be very profitable to grow kafir and milo farther 
east in Oklahoma. 

Meanwhile what of Texas, the great dry-farming empire 
of the South? We know that during the years when the 
kafir industry was developing in Kansas, milo had been car- 
ried into Texas by westward-faring emigrants. Gradually 
it became established on the farms and ranches of the drier 
western portions of the State (Plate XXXV). No statistical 
data are to be had, but we know it increased steadily and 

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Fig. 12.— Graphic presentation of the annual acre value in dollars per acre 
of grain sorghum and corn in the 21 counties comprising the western 
third of Oklahoma and lying wholly west of the ninety-eighth meridian, 
for the 8 years 1904-1911, inclusive, and average acre value for the 8-year 
period. 

also that the kafirs were soon introduced and became popular. 
There is every reason to believe that the area devoted to these 
two crops in Texas has more than equaled the area grown in 
Kansas, at least until the recent enormous increase. 

It is to be regretted that no complete and separate statistics 
of the acreage and production of grain sorghums are obtained 
by the Federal Census Bureau. Separate data are now 
gathered and reported on that portion of the crop from 
which the grain is thrashed. The portion, however, which is 
not thrashed, but fed. either in the head or bundle, or used for 
silage, is lumped with fodder and silage corn, sorgos (saccha- 
rine sorghums), pearl millet, teosinte, etc., as coarse forage. 
The acreage represented by each crop is not shown separately. 
Much of the kafir and milo crop grown in western Oklahoma 
and western Texas is not thrashed because of the scarcity 



The Grain Sorghums. 237 

of grain separators, this section not producing very large 
quantities of other cereals. The acreage and importance 
of grain sorghums would now seem fully to warrant the 
obtaining and publication of complete statistics of acreage 
and production wholly apart from those of any other crop. 

FEEDING THE FARM STOCK AND THE FARM FAMILY. 

From the beginning the kafirs and milos have fed the farm 
horses that worked to raise the settler's crop and the faithful 
cow that gave his children drink. They have fed the hogs 
that fit so handily into the economy of every farm. They 
have fed the chickens that, more often than is known, have 
stpod between the new settler and privation or failure. 

With the testimony of the chemical analysis and feeding 
experiment, kafir and milo grain began to enter the feeding 
ration of beef cattle on the Plains. Kafir chops and milo 
chops became staple articles of bovine diet and kafir-fed 
cattle were commended at the great stock markets. Mean- 
time the manufacturers of poultry feeds found in kafir the 
most desirable form of feeding grain. In the thousands of 
tons of such feeds made annually in the United States about 
25 per cent of the material is kafir grain. 

These grains have also a place in the human diet. Ground 
in the coffee mill on the wall of the farm kitchen, the meal 
has made many a stack of batter cakes on winter mornings. 
Mixed with varying proportions of wheat flour it is susceptible 
of every use to which corn meal may be put. As flour it 
will always be a failure. Like corn meal, it contains no 
gluten and so will not rise as dough, no matter how much it 
be coaxed. But as meal it has a flavor of its own and a wide 
range of usefulness in plain and tasty cooking. Muffins, 
brown bread, corn cakes, and pancakes par excellence are 
for him who uses it. In puddings and in pastries it will do 
all that corn meal may. 

At last the grain sorghums had come into their own. No 
longer were they to be regarded as servants, faithful indeed, 
but inferior; no longer as poor relations of corn, honest, per- 
haps, but ragged. Now they were friends and equals, with a 
standing in the community won strictly on their merits. 



238 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

IN SOCIETY AT LAST— A KAFIR CARNIVAL. 

It was left to Butler County, Kans., to honor herself by 
arranging the first public reception ever given to kafir and 
milo in this country. Butler County is not in the drier 
western part of the State, but in the more humid southeastern 
section. Part of her soil, however, as that of some adjacent 
counties, is underlain at slight depths by rock, and the 
crops grown thereon are likely to suffer at times from lack of 
soil moisture. Kafir was first grown in Butler County in 1892, 
and it did not take her farmers long to realize that to such 
soils kafir was better adapted than corn. So the acreage of 
kafir increased year by year, until 100,000 acres were planted 
in 1911. , 

In the autumn of that year it occurred to the boosters of 
Butler County to celebrate their popular crop. A three-day 
kafir carnival was planned to take place on October 18-20 at 
El Dorado, the county seat. The carnival was an over- 
whelming success. For three days El Dorado was a kaleido- 
scope of color, a mecca of merriment. Fully 30,000 people 
are said to be have been present during the celebration. Kafir 
was in evidence everywhere. The booths were constructed 
of it, the buildings were decorated with it, the prizes were 
given for it. People came from all over Kansas to question 
and to ponder, and went away to praise. 

IN CONCLUSION. 

The grain sorghums have made good on the farm; they 
have been honored in the city. Their names are written in 
the social register and in the Who's Who of agronomy. They 
mingle with wheat and corn, the elect, on the boards of trade; 
they are rated high in the directories of commerce and 
finance. Hats off, and a hearty cheer as they go forward in 
the full strength of youth to quietly continue what they 
have thus far so splendidly done. 



THE ORGANIZATION OF RURAL INTERESTS. 

By T. N. Cakveh, 
Director, Rural Organization Service. 

THE CAUSES OF THE PRESENT DISORGANIZATION. 

THE application of steam to the driving of machinery 
and the hauling of loads is commonly regarded as the 
cause, on the one hand, of the marvelous industrial expan- 
sion of the nineteenth century, and, on the other, of the 
general economic disorganization which accompanied that 
expansion. The breaking up of household and domestic 
industries and the substitution therefor of the factory sys- 
tem, with, in its early stages at least, its hordes of unor- 
ganized workers, has usually been referred to as the indus- 
trial revolution. This transformation was by no means so 
sudden as it is sometimes pictured, and it brought much 
less disaster and much more benefit than pessimistic and 
reactionary reformers are willing to admit. Nevertheless, 
there is no doubt that many of the acute problems of the 
urban economy of the present day grow out of the efforts 
of the laboring classes to find a new basis of organization to 
take the place of the old organization whose foundations 
were swept away by the creation of a world market and the 
rise of the factory system. This is the philosophy of that 
which is known as the labor movement. 

A change no less profound, though perhaps less spectac- 
ular, has taken place in the rural economy of the civilized 
world, that is to say, of those countries where mechanical 
inventions have played such a powerful role as they have 
in America and western Europe. Steam and electricity 
applied to transportation and communication have created 
a world market for most agricultural products instead of the 
series of local, restricted markets which existed formerly. 
Not only were the markets local and restricted, but around 
such markets there were little communities which were self- 
sufficing or nearly so. Most of the manufacturing was done 
either on the farms or in small shops whose goods were ex- 
changed for the products of the farms. The farms were 
organized at one time in village communities, which were 

239 



240 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

really groups of small farms, where the crops, their rota- 
tion, the time of plowing, planting, and harvesting, were 
determined by the customs of the village or the authority 
of the villagers as a whole, where, in fact, everything con- 
nected with farming was organized — overorganized, as we 
should now say. At another time they were under what is 
known as the manorial system, in which the villagers, known 
as villeins, were under the supervision and leadership of the 
lord of the manor, and compelled by his authority to per- 
form certain common work, such as road building, diking, 
draining, etc., besides working the lands reserved for the 
support of the manor house. Inasmuch as the lord of the 
manor was the local ruler and responsible to the King for 
the safety and order of the community, these" services on his 
land may be regarded as substitutes for taxes in an age when 
there was very little commerce and practically no money in 
circulation. Whatever we may think of the village com- 
munity with its tyranny of inflexible custom, or of the manor 
with its practical serfdom, still we must admit that both 
these systems furnished a kind of organization which made 
it possible to think in terms of the whole community, and 
to direct the affairs of the community as a unit. In short, 
the community rather than the individual farm was the 
economic unit. 

The weakness of both these systems was that the coopera- 
tion, if that is the right word to use, was compulsory and not 
voluntary. In the village community the individual was 
controlled by the tyranny of the mass, and it was impossible 
for the individual farmer, however wise or skillful he might 
be, to improve his methods more rapidly than the average 
intelligence would permit. The manorial system was some- 
what more flexible, and, especially under a wise landlord, 
permitted improvements which were impossible in the 
village community; nevertheless every villager was subject 
to the will of the lord of the manor and was permitted to 
exercise little or no initiative. The mill for the grinding of 
grain usually belonged to the lord, as did the bull and other 
expensive articles connected with agricultural enterprise. 
Thus there were certain important economies effected by 
this system of compulsory cooperation, but, like all systems 
of compulsion, it left little room for individual development. 
It was therefore a distinct step in advance when the manorial 
system gave way to- a more individualistic type of farming. 



The Organization of Rural Interests. 241 

Long after the decay of the manorial system, many of the 
advantages of an organized country life remained. On the 
large English estates, for example, with their numerous 
tenants and their resident landlords, the latter remained the 
leaders in agricultural enterprise. The fact that the owners 
lived on their estates and took a deep interest and pride in 
their ancestral acres helped to soften the evils of the tenant 
system. An intelligent landlord who advised his tenants, 
directed all large enterprises, experimented .with different 
crops and methods, and improved the breeds of live stock 
performed most of the functions now performed by a county 
agent or demonstrator, and many more besides: Again, cer- 
tain communal rights remained to the villagers and the small 
farmers, such as the right of gathering fire wood, cutting 
turf, and pasturing cattle on the common. These common 
interests compelled a certain amount of united action and 
gave a certain organic character to rural life. Every mem- 
ber of a rural community realized that he had a definite 
status in the community, that the community could com- 
mand his services in a considerable number of details, and 
that he in turn possessed certain rights to the common utilities 
of the place. 

In the New World, particularly in New England, the 
methods of founding settlements generally promoted an 
organized 'rural life. Sometimes the minister of a church 
gathered a congregation about him, led them out into the 
wilderness, and planted them on the soil with the church as 
the center of the community life. Even where this particular 
type of "swarming" was not followed, the grant of land was 
commonly made, not directly to an individual, but to a town 
or township, and the individual in turn got his grant from the 
township. The management of the common lands was a 
perennial problem calling for the effective organization of all 
the citizens of the township. The townships became, there- 
fore, the units of local government. Being a small and 
effective unit, and having certain definite problems of an 
economic nature forced upon it, the township easily under- 
took other tasks of a voluntary nature, such as drainage 
operations, the branding of live stock, the appointment of 
herdsmen to guard all the cattle of the town,, the public 
ownership off bulls, the fencing of the common lands, the 
construction of roads, etc. 

27306°— ybk 1913 16 



242 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

Not only in New England, but everywhere on the frontier, 
there were common overwhelming zieeds, such as common 
defense, the clearing of the forest, the erection of buildings, 
and other tasks demanding the united strength of the whole 
community, whieh forced the people into a kind of coopera- 
tion. After the passing of the frontier days there remained 
such common local interests as the local school, the care of 
the roads, and the maintenance of the cemetery, to bring 
the people together around a common interest and give the 
neighborhood at least the germ of an organization. 

Under the public-land policy of the Federal Government, 
however, particularly under the preemption and homestead 
laws, an extremely individualistic method of settlement was 
promoted. This doubtless served important public purposes, 
but it tended to promote disorganization rather than organi- 
zation. Lately the tendency has been to take the roads 
and schools out of the hands of local units and put them 
directly under county and State administration. Doubtless 
a higher administrative efficiency is secured by this change, 
but it tends to remove the last vestiges of the old basis of 
rural organization. It is doubtless to be desired that this 
centralizing process should go on until the entire school system 
of a State is administered as a unit and every country child is 
provided with as good a school as any city child. At the same 
time it will be necessary to find a new basis of organization 
to ta*ke the place of the old bases which have been swept away. 

EFFORTS AT REORGANIZATION. 

Efforts have not been wanting in this direction. Begin- 
ning with the granger movement of the late sixties and the 
early seventies of the last century, the country has witnessed 
a series of movements, some ephemeral and some lasting, 
until at the present time we have the National Grange, which 
is the dominant agricultural organization in the northeastern 
section of the country; the Farmers' Educational and Co- 
operative Union, which is very strong in the South; the 
Gleaners, who are particularly strong in Michigan and parts 
of adjoining States; and the American Society of Equity, 
which is strong in the entire Northwest, besides many smaller 
organizations. These various movements toward an effect- 
ive organization of rural interests have been very uneven in 
their results, with many conspicuous failures as well as 
successes. It is doubtful if any one of them has yet demon- 



The Organisation of Rural Interests. 243 

strated that it lias found the key to universal success in this 
direction. There is need, in the interest both of these exist- 
ing organizations and of the multitudes of farmers not yet 
affiliated with any organization, that a permanent body of 
some kind should begin a comprehensive study of the whole 
problem of organizing rural lite for economic, sanitary, edu- 
cational, and social purposes. Even if such a body should 
do no more than keep a permanent record of the successes 
and failures among farmers' organizations, it would even- 
tually become of incalculable value as s guide for future 
organizers. But if, in addition to such a record, this body 
could formulate principles of organization, and give perma- 
nency and consistency to the efforts of active field organizers, 
its work would be of much greater value. 

Aside from these fraternal and social organizations among 
farmers, there have been vast numbers of organizations to 
promote special agricultural interests. The States of the 
upper Mississippi Valley are honeycombed with farmers' 
mutual insurance companies. These have had a longer 
history of uniform success than any other type of business 
organization among our farmers. The accompanying table 
shows the number of such companies in States which publish 
official lists. There are farmers' mutual insurance compa- 
nies in other States which report that they publish no official 
lists, and these States are necessarily omitted from the table. 
(See fig. 16 and 16 a.) 

Farmers' mutual insurance companies. 



Arkansas 7 

California 18 



New Hampshire 19 

New Jersey 23 

New York 163 

NorthDakota 33 

Ohio 102 

Oklahoma 1 

Oregon 3 

Pennsylvania 237 

Indiana 76 ' Rhode Island 1 

Iowa 176 j South Carolina 19 

South Dakota 33 

Tennessee 17 

Texas 25 



Colorado 5 

Connecticut 14 

Delaware 8 

Georgia 7 

Idaho -. 5 

Illinois 230 



29 

Kentucky 25 

Maine 54 

Maryland 17 

Michigan 77 

Minnesota 150 

Montana i 7 

Nebraska 66 



Washington 6 

West Virginia 11 

Wisconsin 203 



Total 1,867 



244 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



The organization of farmers' mutual telephone companies 
has had a phenomenal development in the last two decades. 
As an agency for bringing farms into closer contact with one 




Fig. 13.— Cooperative creameries in the United States. Small dot= 1 creamery; large dot- 

10 creameries. 



Arkansas 

Anzona 

California . . . 

Cotorado 

Connecticut . 

Delaware 

Georgia 

Idaho 



Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts . 



62 

67 

SOX 

7 

14 
7 
3 



Michigan 105 

Minnesota 632 



Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 


1 

16 
9 

14 
3 


New Hampshire 


6 



another and creating thus a basis for further organization, 
the importance of a rural telephone system can scarcely be 
overstated, especially when it is established and managed 
by the farmers themselves. 



The Organization of Rural Interests. 



245 



Cooperative creameries, cheese factories, and elevators, 
according to our latest reports, are distributed through the 
middle Northwest as indicated in figures 13, 13 A, 14, 14 a, 15, 




Fig. 13a.— Cooperative creameries in the United States. Small dot— 1 creamery ; large dot= 

10 creameries. 





120 
2 
43 
32 
10 
8 
99 


South Carolina 


1 

46 


Washington 


17 
2 






3 


Total 


.... 355 


Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 


Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 


19 
6 

59 
6 


1 


2,165 



and 15 a. The question is often raised as to whether these 
are all strictly cooperative. Undoubtedly many of them are, 
in form at least, merely joint stock companies, and it may be 
claimed that such companies are not cooperative in the 



246 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



strict technical sense. Such a claim, however, is based 
upon the letter rather than the spirit of the enterprise. 
Any organization of this kind may be said to be cooperative 




Pig. 14.— Cooperative cheese factories in the United States. Small dot- 1 cheese factory; 
large dot= 10 cheese factories. 

California 3 I Michigan 4 I Missouri 2 

Illinois 2 Minnesota 15 New York 34 

Indiana 1 I | 



in spirit when it is managed exclusively with a view to 
giving the farmer a better price for his butterf at or his grain, 
and not at all for the purpose of securing dividends on the 



The Organization of Rural Interests. 



247 



stock. If the stock is owned by farmers and if each share 
of stock is in practice limited to a normal rate of interest 
and all surplus earnings go to the farmers in the form of 




Fig. 14a.— Cooperative cheese factories in the United States. Small dot-1 cheese factory; 
large dot=10 cheese factories. 



Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. 



South Dakota. 

Utah 

Vermont 



Washington. 
Wisconsin. . . 



Total. 



3 

247 



336 



better prices, the enterprise is cooperative in spirit, even 
though its form be that of the ordinary profit-making 
corporation. 



248 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



However, it must in frankness be admitted that there 
is always danger, under the joint stock form of organization, 
that the cooperative spirit will be destroyed and the organiza- 
tion shifted to the profit-making purpose. In a creamery, 




Fig. 15. — Farmers' cooperative elevators in the United States. Small dot=l elevator; large 

dot= 10 elevators. 



Arkansas 


2 


Indiana 


28 


Michigan 


22 


Colorado 


4 




332 




286 


Idaho 


4 


Kansas 


149 


Missouri 


8 




260 


Kentucky 


1 


Montana 


25 



for example, if one man owns a large number of shares 
and very few cows, or none at all, he will naturally be more 
interested in dividends than in the price of butterfat. If a 
majority of the shares are owned by such men, the company 



The Organization of Rural Interests. 



249 



is almost certain to be managed in the interest of dividends 
rather than in the interest of the price of butterfat. It is 
therefore highly desirable that the form of organization be 
such as to prevent this result and insure that the manage- 




FlG. 16A.— Farmers' cooperative elevators in the United States. Small dot=l elevator; large 

dot= 10 elevators. 



Nebraska 224 

NorthDakota 320 

Ohio 23 

Oklahoma 36 



Oregon 3 

South Dakota 220 

Texas 4 

Washington 18 



Wisconsin. 



51 



Total 2,020 



ment shall always be in the interest of the producers. Never- 
theless, so long as the management is in the interest of 
the producer, it is reasonable to list such an organization 
as cooperative. 



250 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



A multitude of cow-testing associations, breeders' associa- 
tions of various kinds, purchasing associations for securing 




Fig. 16.— Farmers' mutual insurance companies in the United States. Small dot= 1 company; 
large dot— 10 companies. 

Maine 54 

Maryland 17 

Michigan 77 

Minnesota 150 

Montana 7 

Nebraska 66 





7 


Idaho 


5 


California 


18 


Illinois 


230 


Colorado 


5 


Indiana 


76 




14 


Iowa 


176 




8 


Kansas 


29 




7 




25 



better prices on fertilizers, seed, and feed stuffs, and coopera- 
tive stores dealing in general merchandise dot the entire 
country. 



The Organization of Rural Interests. 



251 



The large farmers' organizations, such as the Grange, the 
Farmers' Union, the American Society of Equity, and the 




Fig. 16a. — Farmers' mutual insurance companies in the United States. Small dot=l com- 
pany; large dot— 10 companies. 



New Hampshire. . 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 



19 
23 

163 
33 

102 
1 



Oregon 3 

1'ennsylvania 237 

Rhode Island 1 

South Carolina 19 

South Dakota 33 

Tennessee 17 



Texas 25 

Washington 6 

West Virginia 11 

Wisconsin 203 



Total 1,867 



Gleaners, are also, in many localities, transacting business 
for the individual farmer. Cooperative warehouses, under 
the Farmers' Union, are doing business aggregating tens of 
millions of dollars annually. 



252 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

NEED OF A PERMANENT BODY TO GIVE CONSISTENCY 
TO THE MOVEMENT. 

It is not too much to suggest again that it is of the utmost 
importance that all these scattered movements should be 
brought together and the work systematized in order that 
the number of failures may be diminished and the number 
of successes be increased. It is doubtful if any single agency 
can do this satisfactorily, but the Rural Organization Serv- 
ice of the Department of Agriculture may easily become one 
of the most effective agencies for bringing about this result. 

NEW BASES OF RURAL ORGANIZATION. 
MARKETS. 

One of the first tasks of such an agency must be to for- 
mulate the general principles which must control all success- 
ful organizations, and also to find a satisfactory basis upon 
which to build a comprehensive organization of rural life to 
take the place of the old basis that has been swept away by 
general reorganization of the economic world. During this 
age of mechanical inventions it will never again be possible 
to build a rural community on the self-sufficing basis on 
which the farmers produce for their own local market and 
get the most of their supplies from the local handicrafts. 
Each farming community is a part of a world market and 
the bulk of its produce must be shipped out and the bulk 
of its articles of consumption shipped in. This must be 
taken as a fundamental fact in all schemes for a new rural 
organization. Therefore it would seem that the reason for 
the existence of a rural organization must be found, in part 
at least, in the necessity for the successful marketing of 
products on the one hand and the successful purchasing of 
supplies on the other. 

CAPITAL. 

Another large and fundamental fact in the modern eco- 
nomic world, also growing out of the mechanical inventions 
which characterize it, is the demand for increased capital 
in all successful agricultural enterprises. In an age when 
farming was done with a few simple tools, the most of which 
could be made by the farmer himself during his spare time, 
the demand for capital could be ignored. But at the present 
time one of the paramount needs of agriculture is an adequate 
supply of expensive tools or capital. In order that the 



The Organization of Rural Interests. 253 

average farmer may properly equip himself, it is necessary 
that he be put in possession of purchasing power. This can 
only be secured through his own savings or through the 
savings of others from whom he can borrow. This means 
the development of credit facilities. 

SANITATION. 

In an age when sickness was regarded as a visitation of 
Providence from which there was no reasonable means of 
escape, the problem of sanitation was unknown. Such a 
thing as an organization for rural sanitation would have been 
unthinkable, for the reason that, knowing little or nothing 
about the sources of disease, such an organization would not 
have known what to do with itself. But now that medical 
science has put us into possession of certain large and definite 
facts regarding the prevention of some of the more common 
diseases, the problem of protecting the health of rural com- 
munities is becoming practical. We are in a position to 
combat certain diseases if we are ready to go about it in the 
right way. Our great lack now is not so much the lack of 
knowledge as the lack of organization for applying our 
knowledge. It is quite as possible for us to exterminate 
certain disease germs as it was for our ancestors to exter- 
minate the wolves and bears which preyed upon them and 
their flocks. When we awaken to the situation we shall find 
here an overwhelming need as great as that which existed 
on the frontier to force us into an organization for the pro- 
tection of country life. 

Thus the organization of the community so as to function 
more effectively in the world market may furnish a sub- 
stitute for the local self-sufficing market of an earlier period ; 
the organization of the community may supply the need for 
capital, which was an unknown need before the age of 
machinery, and organization for the purpose of fighting the 
invisible enemies known as disease germs may take the 
place of the older organizations to fight the visible enemies 
of the frontier. 

METHOD OF PROCEDURE. 

It will occur at once to any thoughtful student that the 
first task in the general reorganization of country life must 
be to learn the facts as they exist at the present time. This 
necessitates a better survey of the entire field of American 



254 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

country life for the purpose of finding out what types of 
organization are now succeeding, and why; and what types 
have failed and are failing, and why; what special needs 
exist for which there are no effective organizations, and 
where these needs are greatest. A preliminary study of 
credit conditions has already shown that the farmers of 
different sections of the country are very unevenly provided 
with credit facilities, some sections having excellent, others 
very poor ones. The reasons for this variation need to be 
carefully studied before any satisfactory solution can be 
suggested. Until such a survey can be completed, not only 
with respect to rural credits, but also with respect to farmers' 
organizations of all kinds, very little advice can be given 
except in the most general terms. 

PRINCIPLES TO BE OBSERVED 

The following suggestions are made as a general guide for 
organizers in different fields of endeavor: 

IN COOPERATION. 

There is no magic about cooperation. If, as the result of 
cooperation, farmers are led to improve their business meth- 
ods, it will succeed; otherwise it will fail. These improve- 
ments in their business methods should include the following 
points: 

(1) Accounting and bookkeeping. No cooperative organ- 
ization of any kind can hope to succeed, nor would it deserve 
to succeed, unless it kept its books accurately and completely. 
Correct accounting is the key to all successful administra- 
tion, public or private, cooperative or individualistic. 

(2) Auditing. No one with any feeling of responsibility 
will undertake to advise a cooperative society or stand in 
any way responsible for its affairs, unless that society will 
submit its books annually for a thorough auditing by a com- 
petent and reliable auditing company. 

(3) Motive. It must be prompted by a constructive 
desire for well-understood economies and not by rancor, or 
jealousy, or covetousness, or any other destructive sentiment. 
One of the most frequent causes of failure in cooperative 
enterprises is the fact that the whole enterprise was started 
out of something very closely resembling spite, or the fear 
that somebody might be making something in the way of 



The Organization of Rural Interests. 255 

profit. If a storekeeper or anyone else is making a profit by 
reason of the efficiency with which he runs his business or 
serves his customers, he is entitled to it, and any coopera- 
tive society which is started merely for the purpose of keep- 
ing him from making that profit is doomed to fail. If, how- 
ever, there are clearly perceived wastes occurring, due to 
inefficiency, bad management, or the taking of excessive 
profits, and a cooperative society is formed for the construc- 
tive purpose of eliminating those wastes through better man- 
agement, the society will have the first requisite of success, 
namely, the fact that it deserves to succeed. 

IN MARKETING. 

The general subject of marketing is provided for under the 
capable management of the Office of Markets of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Inasmuch, however, as the subject of 
organization is very closely associated with the subject of 
markets, and the Kural Organization Service and the Office 
of Markets are working in the closest cooperation, it is not 
out of place to suggest here a few of the main conditions 
of successful marketing. They are: 

(1) The improvement of the product. This ought to be 
one of the first results of cooperation. A group of farmers, 
all interested in growing the same product, by meeting fre- 
quently and discussing the problems connected with the 
growing of that product, will normally educate one another 
and thus improve their methods of production. 

(2) The standardization of the product through organized 
production. Standardization follows naturally and easily 
if the cooperators are wise enough to see its importance. Not 
only must the product be a good product, but it must be 
graded according to the tastes or desires of the consumers or 
ultimate purchasers. If the producers insist on throwing 
an unstandardized, nondescript product upon the market, 
the consumers, each one of whom wants a small and simple 
parcel, and wants that to be of a certain kind and quality, 
will never buy of the producers. Some one, then, must inter- 
vene to do the grading and standardizing. But if the pro- 
ducers will grade their products and pack them the way the 
consumers want them, they will be able either to sell directly 
to the consumer or so to reduce the toll charged by the mid- 
dleman as to enlarge their own profits. 



256 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

(3) Branding. An excellent product, graded and stand- 
ardized, must then be so branded or trade-marked as to 
enable the consumer to identify it or to recognize it when he 
sees it. That is really all there is to the stamp on a coin. 
It adds nothing to the intrinsic value of the metal, but it 
makes it circulate. Without such a stamp, each individual 
would have to weigh and test a piece of metal which was 
offered him, and the circulation or salability of the metal 
would be greatly restricted; but a stamp upon it, which 
the average receiver recognizes at once and in which he has 
confidence, makes him instantly willing to accept it. This 
may be an extreme case, but it does not differ in principle 
from the stamping of any other salable piece of material. 
A private stamp is quite as good as a Government stamp if 
people have as much confidence in it as they have in a Gov- 
ernment stamp and if it is as reliable and as uniform. Pri- 
vate coins have circulated many times in the past. However, 
without taking such an extreme case as the coinage of metal 
except by way of illustration, it will not take much argument 
to convince the average person that if a box of apples bearing 
a certain stamp or trade-mark gets to be known as reliable 
and good all the way through, the producer or the producing 
association whose stamp has thus gained confidence will be 
able to sell where unstamped products equally good will fail 
altogether. 

(4) Education of the consumer. The consumer must be 
educated as to the meaning of a stamp or trade-mark on 
goods which are excellent in themselves and uniform in 
quality. 

Let these four things be done and the problem of marketing 
will become fairly simple. But it must be remembered that 
these four things can be done only by organization. 

IN PURCHASING SUPPLIES. 

Much complaint is heard from farmers and farmers' asso- 
ciations regarding the unwillingness of manufacturers to 
sell directly to them and ehminate agents' profits. There 
is doubtless some ground for this complaint, in many cases 
at least. Where this unwillingness is arbitrary and without 
reason, the farmers, through their organizations, must try 
by every legitimate means, both legislative and nonlegisla- 
tive, to overcome it. But he is no friend to the farmer who 



The Organization of Rural Interests. 257 

does not tell him the disagreeable truth that he is himself 
sometimes to blame for this situation. Not being trained 
in commercial practices, the farmer, or the farmers' organi- 
zation, is sometimes unprepared to handle the business of 
buying in a businesslike way. The manufacturer will then 
prefer to sell through an agent or a regular dealer who is 
accustomed to handling business promptly and who does 
not need to be shown how. Again, farmers' organizations 
are not always prompt in paying bills. Where this is the 
case the manufacturer can not be blamed for preferring to 
sell through a regular dealer in whom he has confidence. 
Another and more serious complaint on the part of the manu- 
facturer is that farmers' organizations frequently lack a 
keen sense of business obligation. They will order a carload 
of goods, for example, at a given price. Before the goods 
can be delivered, someone else offers to supply the farmer 
at a slightly lower price. In spite of the fact that their 
previous order is a virtual contract, they take the lower bid 
and refuse to take the goods delivered on the previous order 
when they arrive. Naturally this does not please the manu- 
facturer who filled the order in good faith. He can not be 
blamed for being unwilling to fill similar orders thereafter. 
Possibly he ought to discriminate between such irrespon- 
sible farmers' organizations as this and others which have a 
true sense of business responsibility; but all men are prone 
to generalize. The way to cure this situation is for farmers 
who have business training and a sense of business respon- 
sibility to lend then? aid in eliminating irresponsible organi- 
zations from the field. Otherwise they will suffer from the 
company they keep. 

IK SECUKING CREDIT. 

There is no mystery about credit. It is simply a means 
by which the possessor of purchasing power, which he does 
not care to use at once, is enabled to transier that pur- 
chasing power to some one who does not possess it but who 
needs it at once in his business. Again, the possession of 
credit on the part of the farmer does not insure his success. 
When wisely used, credit is a powerful agency for good: so 
is dynamite. When unwisely used, or handled by one who 
does not understand it, it is dangerous: so is dynamite. 

27306°— YBK 1913 17 



258 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

Speaking by and large of facts as they actually are at the 
present moment, it is probable that as many farmers are 
suffering because they have too much credit as because 
their credit opportunities are too limited. To be able to 
borrow a thousand dollars even at the lowest possible rate 
of interest, say 2 per cent, is a loss to a man who invests 
it in a way to only bring back $1,001. The only possiblo 
advantage of having credit is to have an investment which 
is reasonably certain to return not only the ' principal but 
the interest and a little more besides. 

Much has been said about the cooperative credit organi- 
zations of other countries. One fact which has never been 
sufficiently emphasized, and which can not be too much 
emphasized, is that these cooperative credit societies refuse 
credit quite as often as they give it, and they refuse credit 
not simply on the ground that the would-be borrower has 
no security to give, but equally on the ground that they 
do not think it would pay him to borrow. That is, he has 
no investment which, in the opinion of the directors, will 
be profitable to him. If his investment is unprofitable, the 
chances are that he will be unable to pay back a loan, and 
thus it would be unsafe. And, what is. more important, 
even if he were able to pay it back, he would be poorer 
instead of richer by reason of the loan. The fact that the 
directors of one of these cooperative banks have to discuss 
the purpose for which the borrower wishes to borrow, and 
to decide whether or not it will probably turn out to be a 
good investment for the borrower, not only protects the 
borrower against himself but educates all the members of 
the society. That is to say, it compels them to discuss very 
carefully the probable results of all the classes of small 
investments, and this discussion itself is one of the most 
valuable kinds of business education. 



THE PRODUCTION OF BEEF IN THE SOUTH. 

By W. P. Ward, 

Senior Animal Husbandman in Beef Cattle Investigations, Animal Husbandry 
Division, Bureau of Animal Industry. 

INTRODUCTION. 

IN the United States three decades ago the beef industry 
was growing very rapidly. The western country was used 
as free range and enormous herds of cattle were springing up 
all over the West. Then, too, the States which now com- 
prise the corn belt were grazmg many cattle. The business 
expanded and flourished untd the early nineties, when prices 
began to drop and the industry to decrease until many of the 
large ranches of the West were broken up. The period from 
1892 to 1900 was a hard one for the cattlemen, and cattle 
other than milch cows decreased 10,040,000 head. 

When the prices of cattle fell so low during the period of 
1893-1896 many of the farmers through the Middle West be- 
gan to reduce the size of their herds. Wheat and corn became 
the staple crops, and they were given far more attention than 
were cattle. The price of land throughout this section began 
to increase very rapidly and as a consequence the herds of 
cattle on much of it diminished in size. With the advance 
of land values immigrants kept pushing farther west, and 
the settlers, homesteaders, and sheepmen began crowding the 
cattlemen farther from the good grazing lands to the less 
desirable sections. 

The production of beef was discouraged and retarded not 
only by the low prices and the decrease of breeding stock, 
but also by the cutting up of the ranges, the increased value 
of farm lands, and the prevailing prices paid for grain. The 
price of cattle did not keep pace with the price of other 
commodities. 

RELATION OF POPULATION .TO MEAT SUPPLY. 

With the population increasing steadily and the amount 
of beef consumed per capita keeping about in proportion, 
there could but follow a period ot shortage of beef cattle. 
This was predicted by many farsighted men who made a 
study of conditions affecting the supply of beef. However, 

259 



260 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

statements made to that effect were not taken seriously by 
the public until the last three or four years. 

The census of 1900 shows that there were on farms and 
ranches 50,583,777 cattle other than cows kept for milk, while 
the census of 1910 shows this number to have decreased to 
41,198,434 head. This was a decrease of 9,385,343 head, 
or 18.5 per cent, of all cattle other than milch cows. The 
number of cows increased 4 per cent, but the number of 
steers and bulls decreased 21.1 per cent, and the calves 
decreased 49 per cent, or 7J million head, during this period. 

The census of 1900 was taken June 1, while that of 1910 
was taken April 15, or six weeks earlier. A portion of the 
large decrease in calves can be attributed to this difference 
in the time the two censuses were taken, but with the other 
animals there would have been a greater decrease had the 
1910 census been taken June 1, due to the cattle that would 
have been slaughtered during this period of six weeks. 

During the decade 1900-1910 the population of the United 
States increased 21 per cent. It is safe to say that the 
amount of meat consumed per capita remained almost the 
same. It is then seen that with an increase of 21 per cent 
in the demand for beef in the United States and with a 
decrease of 18.5 per cent of the cattle available for slaughter 
purposes, a decline in the exports of beef was inevitable. 
This decrease actually took place and the amount of beef 
exported from the United States, both alive and as dressed, 
pickled, and canned, amounted to but 2.45 pounds per 
capita in 1910, while the amount exported in 1900 was 9.37 
pounds. In other words, there was a decrease of practically 
7 pounds of beef per capita exported during the decade 
1900-1910 because of the increased home demand. 

If the population increases in the decade 1910-1920 in 
the same ratio as in the previous decade, and beef cattle do 
not increase in numbers during the same period, there must 
be a greater shortage of beef than at the present time. In 
fact, since 1910 the export trade has decreased until during 
1912 there was but 1£ pounds of beef per capita exported 
from the United States. The amount of beef exported as live 
animals and fresh, canned, and pickled beef during the year 
1912 amounted to the equivalent of 197,475 head of cattle, 
while the number imported was 318,372, the majority of 



Production of Beef in the South. 261 

which came from Mexico. In other words, this country has, 
at least temporarily, ceased producing as much beef as is 
demanded for home consumption, for the imports for 1912 
were over one and one-half times greater than the exports. 
The receipts of sheep and hogs at the leading markets of 
the country for the first half of the year 1913 have been 
below the average, and indicate that there is no large sur- 
plus available for immediate slaughter. The decrease in the 
numbers of these animals will, in a measure, prevent the 
public from turning largely to them as substitutes for beef. 

WORLD SUPPLY OP BEEF. 

The question of producing enough beef to supply the 
demand is now recognized as one of world-wide importance. 
There is at present a shortage over the entire civilized world. 
Argentina, which once loomed large upon the horizon as a 
rival of the United States in the supply of beef, proved to 
have but 28,766,168 cattle according to the 1911 census, or 
fewer cattle than were in the country in 1 908, when 29, 1 1 6,625 
were enumerated. 

The United Kingdom, which formerly depended very 
largely upon the United States to furnish its imported beef, 
has been forced to look to Australia, Argentina, and Canada 
to supply this commodity. At the present time Great 
Britain is consuming practically all of the surplus output 
from these countries and any additional surplus produced 
will be readily absorbed by other European countries. The 
probability of the United States importing much beef from 
these countries in the next few years is, therefore, doubtful. 
Imported beef must come from Mexico and Canada, and the 
amount which m~y be contributed annually from these coun- 
tries will probably not greatly exceed the present imports 
for several years. The number of cattle imported from 
Canada will be small, for there are not many more produced 
there than are necessary for home consumption, and most of 
these are sent to England. 

RESULT OF DIMINISHED SUPPLY AND INCREASED DEMAND. 

The decreased production of beef cattle and the increased 
home demand could result in but one thing — higher prices. 
These have followed, as shown in the following table, which 



262 



Yearbook of the Department oj Agriculture. 



presents the average price of all cattle sold at the leading 
markets of the country on March 15 for the last four years: 

Average price per 100 pounds of beef cattle and veal calves on leading markets, 
March IS, 1913-1910. 



Year. 


Beef 

cattle. 


Veal 
calves. 


Year. 


Beef 

cattle. 


Veal 
calves. 


1913 


$5.88 
4.75 


$7.49 
6.11 


1911 


$4.65 
4.87 


$6.48 


1912 


1910 


6.59 









Veal is becoming more popular and the consumption of 
this commodity is increasing very rapidly. This has a tend- 
ency to lessen the supply of meat, for although many of the 
calves that are used for veal would never develop into choice 
beef animals, there is still a large percentage of them which 
would grow into good beeves, thereby increasing the avail- 
able supply. 

METHODS OF INCREASING THE BEEF SUPPLY. 

There has been much discussion about methods of increas- 
ing the supply of beef and many remedial measures pro- 
posed, among which the one most frequently discussed is 
the passing of laws in all the States making it a crime to 
slaughter any female cattle under 3 years of age. This 
is not feasible at the present time, as it would work a hard- 
ship on many a small farmer who could not keep all of his 
females until 3 years of age, and it would be a greater handi- 
cap to the dairyman who breeds his cows primarily that the 
milk supply may be kept up and not for the value of the 
calf produced. He can feed a calf for a few weeks and sell 
it for $8 to $12 for veal, which if kept would not make a 
desirable beef animal, nor one suitable for breeding pur- 
poses. One measure which has been advocated would proba- 
bly come nearer to inducing the farmer to keep his female 
calves than any other, and that would be to exempt all 
female cattle from taxation for a period of years. The plan 
which should be followed, however, should not be to deprive 
the public of veal, but to stimulate the production of cattle 
so that the public demand may be satisfied, be it for beef 
or veal. 

There is an urgent demand for more cattle, but where are 
they to come from? Not from the corn belt, where the 



Production of Beef in the South. 263 

land is worth from $75 to $200 per acre and corn has advanced 
from 25 to 60 cents or more per bushel; not from the ranges 
of the West and Southwest, for the supply of cattle from 
these sections is decreasing yearly and the large ranches are 
being cut up for the homesteaders and the small farmers, 
who are not giving their attention to beef production. 

POSSIBILITIES OF THE SOUTH. 

There is one section that can produce more cattle, and 
produce them more cheaply, than any other section of the 
whole country, for the lands are still cheap, the grazing is 
good, the pasture season is long, feeds can be produced at a 
minimum cost, and inexpensive shelter only is required. 
That section of the country is the South. 

While slavery existed in the South, cattle, hogs, and sheep 
were to be found upon every plantation, and on many of 
them were very good beef animals, some herds of which 
contained a large infusion of Shorthorn blood. At this time 
the South produced all of the beef, pork, and mutton that was 
needed to supply her demands. At the close of the Civil 
War few cattle were left and these were bred among them- 
selves without the addition of any new blood, except occa- 
sionally a cross with the Jersey, the result of which was a 
class of nartive cattle which were small, slow in growth, and 
of very poor quality for beef. At this time farmers were 
discouraged from bringing in pure-bred animals from the 
North,, as a very large proportion of them, sometimes as 
much as 85 per cent, would die the first year from a disease 
known as "murrain," or "bloody murrain," the direct cause 
of which was at the time unknown. Nor could planters 
afford then to introduce pure-bred beef animals as they had 
formerly done while in a prosperous condition. 

Corn and other grains had formed the major portion of the 
crops during the early slavery times, but with the improve- 
ment of the cotton gin an increased amount of cotton was 
raised each year until 1861. After the slaves had been freed 
cotton was high in price and it was hard to get labor, as there 
was little money with which help could be hired. This con- 
dition made it imperative that the southern farmer produce 
some crop which could be readily sold to buy clothing and 
other necessities. It was then that men who had money or 
could borrow money in the North began advancing, or selling 



264 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

on credit, rations, feedstuffs, and clothing to farmers who 
would produce cotton and give the advancing merchant a 
mortgage on his crop. As the planter could thus buy the 
necessities for his negroes on credit before the crop was made 
and immediately after gathering it he could convert it into 
cash with which to pay his labor, this method became popular 
and established the one-crop system which has proven such 
a burden to the South in late years. This method of farm- 
ing caused some lands to be planted in cotton for as long as 
30 years in succession, which depleted the soil to such an 
extent that live stock are necessary to build up the soils to 
their former state of fertility. 

ABANDONMENT OF THE ONE-CEOP SYSTEM. 

The spread of the Mexican boll weevil over the western 
and the central portion of the South has caused many farmers 
to abandon the one-crop system and begin diversified farm- 
ing and the rotation of their crops. Diversified farming in 
the South means the production of more grains, hays, and 
other roughages, which leads up to the production of live 
stock to consume them. 

It is with the idea of getting away from the old one-crop 
system, lessening the damage done by the boll weevil, increas- 
ing the fertility of the soil, doing away with a large portion 
of the credit system with the resulting high rates of interest 
attached to it, and producing their quota of meats in order 
to avert a greater shortage than at present exists, that the 
raising of five stock and consequently diversification of 
farming is urged upon the southern people. 

The cheapness of the lands throughout the South makes it 
possible to own quite extensive farms for the production of 
both forage crops and pastures with a comparatively small 
investment of capital. Cheap lands, combined with cheap 
cows for foundation stock, enable one to start in the cattle 
business in that section with an outlay of far less capital 
than in most other portions of the country. 

Water and shade in abundance are found throughout the 
South, and the seasons are usually so mild that expensive 
barns are not needed for cattle as in the North. The only 
shelters needed for beef cattle in the South are open sheds 
facing the south, under which young cattle may take shelter 



Production of Beef in the South. 265 

from cold rains or wind. The mature beef cattle need no 
other protection than that afforded by trees, hedges, under- 
growth of " switch " cane or brush, and other natural shelters. 

PASTURE LAND AND GRASSES. 

Many of the plantations of the South are so large that 
there is much of them which can not be utilized for raising 
crops. These lands should be used for producing cattle. 
Other lands which are at present lying idle and upon which 
taxes are being paid could be easily converted into pastures, 
and by the planting of some of the grasses and clovers they 
would produce a pasture of such quality as to give high 
returns on the valuation of the land when grazed by cattle. 
(See PL XXXVI.) 

Publications from the Census Bureau indicate that in the 
South in 1910, 63.1 per cent of the total land area was in 
farms, of which 42.5 per cent was improved farm lands. Of 
the total land area there was in 1910 but 26.8 per cent which 
was classed as improved farm land to be used for cultivation, 
etc. This means that 57.5 per cent of the farm lands, or 
73.2 per cent of the total land area, of the South is made up 
of grazing land, woods, or waste lands, and a very large por- 
tion of this amount would produce excellent pastures for 
cattle. In 1910, however, the whole South produced but 
31.6 per cent of the cattle of the United States, while the 
North produced 53.5 per cent. This ratio of production 
should not hold true, for 70.1 per cent of the farm land of the 
North was improved and was chiefly used for cultivation. 

The types of soils and the nature of the land vary widely 
in each State, but in each are found soils which produce 
abundant grazing. The rolling lands of Virginia, the Caro- 
linas, and Tennessee, the hill lands of Georgia, the black 
lands of Alabama and Mississippi, and the alluvial lands of 
Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas, all produce luxuriant 
grass for about seven months of the year. The stiffer soils 
usually afford better grazing and produce fatter cattle than 
the light or sandy soils. In some of these States bluegrass 
does well; but where it does not, Bermuda will grow. 

On the lime soils, melilotus, white clover, Johnson grass, 
bur clover, lespedeza, and other pasture plants will grow and 
furnish ideal pasture. If the clovers are not present a few 
pounds of the seed should be scattered over the land in Feb- 



266 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

ruary after the land has been scarified with a disk harrow. 
After these clovers once get a start, they will reseed them- 
selves each year, unless grazed exceedingly close. The grow- 
ing of these plants not only increases the grazing capacity of 
the pasture, but rapidly improves the fertility of the soil. 

Bermuda grass is the most important grass of the South and 
can be easily started by dropping cuttings of the sod in furrows 
6 feet apart and covering with a light furrow, or with the foot 
and tramping the dirt down firm. This should be done early 
in the spring, and the grass will spread very rapidly during 
the summer months. Bermuda, lespedeza, and bur clover 
will grow well together on any kind of soil and make an ideal 
combination for pasture, as the bur clover will furnish grazing 
in February, March, and April, the Bermuda from April 15 
until frost, and the lespedeza from July until October. This 
combination of forage plants contains two which add nitrogen 
to the soil. Most important of all the clovers for southern 
grazing is lespedeza, whi.ch spreads very rapidly after it gets 
started and can not be killed out by grazing. By the use of 
bur clover, melilotus, and white clover the pasture season can 
be extended so that at all times of the year, except when the 
cattle would be in the cotton or corn fields, they would find 
some kind of green pasture. 

In eastern and southeastern Texas the grasses are the same 
as those which grow in the other Southern States. In western 
Texas is found the mesquite grass, and in some places buffalo 
grass and grama grass. These give good grazing during years 
of normal rainfall. 

FOE AGE CROPS AND FEEDS. 

The amount of roughage grown in the South is small com- 
pared with that produced by some of the States of the Middle 
West. Still there is no section of the country that will grow 
such a variety of leguminous hays and other forage crops as 
the South. Cowpeas, soy beans, and crimson clover will 
grow luxuriantly in any of the Southern States, while alfalfa, 
melilotus, and velvet beans grow in various sections. 

The corn-growing tests which have been conducted in 
every Southern State during the last few years show that corn 
can be produced in large amounts per acre and as cheap as in 
other States. The wide variation of time during which it 



Production of Beef in the South. 267 

may be planted, combined with its luxuriant growth in south- 
ern latitudes, make it exceedingly valuable as a silage crop. 
A yield of 10 to 14 tons of silage per acre is not at all uncom- 
mon on the good lands, while the average yield is about 7. 

There are several other crops which grow in the South that 
make excellent silage, chief among which are sorghum, soy 
beans, and cowpeas. Sorghum can be planted later than corn 
and often makes a heavier yield per acre. When mixed with 
corn or soy beans it makes excellent silage. The Tennessee 
experiment station has found that silage made of soy beans 
and corn is far more valuable for feeding cattle than silage 
made of corn alone. 1 The difference in feeding value was 
great enough to make it more profitable to put up a mixed 
silage than to put corn alone into the silo. The same station 
found that sorghum silage could be produced much cheaper 
than corn silage, and the yields were practically the same per 
acre. 2 

Milo maize and kafir corn each make a good silage and are 
very valuable in some portions of the Southwest, where they 
will make a good yield of forage during a season which is so 
dry that Indian corn would make but little growth. 

The principal hay crops of the South are alfalfa, Johnson 
grass, prairie grass, cowpea, soy bean, crimson clover, and in 
some sections red clover, melilotus, lespedeza, crab grass, and 
Bermuda. Excellent yields of cowpea or sorghum hay can 
be secured after one of the small-grain crops or crimson clover 
has been harvested. Where lespedeza grows rank enough to 
cut for hay it is especially valuable, as it can await cutting 
from September 1 to October 15 without appreciably dete- 
riorating in value, and it cures very quickly. In addition to 
the various kinds of hay, there are several varieties of coarse 
fodders and much rough straw produced which have their 
uses in live-stock feeding. In the extreme South velvet beans 
and Japanese cane are planted largely for forage purposes. 

In addition to the various feeds which can be grown upon 
the farms for the cattle, there is one which is produced as a 
by-product of the cotton industry which is more valuable 
than any other known cattle feed — -cottonseed meal. With 
the enormous output of this commodity at home the list of 
feeds necessary to produce good beef cattle is complete. 

1 Results unpublished. ! Tennessee Bulletin 3. 



268 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

TICK ERADICATION. 

The Federal Government realized the importance of the 
Southern States as a field for producing beef cattle, and as 
a result began investigations in breeding and feeding cattle 
in the South in 1904, and in 1906 began a systematic fight 
on the cattle tick; for the disease known as "murrain," or 
"bloody murrain," which killed so many cattle that were 
brought into the South years ago, was no other than Texas 
fever, carried and distributed by the common cattle tick 
(Margaropus annulatus). The losses of cattle brought 
South were particularly heavy, because most of the animals 
shipped in were near maturity, and the disease is much more 
severe on mature than on very young animals. The methods 
of eradication used were rotation of pastures and the dipping 
or spraying of the animals with emulsions of crude oil and 
kerosene, or with an arsenical solution. At the beginning of 
this work there were 741,515 square miles of infected territory. 
From that time until November 1, 1913, 198,802 square miles 
of land have been actually freed of the tick, and at the pres- 
ent time the work is being carried on in every Southern 
State. The work of eradication and disinfection has cost the 
Federal Government less than $10 per square mile. As the 
loss to the South each year caused by cattle ticks has been 
estimated at $40,000,000, the importance of the work can be 
realized. The work is progressing very rapidly in Okla- 
homa, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Georgia. On October 1, 
1913, the eradication work was being carried on in 26 coun- 
ties in Mississippi and the building of dipping vats and educa- 
tional work was being conducted in 15 other counties. The 
great importance of this work to the beef industry can hardly 
be estimated without taking into consideration the increased 
prices southern cattle will bring when they can be shipped 
above the quarantine line for feeding and breeding purposes, 
as well as the facts that cattle in a " free " area will grow much 
faster, the loss from Texas fever will be eliminated, and the 
farmers can readily bring in good breeding stock without 
danger of loss. 

That tick eradication is doing much good may be illus- 
trated by two farms which had been infected with ticks 
until two years ago and had never been able to sell their calves 
for more than $12 or $13 per head. In the fall of 1912, 



Production of Beef in the South. 269 

after their premises had been "clean" for almost a year, they 
sold their entire bunch of heifer calves at $35 per head for 
breeders. These calves were high-grade Angus and were of a 
quality that would have been a credit to any farm. Then, 
too, fat steers from the "clean" area are permitted to be sold 
in the native pens at the market, and usually bring at least 
half a cent more per pound than if they had been sold from 
the quarantine pens. 

Although good cattle have been raised in the South on 
tick-infested areas, far better ones are being raised on lands 
which have been freed of ticks, the losses from Texas fever 
are avoided, and the cattle industry is now more profitable 
than it has ever been before. All farmers should encourage 
and help in the eradication of the cattle tick, which is the 
greatest drawback to the industry of the South. 

RAISING CATTLE. 

As stated before, the native southern cattle are not large 
in size and are slow in growth. However, when these ani- 
mals, which have become accustomed to taking care of 
themselves throughout practically the whole year, are bred 
to a pure-bred bull, the resulting calves look very much 
more like the sire than like the native cows. In fact, many 
half-breed animals make very desirable beef. When these 
grades have received a second or third infusion of beef blood, 
the progeny are usually about as desirable for beef purposes 
as the animals of still higher grade. The cattle of the South 
can be improved very rapidly by the use of pure-bred bulls, 
but the breeding of native cows to good beef animals has not 
been rapid because formerly the majority of the beef bulls 
were brought in from the North and a large percentage of 
them were lost from Texas fever, whereas many cattle raised 
in the South get the fever when young and the death rate 
among them is not nearly so large as when mature cattle first 
become infected with ticks. (See Pis. XXXVII, XXXVIII, 
and XXXIX.) 

The cost of raising cattle in the South was determined in an 
experimental way by the department in cooperation with the 
Alabama experiment station. The results of those investi- 
gations are presented in Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin 
131. It was found that when pasturage was charged to the 
animal at the rate of 50 cents per month, when the winter feed 



270 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

consumed was charged at prevailing market prices, when taxes, 
insurance, fencing, and rep airs were considered, when insurance 
was maintained on the animals, and when the manure produced 
was credited at $ 1 .25 per ton, the cost of raising animals to the 
age of 12 months, 24 months, 30 months, and 33 months was 
$2.35, $2.28, $2.39, and $2.31 per 100 pounds, respectively. 
When all of the expenses were charged against the animals 
and no credit was made for the manure the expense of pro- 
ducing a steer to the age of 12, 24, 30, and 33 months was 
$5.25, $4.96, $5.05, and $5 per 100 pounds, respectively. 
That is, if the animals are sold at the above prices the feeds 
consumed are marketed at a good farm price, $2.50 an acre 
is secured as rent for the summer pasture, all losses by death 
are accounted for, 7 per cent interest is secured on the capital 
invested in the herd, and the manure is secured free. To 
realize such profits it is essential that good cattle be raised. 
The scrub is a cheap animal, which never sells well because 
of his poor killing qualities, and he can not be raised to 
advantage. 

The cattle which were raised in this experiment could have 
been produced cheaper in other portions of the South. Upon 
a great number of farms it is possible to produce winter pas- 
ture for cattle and reduce the cost of wintering them. This 
was not done on the test farm, and the cattle had the winter 
range alone. By the use of bur clover and Bermuda grass the 
pasture season can be extended about two months in the 
year. Farmers in the extreme South can have grazing the 
year through by the use of Bermuda, paspalum, carpet grass, 
bur clover, lespedeza, and velvet beans. Then, too, the 
cattle produced in this test were infested with the cattle 
tick, which not only retarded the growth of the animals ma- 
terially, but caused several deaths from Texas fever. These 
losses naturally increased the cost of production. The Fed- 
eral Government and the Southern States are now cooper- 
ating in the work of exterminating the tick, and when this is 
accomplished larger and better cattle can be raised. 

In a later experiment * high-grade Angus and Shorthorn 
cows were used in a breeding test to determine the cost of 
raising calves in western Alabama. These cows were run on 
pasture from the middle of April to the latter part of Sep- 
tember, and were then run in the stalk fields until January 

i Department of Agriculture Bulletin 73. 



Production of Beef in the South. 271 

20. During the rest of the winter they had the run of the 
whole plantation, on which was considerable switch cane, 
and they were given a small quantity of cottonseed cake 
each day. The cane and the woods furnished ample pro- 
tection from the cold and all of the cows passed through the 
winter in good condition. They were again put on pasture 
April 14, and the feeding of a small amount of cake was con- 
tinued until May 7, when the pastures were good and the 
grass was strong. All of the cows were bred to Aberdeen- 
Angus bulls. 

The calves were dropped during January, February, March, 
and April. They nursed their dams until September 25, 
when they were taken away and put into a cornfield where 
there was a good growth of crab grass and cowpeas besides 
the cornstalks from which the corn had been snapped. On 
October 7 they were transferred to a peanut field to graze 
off the tops. They were changed from this to other cornstalk 
fields and on October 28 they were started on a ration of 1 
pound of cottonseed cake each, which was gradually increased 
to 2 pounds per head per day. They were fed in this manner 
until January 16, at which time they averaged about 9$ 
months of age, and the average weight was 460 pounds. 
When pasturage had been charged for them as well as their 
dams for one year, when the amount of cottonseed cake con- 
sumed by both the cows and the calves was charged at 
market prices, when taxes had been paid on the cattle, and 
when 6 per cent interest on the cattle as well as the cost of 
labor and 10 per cent depreciation in value of the herd had 
been allowed, the average cost of the 64 calves produced to 
the average age of 9J months was $14.36 per head, or $3.12 
per hundred pounds. 

The calves were then put in a dry lot and carried until 
April 1 on a ration of corn silage, sedge-grass hay, and cotton- 
seed meal. At this time they averaged about 12 months of 
age and weighed 560 pounds each. The cost of producing 
them was $20.24 per head, or $3.61 per hundredweight, and 
they were sold at a net profit of $6.81 each after all of the 
above expenses had been paid and no account taken of the 
manure produced. 

These cattle had been kept free of the cattle tick and at all 
times were thrifty. The male calves were castrated while 
very small. Feeds were charged at the following prices per 



272 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

ton: Cottonseed cake, $26; cottonseed meal, $26; corn silage, 
$3; and sedge-grass hay, $5. 

With, the large areas available, the South should raise a 
great many breeding cattle. By the use of bulls of one breed 
in localities, each State could build up a trade for breeding 
and feeding cattle in the same manner that has been done in 
Texas. Although it is usually thought to be more profitable 
for the farmer to finish the cattle on the farm, there will be 
many who prefer selling off grass in preference to feeding 
them for the market. These men are the ones who may 
build up the trade for feeders to be sent to the corn belt as 
soon as the southern territory has been released from quar- 
antine. Breeding stock even of the present quality is selling 
at a premium throughout the South, and many thousands of 
the native cattle from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, 
Georgia, and Florida have been shipped into Oklahoma and 
western Texas to help replenish the depleted ranges. If the 
western cattlemen can afford to pay good prices for these 
animals and then pay the enormous freight rates to the west- 
ern country, it seems that the southern farmer could make 
money by keeping these cattle on his own farm and by the 
use of good beef bulls raise cattle which could be sent direct 
to the market. 

FINISHING CATTLE FOE MARKET. 

In case the farmer wishes to finish his animals for market 
there are a number of methods which may be followed. He 
may finish his cattle during the winter and sell them as calves, 
yearlings', or mature stock, or he may finish his steers by feed- 
ing them on pasture during the summer. If the first method 
is to be followed, he should utilize the roughage on the farm, 
such as hay, stover, and corn silage, and he may feed some corn 
or may use cottonseed meal as the sole concentrate. Cattle 
which are finished during the latter part of the winter usually 
sell for a higher price per pound than those which are fin- 
ished during the summer months. This is essential to the 
farmer, too, for the cost of the roughage during winter fatten- 
ing is so much greater than grass that otherwise money would 
be lost in the transaction. 

In 1904 the Bureau of Animal Industry began a series of 
experiments in feeding beef cattle in cooperation with the 
Alabama experiment station. The first three years' work 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXXVI. 




Fig. 1.— Breeding-Cows on Pasture in Mississippi. 
(Courtesy of the Mississippi Experiment Station.) 







&fa£L 


J&^Jte^S 








- Sfe- 


'•;■ 


•i 




• 


■ 


M^£V%^W<i 








%•> . •', id 










, ^ 





Fig. 2.— An Alabama Beef Herd on Natural Pasture. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXXVII. 




Fig. 1.- Portion of a Herd of Breeding-Cows on an Alabama Farm. 
(Those cows arc the first and second crosses from purebred bulls on native scrub cattle.) 




Fig. 2.— Tennessee Steers in the Feed Lot. 
(Courtesy of the Tennessee Experiment Slalion.) 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXXVIII. 




Fig. 1.— Wintering Steers in the South. 
(Courtesy of the Tennessee Experiment Station.) 




Fig. 2.— Shorthorn Calves Raised on a Tick-Free Farm in Tennessee. 
(Courtesy of Lcspeueza Farm.) 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XXXIX. 




Fig. 1.-A Mississippi Raised Bull Calf. Note the Wonderful Thickness 

of Flesh. 

(Courtesy or La Vernet Farm.) 




Fig. 2.-A Yearling Bull Raised in Mississippi. This is the Type to Use in 
Improving Native Southern Cattle. 

(Courtesy of La Vernet Farm.) 



Production of Beef in the South. 273 

consisted of experimental tests of various southern feeds 
for finishing cattle in the dry-lot during the winter. 1 These 
experiments show conclusively that cottonseed meal was 
the cheapest and best concentrata that could be used in 
the South at that time, and prices on corn and cottonseed 
are still such that it is equally true at the present time. 
The cottonseed meal proved slightly more efficient for 
producing gains in weight than did corn-and-cob meal, and 
the gains were produced more cheaply. Cottonseed proved 
equal, pound for pound, to corn-and-cob meal, but the 
prices of cottonseed have advanced so rapidly since the time 
of these experiments that it is no longer profitable to feed 
it. Corn stover has not proven profitable to feed as the 
sole roughage to fattening cattle. The cattle do not seem 
to eat as much of it as they should, and they make smaller 
daily gains, require more concentrate to make a pound of 
' gain, do not finish out as well, nor yield as fine carcasses as 
cattle fed on cottonseed hulls. Cottonseed hulls proved 
more profitable as a roughage than did sorghum, corn stover, 
or hays, when the market prices of each were taken into 
consideration. Hulls have increased in value so much that 
this probably no longer holds true. This was indicated by 
the South Carolina experiment station 2 in a test made in 
1912, in which the lots fed on corn stover and corn silage 
made greater profits than did those which received cotton- 
seed hulls as the sole roughage. 

In the Alabama work the average of three years showed 
that steers fed under shelter made slightly larger and cheaper 
gains than did cattle fed in the open lot without shelter, but 
this difference in cost was not great enough to pay for the 
upkeep of expensive feeding sheds. In a later experiment 3 
carried out by this bureau in cooperation with the Alabama 
station a test was made to determine whether or not it 
would be profitable for the southern farmer to build sheds 
for feeding purposes when it was desired to save all the 
manure possible by the use of plenty of bedding. It is 
known that on most farms there is some diy ground upon 
which the cattle may lie without shelter, as they are not 
always confined to small lots. Such was the case in this 
test. The cattle had some protection from the elements by 

1 Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin 103. 3 Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin 159. 
» South Carolina Bulletin 189. 
27306°— YBK 1913 18 



'274 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

a grove of pine trees and found high knolls upon which to lie 
down in rainy weather. This test showed that under such 
conditions the maintenance of a shelter was not profitable 
for the fattening process alone, as the shelter made a saving 
of but 6 cents per 100 pounds of gain made on matuie 
animals, while the former Alabama experiments showed a 
net saving of but 9 cents per 100 pounds of gain during three 
years when animals were confined in small lots. Often a 
large amount of the manure pioduced in a test where cattle 
are fed on a large area is wasted, as it is dropped in unde- 
sirable places, and it loses much in fertility by being exposed 
to the weather. This can be overcome by feeding cattle in 
cultivated fields which contain no waste land, and which 
may be plowed two or three times during the winter in 
order to turn under the manure produced. If, however, 
this method can not be followed and the primary object of 
the feeding is that manure may be secured, it will undoubt-' 
edly pay to feed in small lots with spacious sheds that are 
kept well bedded. During the first feeding tests carried on 
by this bureau and the Alabama station, as reported in 
Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin 103, corn silage was not 
used, but in later tests a comparison of cottonseed hulls, 
corn silage, and Johnson grass hay were made. 1 

All of the steers used in this experiment were grades of the 
beef breeds and were 2 and 3 year olds. Cottonseed meal 
was the sole concentrate fed. The steers which received 
silage made satisfactory daily gains and were better fin- 
ished than either of the other lots of cattle. They were 
also more profitable, making a clear profit of $7.68, as com- 
pared to $6.97 for the cattle receiving hulls and $5.50 for the 
ones receiving Johnson-grass hay. The South Carolina ex- 
periment station made a feeding test showing the compara- 
tive feeding values of some southern roughages, the results 
of which are shown in South Carolina Bulletin 169, from 
which Smith may be quoted as follows : 

Our experiments with these 3 carloads of cattle indicate clearly that 
corn silage and stover are equally as valuable as hulls for feeding beef cattle 
and much more profitable to feed. * * * With cottonseed meal at $24 
per ton and freight charges at $100 on the 60 cattle, lot No. 1 paid $6.86 per 
ton for silage, lot No. 2 paid $7.91 per ton for stover, and lot No. 3 paid $7 per 
ton for hulls. The prices obtained for silage and stover are fully double the 

> Bureau of Animal Industry Bulletin 159. 



Production of Beef in the South. 275 

cost of production, thus leaving the farm a good profit for growing them. 
The cattle fed silage made greater and cheaper gains than the other two lots 
and took on a better finish. The cattle fed stover made slightly better gains 
than the lot fed on hulls, and at less cost. * * * With good silage and 
cottonseed meal at a reasonable price, the opportunities for feeding beef 
cattle profitably are unexcelled in any other section of the country. 

The Tennessee experiment station 1 has found silage to 
be the most profitable roughage which they have tried, both 
for feeding stockers through the winter and finishing steers 
in the feed lot. 

The Virginia experiment station found that silage was the 
most economical and profitable feed which was tried during 
the years 1905-1907. With reference to the silage-fed cattle, 
Soule 2 is quoted thus : "As this lot of cattle dressed out 56.9 
per cent of meat of fine quality in which the fat and lean were 
well blended and equal to that from western bullocks, fed on 
corn, there is no justification for the opposition to the use of 
silage for finishing beef cattle." The Virginia experiment 
station has also found that no roughages they have used 
have proven so valuable for wintering stockers as corn silage 
and corn stover. 3 

Experiments covering a period of five years were made at 
the North Carolina experiment station and silage was used 
during each test. Taking these tests as a whole, the silage-fed 
cattle made cheaper gains, sold for a higher price, and 
returned a greater net profit than steers fed cottonseed hulls. 4 
Similar results were secured in Texas when milo maize silage 
was compared with cottonseed hulls. 5 

The Texas experiment station 8 found it profitable at times 
to use molasses in conjunction with corn, cottonseed meal, 
and cottonseed hulls for cattle feeding. The use of kafir 
corn was found more profitable than the use of corn in supple- 
menting rations of cottonseed hulls and cottonseed meal. 

CALF FEEDING. 

The finishing of calves for market has become an important 
item for the consideration of the farmer and cattleman. Dur- 
ing the years of 1909, 1910, 1911, and 1912 the Bureau of Ani- 
mal Industry, in cooperation with the Alabama experiment 
station, fed out four different herds of calves for the market. 

i Tennessee Bulletin 3, Vol. XV. * North Carolina Bulletins 218 and 222. 

* Virginia Bulletin 173, p. 121. ' Texas Bulletin 153. 

' Virginia Bulletin 164. « Texas Bulletin 97. 



276 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

All of the calves were taken from their mothers when from 6 to 
8 months of age and immediately put on feed. The first lot 
of calves were started on feed December 3, 1909, and aver- 
aged 386 pounds. They were fed in a dry lot on cotton- 
seed meal, corn chop, cottonseed hulls, and mixed alfalfa 
hay until March 24, 1910. During this period of 112 days 
they gained 126 pounds each, or 1.13 pounds per day. 
They were then turned on good pasture and fed cottonseed 
cake and alfalfa hay for 89 days. They did very well on 
the pasture and made a daily gain of 1.33 pounds per head. 
The gains made during the winter months cost $8.63 per 
hundred pounds, while the gains made on pasture cost 
$4.84 per hundredweight, or practically half as much. The 
calves were 14 to 15 months old when sold and averaged 628 
pounds. When slaughtered, they produced fine carcasses 
well covered with fat, and the fat was evenly interspersed 
with the lean, giving a nice "marbled" effect. They killed 
out 54.4 per cent of marketable meat by their farm weights. 
After paying for all feeds at market prices and pasturage at 
50 cents per head per month, they returned a net profit of 
$1.84 per head, without considering the manure produced. 

The following year three lots of high-grade beef calves, 
,77 head in all, were fed to determine if it would be profitable 
to feed corn in conjunction with a ration made up of cotton- 
seed hulls, alfalfa hay, and cottonseed meal; and what pro- 
portion of the grain ration should consist of corn. Each of 
the three lots received cottonseed hulls and alfalfa hay as 
roughage, while the concentrate given them was as follows: 
Lot I, cottonseed meal; lot II, two-thirds cottonseed meal, 
one-third corn and cob meal; lot III, one-third cottonseed 
meal, two-thirds corn-and-cob meal. 

The calves were taken from their mothers November 17 
and started on feed. They were fed for 120 days, at the 
end of which time they were shipped to the Cincinnati 
market. During the feeding" period each calf in lots I, II, 
and III made an average daily gain of 1.71, 1.76, and 1.83 
pounds, respectively, while the costs of the gains were $6.22, 
$6.19, and $6.83 per 100 pounds, respectively. The daily 
gains were satisfactory for animals of this size. These 
calves paid for all feeds at market prices, and made a net 
profit of $1.84, $2.25, and $1.48 in lots I, II, and III, respec- 
tively, without considering the manure. 



Production of Beef in the South. 277 

Another bunch of 52 calves, which were not as good in 
quality, were fed on cottonseed meal, cottonseed hulls, and 
cowpea hay. The daily gain made by each of these calves 
for the 112 days they were fed was 1.24 pounds, and the 
cost of 100 pounds of gain was $6.97. They made a net 
profit of $3.50 per head besides the manure. The daily 
gains were not as large and were more expensive with these 
calves than with the calves of better quality in the other 
test, but they were sold on a better market and thus made 
a larger profit per head. 

In 1911 and 1912 another test 1 was made to determine 
the cost of raising the calves and the profits of finishing them 
on the farm. When all legitimate charges were made 
against the calves for their keep, as well as that of their 
dams, the cost of raising to 9 months of age or weaning time 
proved to be 3 cents per pound. These calves, numbering 
49 head, were fed on cottonseed meal, corn silage, and 
sedge-grass hay for 16 days in a preliminary period and 76 
days in the regular feeding period. The silage was of good 
quality, but the hay, being composed of broom sedge and 
lespedeza, such as is commonly used on many farms in the 
South, was poor in quality. 

The calves did well during the whole feeding period. 
They made a daily gain of 1.37 pounds at a cost of $5.22 
per hundredweight. At the close of the test they would have 
classed as choice to prime on the market, but they were sold 
on the farm, bringing 5 J cents per pound and making a net 
profit of $9.56 per head. 

There was little difference in the amount of the gains of the 
heifer and steer calves, but the heifer calves usually fattened 
better, as there was a more pronounced tendency on the part 
of the steer calves to grow than to fatten rapidly. 

In all of the feeding experiments a profit was made by 
finishing the calves. More money was made by finishing 
them than would have been realized if they had been sold at 
weaning time without feeding, for there is no doubt that 
many farmers sell their calves or yearlings at a price which 
is actually less than it cost to raise them. It was found to 
be more profitable to feed the calves in the dry lot and 
finish them in a short time than to feed them all winter and 
finish by feeding on grass the following summer. The use 

i Department of Agriculture Bulletin 73. 



278 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

of alfalfa hay or cowpea hay in conjunction with cottonseed 
hulls was beneficial. 

While profits were made on the calves of every experiment 
conducted, it does not follow that all farmers should fatten 
out their surplus stock as calves. Farm and market con- 
ditions may he such that many farmers will find it more 
profitable to raise their cattle to maturity before finishing 
them, while others will find it to be better policy to feed 
them out as calves or yearlings. It must be remembered 
that calves which can be profitably finished for market must 
be high in quality and well bred; otherwise they will not 
fatten properly, but will grow instead, and they will not sell 
to advantage. Then, too, far greater care must be used in 
feeding calves than older cattle, as they are easier to go off 
feed, and it is harder to get them to doing well again if they 
suffer from this common complaint. 

FEEDING CATTLE ON PASTURE. 

Within the last few years the feeding of beef cattle on 
pasture has aroused considerable interest among the farmers 
of the Southern States. This is due partly to the increased 
cost of cottonseed hulls, which formerly constituted the 
principal roughage used in winter feeding, and partly from 
the realization that summer feeding is a safer proposition 
financially than winter feeding. The tests in summer feed- 
ing in Alabama have been in progress since 1907. 1 In order 
that there would be little chance of error in the results 
secured because of the individuality of one or two animals, 
a carload or more of steers were used in each lot of the 
various tests. Each year one lot of cattle were grazed on 
pasture without feed in order that a comparison might be 
secured between this method and that of feeding the cattle 
on pasture. 

The cattle which received feed in addition to the grass 
made greater daily gains than the grass cattle. The gains 
in each case were satisfactory, those of the grass cattle 
varying from 1.52 to 1.75 pounds per steer per day, while 
the daily gains of the fed cattle varied from 1.84 to 2.32 
pounds per steer. The cattle which received pasture alone 
made cheap gains each year, the cost of 100 pounds of gain 

i See Bureau of Animal Industry Buls. 131, 159, and Department of Agriculture Bul- 
letin 73; also Alabama Bulletins 150, 151, 163. 



Production of Beef in the South. 279 

ranging from $1.02 to $1.18 when pasture was charged at 
50 cents per steer per month. The cost of the increased 
weight of the cake-fed cattle varied from $2.56 to $4.02 per 
100 pounds. When compared to the cost of gains made by 
cattle fed in the winter these gains seem very cheap, as 
winter gains usually cost from $8 to $14 per hundred pounds. 
While the grass steers made gains much cheaper than the 
cake-fed steers, it does not follow that they were the most 
profitable. The selling price of the cake-fed steers was 
enough greater than that of the straight grass steers to pay 
the difference in the cost of the gains and return a much 
larger profit. This difference in selling price usually ranged 
from 0.5 to I cent per pound. The profits upon the steers 
which received grass alone varied from $2.86 to $6.84 per 
head, while the profits on the fed cattle ranged from $4.18 to 
$1 1 per head, depending upon the year the feeding was done 
and upon the feeds used to supplement the pastures. 

When cotton seed sold for $14 and cottonseed cake for 
$26 per ton, as was the case in 1909, greater profits were re- 
turned by the steers fed upon cotton seed. Contrary to the 
general belief, the cotton seed did not cause the cattle to 
scour while upon grass, but greater care had to be exercised 
by the feeder when using cotton seed than when feeding 
cake. The steers fed on cotton seed did not seem to relish 
the feed as well as the steers fed on cake, about the middle of 
the summer, and it was hard to keep the steers eating the 
cotton seed at this time. 

"Cold process" cottonseed cake did not produce as large 
' daily gains nor as great profits per steer as the ordinary cot- 
tonseed cake, when the former cost $23 and the latter $26 per 
ton. There was a difference of 18 cents per hundred pounds 
in the selling price of the steers in favor of those fed on cot- 
tonseed cake. 

The feeding of well-fleshed steers on a heavy ration of 
cottonseed cake in order that they might be finished for 
the market by July 1 has proven more profitable than the 
feeding of a medium ration of cake for a longer period. The 
profit realized per steer by each method was $8.30 and $7.73, 
respectively. 

The principal advantages of finishing the cattle early in the 
summer are: (1) The cattle do not come in competition with 
so many fat grass cattle, and they sell at such prices that they 



280 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

are more profitable than cattle sold later in the season; (2) 
the cattle are taken off the pasture in July and it is permitted 
to grow up for late fall pasture for other animals; and (3) the 
money invested in the feeding operations is not tied up for 
so long a period. 

A lot of 54 native Alubama scrub steers of various sizes 
and ages were fed on pasture in the same manner as a lot of 
good grade beef steers. The scrub steers cost one-half a 
cent less per pound at the beginning of the experiment and 
made a profit of but 43 cents per head, while the grade 
steers realized a profit of $10.42 each. The scrub steers 
made satisfactory gains on pasture, but the quality of the 
cattle was such that they did not sell for nearby so much as 
the grade steers of the beef breeds. The better the quality 
of the steers to be fed, the better are the chances of making 
good profits, provided the purchase price is not widely differ- 
ent on the two classes. 

The summer feeding of cattle has been profitable in every 
test made except one, in which the cattle were fed during 
the whole winter before turning upon grass. The grass was 
"slushy" during the entire grazing season, due to excessive 
rains and the fact that the pasture was on low land. Satis- 
factory gains could not be expected under such conditions. 

The margin of profit necessary to break even is far smaller 
during the summer feeding than during winter feeding. The 
summer feeding of steers is a safer proposition and more 
money is usually realized than by finishing the steers during 
the winter. Summer feeding is especially urged upon those 
farmers who have available pastures and who are not in a * 
position to raise all of the feeds necessary for winter feeding 
upon the farm. The manure will not be available for the 
crops, however, as in the case of winter feeding, for it will be 
scattered about the pasture. 

Some steers were fed at the Mississippi experiment sta- 
tion during the summer of 1909, but the pastures were poor; 
consequently the daily gains were small, being but 1.25 
pounds per head. The cost of the summer gains were $5.38 
per hundredweight as compared to $6.49 per hundredweight 
for the winter feeding. Larger profits were secured than by 
winter feeding and it was conceded to be a safer practice. 1 

■ Mississippi Bulletin 136. 



Production of Beef in the South. 281 

That much interest is being taken in the beef-cattle in- 
dustry in the South is shown by the large number of farmers 
who are buying pure-bred cattle for the first time, by the 
scarcity of good grade beef cows and the readiness with 
which they sell when offered, and by the great increase in 
the number of silos which are being erected by the owners 
of beef cattle. In 12 counties in Mississippi that have 
eradicated the cattle tick there have been purchased in 6 
months over 400 pure-bred beef bulls and 1,000 pure-bred 
beef cows, representing a cash expenditure of over $200,000. 
These cattle have been purchased largely by small farmers. 
In South Carolina, county live-stock associations are being 
formed and one breed of beef cattle is decided upon, in order 
to create a breeding center for that breed and to secure a 
uniform product. Of the number of prospective silos to be 
built in Alabama during 1914, over 70 per cent are to be for 
farmers who are raising beef cattle. In the Texas Pan- 
handle many silos are being dug or erected. The cattle 
raiser of that section has decided he should finish his cattle 
for the market, and a great change in methods will probably 
be seen there within five years. In other Southern States 
pure-bred cattle are being purchased, silos and barns are 
being built, preparations are being made to raise greater 
amounts of feed, and plans are being made for the feeding 
of more cattle. There are signs of progress everywhere and 
the growth of the entire industry seems assured. The 
result of all this will be an increase in the fertility of the 
soil and the foundation of a permanent system of soil im- 
provement. 

The farmers of the whole South will eventually realize two 
important facts : (1) That more live stock should be kept on 
every southern farm, and (2) if these stock are beef cattle 
each of them should be finished for the market before selling 
in order to secure the greatest profits. Whether these ani- 
mals should be fattened during the winter or the summer 
will depend largely upon local conditions. One of the most 
important factors to consider when debating whether to 
feed cattle during the summer or the winter is the need of 
immediate applications of manure to the cultivated lands. 
If the fields are poor and manure is needed upon them at 
once, it may pay to finish cattle during the winter, for cattle 
which are fed during the summer drop the manure over the 



282 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

pasture lands and little is saved to haul to the cultivated 
fields. The manure on the pasture will stimulate the growth 
of the grasses, however, and increase the ' 'carrying capacity " 
of the pasture, and if the pastures are put in cultivation later 
the effects of the manure will be apparent. 

The greatest need of the southern soils is barnyard manure, 
the application of which always increases the yields of the 
subsequent crops, regardless of the type of the soils to which 
it is applied. Cotton responds very readily to stable ma- 
nure, in fact, far more readily than either corn or oats, and 
this in itself is a great item in favor of five stock, for cotton 
is and probably always will be the staple crop of the South, 
and an increased yield per acre means greater profits to the 
farmer. By raising live stock the soil is improved by the 
growing of leguminous pasture grasses, of nitrogen-gathering 
forage crops, by the return of the manure to the land, and 
by abandoning the one-crop system, which is the worst form 
of soil robbery. 



HEMP. 

By Lyster H. Dewey, 
Botanist in Charge of Fiber-Plant Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry. 

INTRODUCTION. 

THE two fiber-producing plants most promising for culti- 
vation in the central United States and most certain to 
yield satisfactory profits are hemp and flax. The oldest 
cultivated fiber plant, one for which the conditions in the 
United States are as favorable as anywhere in the world, 
one which properly handled improves the land, and which 
yields one of the strongest and most durable fibers of com- 
merce, is hemp. Hemp fiber, formerly the most important 
material in homespun fabrics, is now most familiar to the 
purchasing public in this country in the strong gray, tying 
twines one-sixteenth to one-fourth inch in diameter, known 
by the trade name "commercial twines." 

NAME. 

The name "hemp" belongs primarily to the plant Can- 
nobis saliva. (PI. XL, fig. 1.) It has long been used to 
designate also the long fiber obtained from the hemp plant. 
(PI. XL, fig. 4.) Hemp fiber, being one of the earliest and 
best-known textile fibers and until recent times the most 
widely used of its class, has been regarded as the typical 
representative of long fibers. Unfortunately, its name also 
came to be regarded as a kind of common name for all long 
fibers, until one now finds in the market quotations "Manila 
hemp" for abaca, "sisal hemp" for sisal and henequen, 
"' Mauritius hemp " for Furcraea fiber, " New Zealand hemp " 
for phormium, "Sunn hemp" for Crotalaria fiber, and 
"India hemp" for jute. All of these fibers in appearance 
and in economic properties are unlike true hemp, while the 
name is never applied to flax, which is more nearly like hemp 
than any other commercial fiber. 

The true hemp is known in different languages by the fol- 
lowing names: Cannabis, Latin; chanvre, French; canamo, 

283 



284 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



Spanish; cariliamo, Portuguese; canapa, Italian; canep, 
Albanian; Tconopli, Eussian; Tconopj and peneTc, Polish; Tcemp, 
Belgian; hanf, German; hennup, Dutch; Tiamp, Swedish; 
hampa, Danish; Jcenevir, Bulgarian; ta-ma, si-ma, and tse-ma, 
Chinese; asa, Japanese; nasha, Turkish; Jcanabira, Syrian; 
Tcanndb, Arabic. 

IMPORTANCE OF HEMP. 

Hemp was formerly the most important long fiber,, and it 
is now used more extensively than any other soft fiber except 
jute. From 10,000 to 15,000 tons are used in the United 
States every year. The approximate amount consumed in 
American spinning mills is indicated by the following table, 
showing the average annual importations 1 and estimates of 
average domestic production of hemp fiber for 35 years : 

Average annual imports and estimates of average annual production of hemp 
fiber in 5-year periods from 1S76 to 1910, inclusive, and from 1911 to 191S, 
inclusive. 



Years. 


Imports. 


Produc- 
tion in 
United 
States. 


Total. 


1876 to 1830 

1881 to 1885 

1886tol890 

1891 to 1895 

1896 to 1930 

1901 to 1935 

1906 to 1910 

1911 to 1913 


Tons. 
459 
5,393 

10,427 
4,962 
4,985 
4,577 
6,375 
5,982 


Tons. 
7,396 
5,421 
8,270 
5,631 
5,177 
6,175 
5,150 
5,100 


Tons. 
7,855 
10,814 
18, 697 
10,593 
10, 162 
10,752 
11,525 
11,082 



There are no statistics available, such as may be found 
for wheat, corn, or cotton, showing with certainty the 
acreage and production of hemp in this country. The esti- 
mates of production in the foregoing table are based on the 
returns of the Commissioner of Agriculture of Kentucky for 
earlier years with amounts added to cover the production in 
other States, and on estimates of hemp dealers for more 
recent years. While these figures can not be regarded as 
accurate statistics, and they are probably below rather than 
above the actual production, especially in the earlier years, 

« Computed from reports of the Bureau of Navigation and Commerce, XJ. S. Treasury De- 
partment, and Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce. 



Hemp. 285 

they indicate a condition well recognized by all connected 
with the industry. The consumption of hemp fiber has a 
slight tendency to increase, but the increase is made up 
through increased importations, while the domestic produc- 
tion shows a tendency toward reduction. 

PRODUCTION IN UNITED STATES DECLINING. 

This falling off in domestic production has been due pri- 
marily to the increasing difficulty in securing sufficient labor 
to take care of the crop ; secondarily, to the lack of develop- 
ment of labor-saving machinery as compared with the ma- 
chinery for handling other crops and to the increasing profits 
in raising stock, tobacco, and corn, which have largely taken 
the attention of farmers in hemp-growing regions. 

The work of retting, breaking, and preparing the fiber for 
market requires a special knowledge, different from that for 
handling grain crops, and a skill best acquired by experience. 
These factors have been more important than all others in 
restricting the industry to the bluegrass region of Kentucky, 
where the plantation owners as well as the farm laborers are 
familiar with every step in handling the crop and producing 
the fiber. 

An important factor, tending to restrict the use of hemp, 
has been the rapidly increasing use of other fibers, especially 
jute, in the manufacture of materials formerly made of 
hemp. Factory-made woven goods of cotton or wool, more 
easily spun by machinery, have replaced the hempen "home- 
spun" for clothing; wire ropes, stronger, lighter, and more 
rigid, have taken its place in standing rigging for ships; 
abaca (Manila hemp), lighter and more durable in salt 
water, has superseded it for towing hawsers and hoisting 
ropes; while jute, inferior in strength and durability, and 
with only the element of cheapness in its favor, is usurping 
the legitimate place of hemp in carpet warps, so-called 
"hemp carpets," twines, and for many purposes where the 
strength and durability of hemp are desired. 

The introduction of machinery for harvesting hemp and 
also for preparing the fiber, together with the higher prices 
paid for hemp during the past three years, has aroused an 
interest in the industry, and many experiments are being 
tried with a view to the cultivation of the crop in new areas. 



286 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

BOTANICAL STUDY OF HEMP 

THE PLANT. 

The hemp plant, Cannabis sativa L., 1 ia an annual, growing each year from 
the seed. It has a rigid, herbaceous stalk, attaining a height of 1 to 5 meters 
(3 to 16 feet), obtusely 4-cornered, more or less fluted or channeled, and 
with well-marked nodes at intervals of 10 to 50 centimeters (4 to 20 inches). 
When not crowded it has numerous spreading branches, and the central 
stalk attains a thickness of 3 to 6 centimeters (1 to 2 inches), with a rough 
bark near the base. If crowded, as when sown broadcast for fiber, the 
stalks are without branches or foliage except at the top, and the smooth 
fluted stems are 6 to 20 millimeters (J to } inch) in diameter. The leaves, 
opposite, except near the top or on the shortened branches, appearing 
fascicled, are palmately compound and composed of 5 to 11 — usually 7 — 
leaflets. (PI. XLI, fig. 1.) The leaflets are dark green, lighter below, lance- 
olate, pointed at both ends, serrate, 5 to 15 centimeters (2 to 6 inches) long, 
and 1 to 2 centimeters (J to J inch) wide. Hemp is dioecious, the stami- 
nate or pollen-bearing flowers and the pistillate or seed-producing flowers 
being borne on separate plants. The staminate flowers (PI. XL, fig. 2) are 
borne in small axillary panicles, and consist of five greenish yellow or 
purplish sepals opening wide at maturity and disclosing five stamens which 
discharge abundant yellow pollen . The pistillate flowers (PI. XL, fig. 3) are 
stemless and solitary in the axils of the small leaves near the ends of the 
branches, often crowded so as to appear like a thick spike. The pistillate 
flower is inconspicuous, consisting of a thin, entire, green calyx, pointed, 
with a slit at one side, but remaining nearly closed over the ovary and 
merely permitting the two small stigmas to protrude at the apex. The 
ovary is one seeded, developing into a smooth, compressed or nearly spher- 
ical achene (the "seed "), 2.5 to 4 millimeters (fj to ^ inch) thick and 3 to 
6 millimeters (J to J inch) long, from dark gray to light brown in color and 
mottled (PI. XLI, fig. 2). The seeds cleaned for market nearly always in- 
clude some still covered with the green, gummy calyx. The seeds vary in 
weight from 0.008 to 0.027 gram, the dark-colored seeds being generally much 
heavier than the light-colored seeds of the same sample. The light-colored 
seeds are often imperfectly developed. Dark-colored and distinctly 
mottled seeds are generally preferred. 

The staminate plants are often called the flowering hemp, since the pistil- 
late flowers are rarely observed. The staminate plants die after the pollen is 
shed, but the pistillate plants remain alive and green two months later, or 
until the seeds are fully developed. 

i Linaseus. Species Plantarum, ed. 1, 1027, 1753. 

Dloscorides. Medica Materia, libri sex, p. 147, 1537. 

Synonyms: Cannabis erratka paludosa Anders. Lobel. Stirpium Historla, 284, 1576. 
Cannabis indica Lamarck. Encyclopaedia, 1: 695, 1788. 
Cannabis macrosperma Stokes. Bot. Mat. Med., IV, 539, 1812. 
Cannabis clinensis Delile. Ind. Sem. Hort. Monst. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., 

12: 365, 1849. 
Cannabis gigantea Delile. L. Vllmorin. Rev. Hort., 5: s. 3, 109, 1851. 



Hemp. 287 

THE STALK. 

The hemp stalk is hollow, and in the best fiber-producing types the hollow 
space occupies at least one-half the diameter. The hollow space is widest, or 
the surrounding shell thinnest, about midway between the base and the top 
of the plant. The woody shell is thickened at each node, dividing the 
hollow space into a series of partly separated compartments. (PI. XLI, 
fig. 4.) If the stalk is cut crosswise a layer of pith, or thin-walled tissue, is 
found next to the hollow center, and outside of this a layer of wood composed 
of hard, thick- walled cells. This layer, which forms the " hurds, " is a very 
thin shell in the best fiber-producing varieties. It extends clear across the 
stem below the lowest node, and in large, coarse stalks grown in the open it is 
much thicker and the central hollow relatively smaller. Outside of the 
hard woody portion is the soft cambium, or growing tissue, the cells of which 
develop into the wood on the inside, or into the bast and bark on the outside. 
It is chiefly through this cambium layer that the fiber-bearing bast splits 
away from the wood in the processes of retting and breaking. Outside of 
the cambium is the inner bark, or bast, comprising short, thin-walled cells 
filled with chlorophyll, giving it a green color, and long thick- walled cells, 
making the bast fibers. These bast fibers are of two kinds, the smaller ones 
(secondary bast fibers) toward the inner portion making up rather short, fine 
fibers, many of which adhere to the wood or hurds when the hemp is broken, 
and the coarser ones (primary bast fibers) toward the outer part, extending 
nearly throughout the length of the stalk. Outside of the primary bast 
fiber is a continuation of the thin- walled chlorophyll-bearing cells free from 
fiber, and surrounding all is the thin epidermis. 

THE FIBER. 

The hemp fiber of commerce is composed of the primary bast fibers, with 
some adherent bark and also some secondary bast fiber. The bast fibers 
consist of numerous long, overlapping, thick- walled cells with long, tapering 
ends. The individual cells, almost too small to be seen by the unaided eye, 
are 0.015 to 0.05 millimeter (s^m to yjfo inch) in diameter, and 5 to 55 milli- 
meters (A to 2J inches) long. Some of the bast fibers extend through the 
length of the stalk, but some are branched, and some terminate at each node. 
They are weakest at the nodes. 

RELATIONSHIPS. 

The hemp plant belongs to the mulberry family, Moracese, 
which includes the mulberry, the Osage orange, the paper 
mulberry, from the bast of which the tapa of the South Sea 
Islands is made, and the hop, which contains a strong bast 
fiber. Hemp is closely related to the nettle family, which 
includes ramie, an important fiber-producing plant of Asia, 
and several species of nettles having strong bast fibers. 



288 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

The genus Cannabis is generally regarded by botanists as 
monotypic, and the one species Cannabis sativa is now held to 
include the half dozen forms which have been described under 
different names (see footnote, p. 286) and which are cultivated 
for different purposes. The foregoing description refers espe- 
cially to the forms cultivated for the production of fiber. 

HISTORY. 

EARLY CULTIVATION IN CHINA. 

Hemp was probably the earliest plant cultivated for the 
production of a textile fiber. The "Lu Shi," a Chinese work 
of the Sung dynasty, about 500 A. D., contains a statement 
that the Emperor Shen Nung, in the twenty-eighth century 
B. C, first taught the people of China to cultivate "ma" 

(hemp) for making hempen cloth. 
The name ma (fig. 17) occurring in 
the earliest Chinese writings desig- 
nated a plant of two forms, male 
and female, used primarily for 
fiber. Later the seeds of this 
plant were used for food. 1 The 
definite statement regarding the 
staminate and pistillate forms 
eliminates other fiber plants in- 

Fia.lT.-Chmese character ma, the cluded ^ later times Under the 

earliest name for hemp. . 

Chinese name ma. ine Chinese 
have cultivated the plant for the production of fiber and for 
the seeds, which were used for food and later for oil, while in 
some places the stalks are used for fuel, but there seems to be 
no record that they have used the plant for the production of 
the narcotic drugs bhang, charas, and ganga. The produc- 
tion and use of these drugs were developed farther west. 

CULTIVATION FOR NARCOTIC DRUGS. 

The use of hemp in medicine and for the production of the 
narcotic drug Indian hemp, or cannabis, is of interest in 
this paper only because' of its bearing on the origin and de- 
velopment of different forms of the plant. The origin of 
this use is not definitely known, but the weight of evidence 

1 Bretschneider, E. Botanlcum Sinicum, in Journal of the North China Branch of tho 
Royal Asiatic Society, n. s., v. 25, p. 203, 1893, Shanghai. 




Hemp. 289 

seems to indicate central Asia or Persia and a date many cen- 
turies later than its first cultivation for fiber. The name 
bhanga occurs in the Sanskrit " Atharvav6da " (about 1400 
B. C), but the first mention of it as a medicine seems to be 
in the work of Susruta (before the eighth century A. D.), 
while in the tenth century A. D. its intoxicating nature seems 
to have been known, and the name "indracana" (Indra's 
food) first appears in literature. 1 A further evidence that 
hemp, for the production of fiber as well as the drug, has been 
distributed from central Asia or Persia is found in the com- 
mon origin of the names used. The Sanskrit names 
"bhanga" and "gangika," slightly modified to "bhang" 
and "ganja," are still applied to the drugs, and the roots of 
these words, "ang" and "an," recur in the names of hemp 
in all of the Indo-European and modern Semitic languages, 
as bhang, ganja, hanf, hamp, hemp, chanvre, cafiamo, 
kannab, cannabis. 2 

HEMP IN INDIA. 

Northern India has been regarded by some writers as the 
home of the hemp plant, but it seems to have been unknown 
in any form in India before the eighth century, and it is now 
thought to have been introduced there first as a fiber plant. 
It is still cultivated to a limited extent for fiber in Kashmir 
and in the cool, moist valleys of the Himalayas, but in the 
warmer plains regions it is grown almost exclusively for the 
production of the drugs. 3 

Hemp was not known to the Hebrews nor to the ancient 
Egyptians, but in medieval times it was introduced into 
North Africa, where it has been cultivated only for the drug. 
It is known in Morocco as "kif," and a small form, 1 to 3 feet 
high, cultivated there has been described as a distinct 
variety, Cannabis sativa Tcif* 

INTRODUCTION INTO EUROPE. 

According to Herodotus (about 450 B. C), the Thracians 
and Scythians, beyond the Caspian Sea, used hemp, and it 
is probable that the Scythians introduced the plant into 
Europe in their westward migration, about 1500 B. C, 

1 Watt, Sir George. Commercial Products of India, p. 251, 1908. 

2 Do Candolle, Alphonse. Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 148, 1886. 

3 Watt, Sir George. Commercial Products of India, p. 253, 1908. 
< De Candolle, Alphonse. Prodromus, v. 16, pt. 1, p. 31, 1869. 

27306°— ybk 1913 19 



290 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

though it seems to have remained almost unknown to the 
Greeks and Romans until the beginning of the Christian era. 
The earliest definite record of hemp in Europe is the state- 
ment that "Hiero II, King of Syracuse (270 B. C), bought 
hemp in Gaul for the cordage of his vessels." 1 From the 
records of Tragus (1539 A. D.), hemp in the sixteenth century- 
had become widely distributed in Europe. It was cultivated 
for fiber, and its seeds were cooked with barley and other 
grains and eaten, though it was found dangerous to eat too 
much or too frequently. Dioscorides called the plant Can- 
nabis sativa, a name it has continued to bear to the present 
time, and he wrote of its use in "making the stoutest cords" 
and also of its medicinal properties. 2 Nearly all of the early 
herbalists and botanical writers of Europe mention hemp, 
but there is no record of any further introduction of impor- 
tance in the fiber industry until the last century. 

INTRODUCTION OF CHINESE HEMP INTO EUROPE. 

In 1846 M. Hubert sent from China to the Museum at 
Paris some seeds of the "tsing-ma," great hemp, of China. 
Plants from this seed, grown at Paris by M. L. Vilmorin, 
attained a height of more than 15 feet, but did not produce 
seeds. In the same year M. Itier sent from China to M. 
Delile, of the Garden at Montpellier, France, seeds of a 
similar kind of hemp. These seeds were distributed in the 
southern part of France, where the plants not only grew 
tall, some of them measuring 21 feet, but they also produced 
mature seeds. M. Delile called this variety Cannabis 
chinensis 3 and the one from the seeds sent by M. Hebert he 
called C. gigantea.* These two forms of hemp were regarded 
as the same by M. L. Vilmorin, who states that they differ 
very much in habit from the common hemp of Europe, 
which was shorter and less valuable for fiber production. 
We are also told that this chanvre de Chine did not appear 
to be the same as the chanvre de Piedmont, 5 the tall hemp 
of eastern France and northern Italy, the origin of which 
has sometimes been referred to this introduction, but this 

i De Candolle, Alphonse. Origin of Cultivated Plants ,p. 148, 1886. 

2 Dioscorides. Medica Materia, li brl sex, p. 147, 1537. 

3 Delile, Rafienau. Index seminum liorti botanici Monspeliensis. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., 
v. 12, p. 365, 1849. 

« Vilmorin, L. Chanvre de Chine. Rev. Hort. 5: s. 3, p. 109, 1851. 
5 Pepin. Sur le chanvre de Chine. Rev. Hort. 1: s. 3, p. 199, 1847. 



Hemp. 291 

may iiave originated in a previous introduction, since 
Cannabis chinensis is mentioned as having been in the 
Botanical Garden at Vienna in 1827. In the same state- 
ment, however, 0. sativa pedemontana is described as a dis- 
tinct variety. 1 Particular attention is called to the intro- 
duction of this large Chinese hemp into Europe, since it was 
doubtless from the same source as the best hemp seed now 
brought from China to the United States. 

INTRODUCTION INTO SOUTH AMERICA. 

Hemp from Spain was introduced into Chile about 1545. 2 
It has been largely grown in that country, but at present its 
cultivation is confined chiefly to the fertile lands in the 
valley of the Rio Aconcagua, between Valparaiso and Los 
Andes, where there are large cordage and twine mills. The 
fiber is all consumed in these mills. 

INTRODUCTION INT© NORTH AMERICA. 

Hemp was introduced into New England soon after the 
Puritan settlements were established, and the fact that it 
grew "twice so high" as it did in old England was cited as 
evidence of the superior fertility of the soil of New England. 3 
A few years later a writer in Virginia records the statement 
that "They begin to plant much Hempe and Flax which 
they find growes well and good." * The cultivation of hemp 
in the New England colonies, while continued for some time 
in Massachusetts and Connecticut, did not attain as much 
importance as the cultivation of flax for supplying fiber for 
household industry. In the South hemp received more 
attention, especially from the Virginia Legislature, which 
passed many acts designed to promote the industry, but 
all in vain. 5 

The cultivation of hemp seems to have been a flourishing 
industry in Lancaster County, Pa., before the Revolution. 
An elaborate account of the methods then employed in 

1 De Candolle, Alphonse. Prodromus, v. 16, pt. 1, p. 31, 1869. 

2 Husbands, Jose 1 D. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin 
1S3, p. 42, 1909. 

8 Morton, Thomas. New English Canaan, p. 64, 1632. In Force, Peter, Tracts and Other 
Papers, v. 2, 1838. 

* Virginia, printed for Richard Wodenoth, 1649. In Force, Peter, Tracts and Other Papers, 
v. 2, 1838. 

' Moore, Brent. A Study ot the Past, the Present, and the Possibilities of the Hemp Indus 
try in Kentucky, p. 14, 1905. 



292 Yearbook oj the Department of Agriculture. 

growing hemp, written about 1775 by James Wright, of 
Columbia, Pa., 1 was recently published as an historical docu- 
ment. The methods described for preparing the land were 
equal to the best modern practice, but the hemp was pulled 
by hand instead of cut. Various kinds of machine brakes 
had been tried, but they had all "given Way to one simple 
Break of a particular Construction, which was first invented 
& made Use of in this country." The brief description 
indicates the common hand brake still in use in Kentucky. 

EARLY CULTIVATION IN KENTUCKY. 

The first crop of hemp in Kentucky was raised by Mr. 
Archibald McNeil, near Danville, in 1775. 2 It was found 
that hemp grew well in the fertile soils of the bluegrass 
country, and the industry was developed there to a greater 
extent than it had been in the eastern colonies. While it 
was discontinued in Massachusetts,. Virginia, and Pennsyl- 
vania, it has continued in Kentucky to the present time. 
In the early days of this industry in Kentucky, fiber was pro- 
duced for the homespun cloth woven by the wives and 
daughters of the pioneer settlers, and an export trade by 
way of New Orleans was developed. In 1802 there were 
two extensive ropewalks in Lexington, Ky., and there was 
announced "a machine, moved by a horse or a current of 
water, capable, according to what the inventor said, to 
break and clean eight thousand weight of hemp per day." 3 
Hemp was later extensively used for making cotton-bale 
covering. Cotton bales were also bound with hemp rope 
until iron ties were introduced, about 1865. There was a 
demand for the better grades of hemp for sailcloth and for 
cordage for the Navy, and the industry was carried on more 
extensively from 1840 to 1860 than it has been since. 

EXTENSION OF THE INDUSTRY TO OTHER STATES. 

Hemp was first grown in Missouri about 1835, and in 1840 
1,600 tons were produced in that State. Four years later 
the output had increased to 12,500 tons, and it was thought 
that Missouri would excel Kentucky in the production of 

i New Era, Lancaster, Pa., June 24, 1905. 

* Moore, Brent. A Study of the Past, the Present, and the Possibilities of the Hemp 
Industry in Kentucky, p. 16, 1905. 

* Michaux, F. Andre. Travels to the west of the Alleghanies, p. 152, 1805. In Thwaites, 
Early Western Travels, v. 3, p. 200, 1904. 



Hemp. 293 

this fiber. With the unsatisfactory methods of cleaning the 
fiber on hand brakes and the difficulties of transporting the 
fiber to the eastern markets, hemp proved less profitable 
than other crops, and the industry was finally abandoned 
about 1890. 

Hemp was first grown at Champaign, 111., about 1875. A 
cordage mill was established there for making twines from 
the fiber, which was prepared in the form of long tow by a 
large machine brake. The cordage mill burned and the 
industry was discontinued in 1902 because there was no 
satisfactory market for the kind of tow produced. 

In Nebraska, hemp was first grown at Fremont in 1887 by 
men from Champaign, 111. A binder-twine plant was built, 
but owing to the low price of sisal, more suitable for binder 
twine, most of the hemp was sold to eastern mills to be used 
in commercial twines. After experimenting with machine 
brakes the company brought hand brakes from Kentucky 
and colored laborers to operate them. The laborers did. not 
stay, and the work was discontinued in 1900. Some of the 
men who had been connected with the company at Fremont 
began growing hemp at Havelock, near Lincoln, in 1895. A 
machine for making long tow, improved somewhat from the 
one at Champaign, was built. Further improvements were 
made in the machine and also in the methods of handling the 
crop, but the industry was discontinued in 1910, owing to the 
lack of a satisfactory market for the kind of tow produced. 

Hemp was first grown on a commercial scale in California 
at Gridley, in Butte County, by Mr. John Heaney, who had 
grown it at Champaign and who devised the machine used 
there for making long tow. Mr. Heaney built a machine with 
some improvements at Gridley, and after three disastrous 
inundations from the Feather River moved to Courtland, in 
the lower Sacramento Valley, where the reclaimed lands are 
protected by dikes. The work is now being continued at 
Rio Vista, in Solano County, under more favorable condi- 
tions and with a machine still further improved. The hemp 
fiber produced in California is very strong and is generally 
lighter in color than that produced in Kentucky. 

In 1912 hemp was first cultivated on a commercial scale 
under irrigation at Lerdo, near Bakersfield, Cal., and a 
larger acreage was grown there in 1913. The seed for both 
crops was obtained in Kentucky. 



294 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

INTBODTTCTION OF CHINESE HEMP INTO AMEBIC A. 

In 1857 the first Chinese hemp seed was imported. It 
met with such favor that some of this seed is said to have 
brought $10 per quart. 1 Since that time the common hemp 
of European origin has given place in this country to the 
larger and better types from China. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The original home of the hemp plant was in Asia, and the 
evidence points to central Asia, or the region between the 
Himalayas and Siberia. Historical evidence must be ac- 
cepted rather than the collection of wild specimens, for hemp 
readily becomes naturalized, and it is now found growing 
without cultivation in all parts of the world where it has been 
introduced. Hemp is abundant as a wild plant in many 
localities in western Missouri, Iowa, and in southern Minne- 
sota, and it is often found as a roadside weed throughout the 
Middle West. De Candolle 2 writes of its origin as follows: 

The species has been found wild, beyond a doubt, south of the Caspian 
Sea (De Bunge); in Siberia, near the Irtysch; and in the Desert of Kirghiz, 
beyond Lake Baikal, in Dahuria (Government of Irkutsh). It is found 
throughout central and southern Russia and south of the Caucasus, but 
its wild nature here is les3 certain. I doubt whether it is indigenous in 
Persia, for the Greeks and Hebrews would have known of it earlier. 

Hemp is now cultivated for the production of fiber in China, 
Manchuria, Japan, northern India, Turkey, Russia, Austria- 
Hungary, Italy, France, Belgium, Germany, Sweden, Chile, 
and in the United States. It is grown for the production of 
the drugs bhang, ganja, kif, marihuana, hasheesh, etc., in the 
warm, arid, or semiarid climates of India, Persia, Turkey, 
Algeria, central and southern Africa, and in Mexico, and for 
the production of seed for oil in China and Manchuria. 

In the United States hemp is now cultivated in the blue- 
grass region of Kentucky within a radius of 50 miles of Lex- 
ington; in the region of Waupun, Wis.; in northern Indiana; 
near Lima, Ohio; and at Lerdo and Rio Vista, Cal. There 
are numerous small experimental plats in other places. 

The principal countries producing hemp fiber for export 
are Russia, Italy, Hungary, and Roumania. China and 

1 Moore, Brent. The Hemp Industry in Kentucky, pp. 60-61, 1905. 

2 De Candolle, Alphonse. Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 148, 1886. 



Hemp. 295 

Japan produce hemp fiber of excellent quality, but it is nearly- 
all used for home consumption. Hemp is not cultivated for 
fiber in the Tropics or in any of the warm countries. 

The historical distribution of hemp, as nearly as may be 
traced from the records, and the areas where hemp is now 
cultivated are indicated in the accompanying map, figure 6. 

VARIETIES. 

Hemp, cultivated for three different products — fiber from 
the bast, oil from the seeds, and resinous drugs from the 
flowers and leaves — has developed into three rather dis- 
tinct types or groups of forms. The extreme, or more 
typical, forms of each group have been described as different 
species, but the presence of intergrading forms and the fact 
that the types do not remain distinct when cultivated under 
new conditions make it impossible to regard them r.s valid 
species. 

There are few recognized varieties in either group. Less than 
20 varieties of fiber-producing hemp are known, although 
hemp has been cultivated for more than 40 centuries, 
or much longer than either cotton or corn, both of which 
now have hundreds of named varieties. 

CHINA. 

The original home of the hemp plant was in China, and 
more varieties are found there than elsewhere. It is culti- 
vated for fiber in nearly all parts of the Chinese Republic, 
except in the extreme south, and over a wide range of dif- 
ferences in soil and climate with little interchange of seed, 
thus favoring the development and perpetuation of varietal 
differences. 

The variety called "ta-ma" (great hemp) is cultivated 
chiefly in the provinces of Chekiang, Kiangsu, and Fukien, 
south of the Yangtze. In the rich lowland soils, often in ro- 
tation with rice, but not irrigated, and with a warmer and 
longer growing season than in Kentucky, this hemp attains 
a height of 10 to 15 feet. The seed is dark colored, usually 
well mottled, small, weighing about 1.2 grams per hundred. 
The internodes of the main stem are 6 to 10 inches long; 
the branches long and slender, usually drooping at the ends; 
the leaves large; and the pistillate flowers in small clusters. 




to 

06 



Fig. 18.— Map of the world, showing the location of hemp cultivation for fiber, oil, and drug, with the sources and dates of introduction. 



Hemp. 297 

Seed brought from China to Kentucky in recent years is 
mostly of this variety. When first introduced it is too long in 
maturing to permit all of the seeds to ripen. 

The most important fiber plant of western China is the 
variety of hemp called "hoa-ma." It is grown in the 
province of Szechwan and as a winter crop on the plains of 
Chengtu in that province. It is shorter and more compact 
in its habit of growth and earlier in maturing than the ta-ma 
of the lowlands. 

A variety called "shan-ma-tse" is cultivated in the 
mountain valleys in the provinces of Shansi and Chihli, in 
northern China. Its fiber is regarded as the best in North 
China, and in some respects as superior to that of ta-ma, 
though the yield is usually smaller. The plants attain a 
height of 6 to 9 feet, with a very thin woody shell, short 
ascending branches, rather small leaves, and larger seeds in 
larger clusters than those of ta-ma. Imported seed of this 
variety, grown in a trial plat in Kentucky, produced plants 
smaller in size and maturing earlier than Kentucky hemp. 

In the mountains both north and south of Ichang in 
central China a variety called "t'ang-ma" (cold hemp) is 
cultivated primarily for the production of seeds, from which 
oil is expressed. It is a very robust form, with stalks 6 to 12 
feet high and 2 to 4 inches in diameter. These stalks are 
used for fuel, and occasionally a little fiber is stripped off for 
domestic use. 

In Manchuria two distinct kinds of hemp are cultivated. 
One, called "hsien-ma," very similar to the shan-ma-tse of 
northern China, is grown for fiber. It attains a height of 8 
to 9 feet, and requires nearly 150 days from seeding to full 
maturity. The other, called "shem-ma," is grown for oil- 
seed production. It attains a height of 3 to 5 feet and is 
ripe with fully matured seeds in less than 100 days. The 
branches usually remain undeveloped, so that the clusters 
of seeds are borne in compact heads at the tops of the simple 
stalks. (PI. XLII, fig. 1.) It is said that in Manchuria these 
two forms remain distinct without crossing or producing any 
intergrading forms. 

The Chinese name "ma" (fig. 17), originally applied 
only to the true hemp {Cannabis sativa), is now used as a 



298 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

general term to designate nearly all textile plants in China. 1 
This general use leads to nearly as much confusion among 
English-speaking people in China as does the unfortunate 
use of the name hemp as a synonym for fiber in this country. 
The staminate hemp plant is called "si-ma," and the pistil- 
late plant " tsu-ma." Flax, cultivated to a limited extent in 
northern China, is called "siao-ma" (small hemp), but this 
name is also applied to small plants of true hemp. Eamie, 
cultivated in central and southern China, is "ch'u-ma" or 
"tsu-ma." China jute, cultivated in central and northern 
China and in Manchuria and Chosen (Korea), is called" tsing- 
ma," or "ching-ma," and its fiber, exported from Tientsin, is 
called "pei-ma." India jute, cultivated in southern China 
and Taiwan, is called "oi-ma." The name "chih-ma" is 
also applied in China to sesame, which is not a fiber plant. 

JAPAN. 

Hemp, called " asa" in the Japanese language, is cultivated 
chiefly in the provinces or districts of Hiroshima, Tochigi, 
Shimane, Iwate, and Aidzu, and to a less extent in Hokushu 
(Hokkaido) in the north and Kiushu in the south. It is cul- 
tivated chiefly in the mountain valleys, or in the north on 
the interior plains, where it is too cool for cotton and rice and 
where it is drier than on the coastal plain. That grown in 
Hiroshima, in the south, is tall, with a rather coarse fiber; 
that in Tochigi, the principal hemp-producing province, is 
shorter, 5 to 7 feet high, with the best and finest fiber, and in 
Hokushu it is still shorter. 

Seeds from Hiroshima, Shimane, Aidzu, Tochigi, and 
Iwate were tried by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture in 1901 and 1902. The plants showed no marked 
varietal differences. They were all smaller than the best 
Kentucky hemp. The seeds varied from light grayish brown, 
5 millimeters (^ inch) long, to dark gray, 4 millimeters (£ inch) 
long. The largest plants in every trial plat were from 
Hiroshima seeds, and these seeds were larger and lighter 
colored than those .of any other variety except Shimane, 
the seeds of which were slightly larger and the plants slightly 
smaller. 

' Bretschneider, E. Botanicum Sinicum, p. 203, 1893. 



Hemp. 299 

RUSSIA. 

Hemp is cultivated throughout the greater part of Russia, 
and it is one of the principal crops in the provinces of Orel, 
Kursk, Samara, Smolensk, Tula, Voronezh, and Poland. 
Two distinct types, similar to the tall fiber hemp and the 
short oil-seed hemp of Manchuria, are cultivated, and there 
are doubtless many local varieties in isolated districts where 
there is little interchange of seed. The crop is rather crudely 
cultivated, with no attempt at seed selection or improve- 
ment, and the plants are generally shorter and coarser than 
the hemp grown in Kentucky. The short oil-seed hemp 
with slender stems, about 30 inches high, bearing compact 
clusters of seeds and maturing in 60 to 90 days, is of little 
value for fiber production, but the experimental plats, 
grown from seed imported from Russia, indicate that it may 
be valuable as an oil-seed crop to be harvested and thrashed 
in the same manner as oil-seed flax. 

HUNGARY. 

The hemp in Hungary has received more attention in 
recent years than that in Russia, and this has resulted in a 
better type of plants. An experimental plat grown at Wash- 
ington from Hungarian seed attained a height of 6 to 10 feet 
in the seed row. The internodes were rather short, the 
branches numerous, curved upward, and bearing crowded 
seed clusters and small leaves. About one-third of the plants 
had dark-purple or copper-colored foliage and were more 
compact in habit than those with normal green foliage. 

ITALY. 

The highest-priced hemp fiber in the markets of either 
America or Europe is produced in Italy, 1 but it is obtained 
from plants similar to those in Kentucky. The higher price 
of the fiber is due not to superior plants, but to water retting 
and to increased care and labor in the preparation of the fiber. 

Four varieties are cultivated in Italy: 

(1) "Bologna," or great hemp, called in France "chanvre de Piedmont," 
is grown in northern Italy in the provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, Roviga, 

1 Bruek, Werner F. Studien uber den Hanfbau in Italien, p. 7, 1911. 



300 YearbocJc of the Department of Agriculture. 

and Modena. In the rich alluvial soils and under the intensive cultivation 
there practiced this variety averages nearly 12 feet in height, but it is said 
to deteriorate rapidly when cultivated elsewhere. 

(2) "Cannapa picola," small hemp, attaining a height of 4 to 7 feet, 
with a rather slender reddish stalk, is cultivated in the valley of the Arno 
in the department of Tuscany. 1 

(3) "Neapolitan," large seeded. 

(4) "Neapolitan," small seeded. 

The two varieties of Neapolitan hemp are cultivated in the 
vicinity of Naples, and even so far up on the sides of Vesuvius 
that fields of hemp are occasionally destroyed by the erup- 
tions of that volcano. 

Seed of each of these Italian varieties has been grown in 
trial plats at Washington, D. C, and Lexington, Ky. The 
Bologna, or Piedmont, hemp in seed rows attained a height 
of 8 to 11 feet, nearly as tall as Kentucky seed hemp grown 
for comparison, but with thicker stalks, shorter and more 
rigid branches, and smaller and more densely clustered leaves. 
The small hemp, cannapa picola, was only 4 to 6 feet high. 
The large-seeded Neapolitan was 7 to 10 feet high, smaller 
than the Bologna, but otherwise more like Kentucky hemp, 
with more slender stalks and more open foliage. The small- 
seeded Neapolitan, with seeds weighing less than 1 gram per 
100, rarely exceeded 4 feet in height in the series of plats 
where all were tried. 

FRANCE. 

Hemp is cultivated in France chiefly in the departments of 
Sarthe and Ille-et-Vilaine, in the valley of the Loire River. 
Two varieties are grown, the Piedmont, from Italian seed, 
and the common hemp of Europe. The former grows large 
and coarse, though not as tall as in the Bologna region, and 
it produces a rather coarse fiber suitable for coarse twines. 
The latter, seed of which is sown at the rate of 1 i to 2 bushels 
per acre, has a very slender stalk, rarely more than 4 or 5 
feet high, producing a fine flaxlike fiber that is largely used 
in woven hemp linens. 

The common hemp of Europe, which includes the short 
hemp of France, is also cultivated to a limited extent in 
Spain, Belgium, and Germany. It grows taller and coarser 
when sown less thickly on rich land, but it never attains 
the size of the Bologna type. 

1 Dodge, Charles Richards. Culture of hemp in Europe. U. S. Department ol Agricul- 
ture, Fiber Investigations, Report No. 11, p. 6, 1898. 



Hemp. 301 

CHILE. 

Chilean hemp, originally from seed of the common hemp 
of Europe, has developed in three and a half centuries into 
coarser plants with larger seeds. When sown broadcast 
for fiber in Chile the plants attain a height of 6 to 8 feet, 
and when in checks or drills for seed they reach 10 to 12 feel . 

Hemp from Chilean seed (S. P. I. No. 24307), grown at the 
experiment stations at Lexington, Ky., and St. Paul, Minn., 
in 1909, was 4 to 9 feet high in the broadcast plats and about 
the same height in the seed drills. It matured earlier than 
hemp of Chinese origin. Its leaves were small and crowded, 
with the seed clusters near the ends of slender,. spreading 
branches. The fiber was coarse and harsh. The seeds were 
very large, 5 to 6 millimeters long, and weighed about 2 
grams per 100. 

TURKEY. 

A variety of hemp, intermediate between the fiber-produc- 
ing and the typical drug-producing types, is cultivated in 
Asiatic Turkey, especially in the region of Damascus, and to 
a limited extent in European Turkey. This variety, called 
Smyrna, is about the poorest variety from which fiber is 
obtained. It is cultivated chiefly for the narcotic drug, but 
fiber is also obtained from the stalks. It grows 3 to 6 feet 
high, with short internodes, numerous ascending branches, 
densely crowded foliage of small leaves, and abundant seeds 
maturing early. It seems well suited for the production of 
birdseed, but its poor type, combined with prolific seed pro- 
duction, makes it a dangerous plant to grow in connection 
with fiber crops. 

INDIA. 

Hemp is cultivated in India over an area of 2,000 to 5,000 
acres annually for the production of the narcotic drugs 
known as hashish, charras, bhang, and ganja. Some fiber 
is obtained, especially from the staminate plants, in the 
northern part of Kashmir, where the hemp grown for the 
production of charras is more like the fiber types than that 
grown for bhang farther south. 

Plants grown by the Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington from seed received from the Botanical Garden at Sib- 
pur, Calcutta, India, agreed almost perfectly with the de- 



302 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

scription of Cannabis indica ' written by Lamarck more than 
a century ago. (PL XLII, fig. 2.) They were distinctly dif- 
ferent in general appearance from any of the numerous forms 
grown by this department from seed obtained in nearly all 
countries where hemp is cultivated, but the differences in 
botanical characters were less marked. The Indian hemp 
differed from Kentucky hemp in its more densely branching 
habit, its very dense foliage, the leaves mostly alternate, 7 to 
1 1 (usually 9) very narrow leaflets, and in its nearly solid 
stalk. It was imperfectly dioecious, a character not observed 
in any other variety. Its foliage remained green until after 
the last leaves of even the pistillate plants of Kentucky hemp 
had withered and fallen. It was very attractive as an orna- 
mental plant but of no value for fiber. 

ARABIA AND AFRICA. 

Hemp somewhat similar to that of India, but generally 
shorter, is cultivated in Arabia, northern Africa, and also by 
some of the natives in central and southern Africa for the 
production of the drug, but not for fiber. In Arabia it is 
called "takrousi," in Morocco "kief" or "kif," and in South 
Africa "dakkan." None of these plants is suitable for fiber 
production. 

KENTUCKY. 

Practically all of the hemp grown in the United States is 
from seed produced in Kentucky. The first hemp grown in 
Kentucky was of European origin, the seed having been 
brought to the colonies, especially Virginia, and taken from 
there to Kentucky. In recent years there has been practi- 
cally no importation of seed from Europe. Remnants of the 
European types are occasionally found in the shorter, more 
densely branching stalks terminating in thick clusters of 
small leaves. These plants yield more seed and mature earlier 
than the more desirable fiber types introduced from China 

Nearly all of the hemp now grown in Kentucky is of 
Chinese origin. Small packets of seed are received from 
American missionaries in China. These seeds are carefully 
cultivated for two or three generations in order to secure a 
sufficient quantity for field cultivation, and also to acclimate 
the plants to Kentucky conditions. Attempts to produce 

1 Lamarck. Encyclopedie, v. 1, p. 695, 1788. 



Hemp. 303 

fiber plants by sowing imported seed broadcast have not 
given satisfactory results. Seed of the second or third 
generation from China is generally regarded as most desirable. 
This Kentucky hemp of Chinese origin has long internodes, 
long, slender branches, opposite and nearly horizontal except 
the upper ones, large leaves usually drooping and not 
crowded, with the seeds in small clusters near the ends of the 
branches. Small, dark-colored seeds distinctly mottled are 
preferred by the Kentucky hemp growers. Under favorable 
conditions Kentucky hemp attains a height of 7 to 10 feet 
when grown broadcast for fiber and 9 to 14 feet when culti- 
vated for seed. 

IMPROVEMENT BY SEED INTRODUCTION. 

Without selection or continued efforts to maintain superior 
types, the hemp in Kentucky deteriorates. As stated by the 
growers, the hemp "runs out." The poorer types of plants 
for fiber are usually the most prolific seed bearers, and they 
are often earlier in maturing; therefore, without selection 
or roguing, the seed of these undesirable types increases more 
rapidly than that of the tall, late-maturing, better types 
which bear fewer seeds. New supplies of seed are brought 
from China to renew the stock. Owing to the confusion of 
names the seed received is not always of a desirable kind, 
and sometimes jute, China jute, or ramie seeds are obtained. • 
When seed of the ta-ma variety is secured and is properly 
cultivated for two or three generations there is a marked 
improvement, but these improved strains run out in less than 
10 years. 

The numerous trials that have been made by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture with hemp seed from nearly all of the 
sources mentioned and repeated introductions from the more 
promising sources indicate that little permanent improve- 
ment may be expected from mere introduction not followed 
by breeding and continued selection. In no instance, so 
far as observed, have any of the plants from imported seed 
grown as well the first year as the Kentucky hemp cultivated 
for comparison. Further introduction of seed in small quan- 
tities is needed to furnish stock for breeding and selection. 
The most promising varieties for introduction are ta-ma and 
shan-ma-tze, from Chin a ; Hiroshima and Tochigi, from Japan ; 
Bologna, from Italy; and improved types from Hungary. 



304 Yearbook of the Department 0/ Agriculture. 

IMPROVEMENT BY SELECTION. 

Kentucky hemp is reasonably uniform, not because of 
selection, or even grading the seeds, but because all types 
have become mixed together. Nearly all the seed is raised 
in a limited area. Hemp being cross-fertilized, it is more 
difficult to keep distinct types separate than in the case of 
wheat, flax, or other crops with self-pollinated flowers, but 
it is merely necessary to isolate the plants cultivated for 
seed and then exercise care to prevent the seed from becom- 
ing mixed. Until 1903 no well-planned and continued effort 
seems to have been undertaken in this country to produce an 
improved variety of hemp. At that time the results of 
breeding by careful selection improved varieties of wheat 
and flax at the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station 
were beginning to yield practical returns to the farmers of 
that State. Mr. Fritz Knorr, from Kentucky, then a student 
in the Minnesota College of Agriculture, was encouraged to 
take up the work with hemp. Seed purchased from a dealer 
in Nicholasville, Ky., was furnished by the United States 
Department of Agriculture. The work of selection was con- 
tinued until 1909 under the direction of Prof. C. P. Bull, 
agronomist at the station. Points especially noted in se- 
lecting plants from which to save seed for propagation were 
length of internode, thinness of shell, height, and tendency 
of the stems to be well fluted. The seasons there were too 
short to permit selection for plants taking a longer season 
for growth. The improved strain of hemp thus developed 
was called Minnesota No. 8. Seed of this strain sown at the 
experiment station at Lexington, Ky., in 1910 and 1911 
produced plants more uniform than those from unselected 
Kentucky seed, and the fiber was superior in both yield and 
quality. A small supply of this seed, grown by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture at Washington, D. C, in 1912, was dis- 
tributed to Kentucky hemp-seed growers in 1913, and in 
every instance the resulting seed plants were decidedly supe- 
rior to those from ordinary Kentucky seed. 

Seed selection is practiced to a limited extent on some of 
the best hemp-seed farms in Kentucky. Before the seed- 
hemp plants are cut the grower goes through the field and 
marks the plants from which seed is to be saved for the seed 
crop of the following year. Plants are usually selected for 
height, lateness, and length of internodes. Continued selec- 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XL. 




Hemp, Plant ano Fiber. 

Fig 1 — l'istillateplant, left; staminateplant, right. Fig. 2.— Staminate flowers. Fig. 3.— Pis- 
tillate flowers. Fig. 4.— Fiber in the form in which it leaves the farm. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XLI. 




Details of Hemp Plant. 

Fig 1 —Leaf, one-third nalural size. Fig. 2.— Seeds, natural size. Fie. 3.— Roots, showing 
strong taproot. Fig. 4.— Sections of stalk, showing woody shell slightly thickened at the 
nodes. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XLM. 




Different Types of Hemp and Seed Hemp. 

Fig. 1.— Manchurian oil-seed hemp. Fig. 2.— India drug-producing hemp on left; Kentucky 
fiber-producing hemp in seed rows on right. Fig. 3.— Hemp-seed held in Kentucky River 
Valley, walled in with ledges of lime rock. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XLIII. 




Seed Hemp and Maladies. 

Fig. 1.— Shock of seed hemp curing. Fig. 2.— Seed-hemp plant attacked by fungus disease. 
F'ig. 3.— Branched broom rape, parasitic on hemp roots. 



Hemp. 



305 



tion in this manner will improve the type. Without selection 
continued each season, the general average of the crop 
deteriorates. 

CLIMATE. 

Hemp requires a humid temperate climate, such as that 
throughout the greater part of the Mississippi Valley. It 
has been grown experimentally as far north as Saskatoon, 
in northwestern Canada, and as far south as New Orleans, 
La., and Brunswick, Ga. 

TEMPERATURE. 

The best fiber-producing types of hemp require about 
four months free from killing frosts for the production of 
fiber and about five and one-half months for the full maturity 
of the seeds. The climatic conditions during the four 
months of the hemp-growing season in the region about 
Lexington, Ky., are indicated by the following table: 



Temperature and rainfall in the hemp-growing region of Kentucky. 1 




Temperature. 


Precipitation. 


Month. 


Mean. 


Absolute 
maxi- 
mum. 


Absolute 
mini- 
mum. 


Mean. 


Total 

amount 

driest 

year. 


Total 
amount 

wettest 
year. 


May.' 


°F. 
64 
73 
76 
75 


°F. 

91 

95 

102 

96 


°F. 
32 
42 
51 
51 


Inches. 
3.6 
4.2 
4.0 
3.8 


Inches. 
2.7 
3.7 

2.6 
3.7 


Inches. 
4.7 




7.4 


July 


3.1 




7. J 








-, 






3.9 
























! 





' Henry, Alfred Judson. Climatology of the United States. U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, Weather Bureau, Bulletin Q, p. 762, 1906. 

Hemp grows best where the temperature ranges between 
60° and 80° F., but it will endure colder and warmer tempera- 
tures. Young seedlings and also mature plants will endure 
with little injury light frosts of short duration. Young 
hemp is less susceptible than oats to injury from frost, and 
fields of hemp ready for harvest have been uninjured by frosts 
which ruined fields of corn all around them. Frosts are 
injurious to nearly mature plants cultivated for seed pro- 
duction. 



27306°— ybk 1913 



-20 



306 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

RAINFALL. 

Hemp requires a plentiful supply of moisture throughout 
its growing season, and especially during the first six weeks. 
After it has become well rooted and the stalks are 20 to 30 
inches high it will endure drier conditions, but a severe 
drought hastens its maturity and tends to dwarf its growth. 
It will endure heavy rains, or even a flood of short duration, 
on light, well-drained soils, but on heavy, impervious' soils 
excessive rain, especially when the plants are young, will 
ruin the crop. 

In 1903, a large field of hemp on rich, sandy-loam soil of 
alluvial deposit, well supplied with humus, near Gridley, Cal., 
was flooded to a depth of 2 to 6 inches by high water in the 
Feather Kiver. The hemp had germinated but a few days 
before and was only 1 to 3 inches high. The water remained 
on the land about three days. The hemp started slowly 
after the water receded, but in spite of the fact that there 
was no rain from this time, the last of March, until harvest, 
the last of August, it made a very satisfactory crop, 6 to 12 
feet in height. The soil, of porous, spongy texture, remained 
moist below the dustysurface during the entire growingseason. 

An experimental crop of about 15 acres on impervious clay 
and silt of alluvial deposit, but lacking in humus, in eastern 
Louisiana was completely ruined by a heavy rain while the 
plants were small. 

The total average rainfall during the four months of the 
hemp-growing season in Kentucky is 15.6 inches, as shown in 
the table on page 305, and this is distributed throughout the 
season. When there is an unusual drought in that region, as 
in 1913, the hemp is severely injured. It is not likely to suc- 
ceed on upland soils in localities where corn leaves curl 
because of drought before the middle of August. 

IRRIGATION. 

In 1912, and again in 1913, crops of hemp were cultivated 
under irrigation at Lerdo, Cal. The soil there is an alluvial 
sandy loam of rather firm texture, but with good natural 
drainage and not enough clay to form a crust on the surface 
after flooding with water. The land is plowed deeply, 
leveled, and made up into irrigation blocks with low borders 
over which drills and harvesting machinery may easily work. 



Hemp. 307 

The seed is drilled in the direction of the fall, so that when 
flooded the water runs slowly down the drill furrows. Three 
irrigations are sufficient, provided the seed is sown early 
enough to get the benefit of the March rains. The fiber thus 
produced is strong and of good quality. 

WEATHER FOR RETTING AND BREAKING. 

Cool, moist weather, light snows, or alternate freezing 
and thawing are favorable for retting hemp. Dry weather, 
not necessarily free from rain but with a rather low relative 
humidity, is essential for satisfactory work in breaking hemp. 
The relative humidity at Lexington in January, February, 
and March, when most of the hemp is broken, ranges from 62 
to 82 per cent. The work of breaking hemp is rarely carried 
on when there is snow on the ground. The work of collecting 
and cleaning hemp seed can be done only in dry weather. 

SOIL. 

SOILS IN THE HEMP-GROWING REGION OF KENTUCKY. 

The soil in most of the hemp fields of Kentucky is of a yel- 
lowish clay loam, often very dark as a result of decaying 
vegetable matter, and most of it overlying either Lexington 
or Cincinnati limestone. There are frequent outcroppings 
of lime rock throughout the region. The soil is deep, fertile, 
well supplied with humus, and its mechanical condition is 
such that it does not quickly dry out or become baked and 
hard. The land is rolling, affording good natural drainage. 

HEMP SOILS IN OTHER STATES. 

In eastern Nebraska, hemp has been grown on a deep clay- 
loam prairie soil underlain with lime rock. In some of the 
fields there are small areas of gumbo soil, but hemp: does 
not grow well on these areas. In California, hemp is culti- 
vated on the reclaimed lands of alluvial deposits in the 
lower valley of the Sacramento River. This is a deep soil 
made up of silt and sand and with a very large proportion 
of decaying vegetable matter. These rich, alluvial soils, 
which are never subject to drought, produce a heavier 
growth of hemp than the more shallow upland soils in Ken- 
tucky. In Indiana, crops of hemp have been grown in the 
Kankakee Valley on peaty soils overlying marl or yellow 
clay containing an abundance of lime. These lands have 



308 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

been drained by large, open ditches. : There is such a large 
proportion of peat in the soil that it will burn for months if 
set on fire during the dry season, yet this soil contains so 
much lime that when the vegetation is cleared away Ken- 
tucky bluegrass comes in rather than sedges. It is an 
alkaline rather than an acid soil. The large amount of peat 
gives these soils a loose, spongy texture, well adapted to 
hold moisture during dry seasons. Water remains in the 
ditches 6 to 10 feet below the surface nearly all summer, 
and the hemp crops have not been affected by the severe 
drought which has injured other crops on the surrounding 
uplands. In southeastern Pennsylvania, and in Indiana, 
Wisconsin, and Minnesota, the best crops, producing the 
largest yields of fiber and fiber of the best quality, have 
been grown on clay-loam upland soils. In some instances, 
however, the upland crops have suffered from drought. 

SOILS SUITED TO HEMP. 

Hemp requires for the best development of the plant, and 
also for the production of a large quantity and good quality 
of fiber', a rich, moist soil having good natural drainage, yet 
not subject to severe drought at any time during the grow- 
ing season. A clay loam of father loose texture and con- 
taining a plentiful supply of decaying vegetable matter or 
an alluvial deposit alkaline and not acid in reaction should 
be chosen for this crop. 

■ )■ ■ - ■ . 

SOILS TO BE AVOIDED. 

Hemp will not grow well on stiff, impervious, clay soils, or 
on light sandy or gravelly soils. It will not grow well on soils 
that in their wild state are overgrown with either sedges or 
huckleberry bushes. These plants usually indicate acid soils. 
It will make only a poor growth on soils with a hardpan 
near the surface or in fields worn out by long cultivation. 
Clay loams or heavier soils give heavier yields of strong but 
coarser fiber than are obtained on sandy loams and lighter 
soils. 

EFFECT OF HEMP ON THE LAND. 

Hemp cultivated for the production of fiber, cut before 
the seeds are formed and retted on the land where it has 
been grown, tends to improve rather than injure the soil. 
It improves its physical condition, destroys weeds, and does 
not exhaust its fertility. 



Hemp. 309 

PHYSICAL CONDITION. 

Hemp loosens the soil and makes it more mellow. The 
soil is shaded by hemp more than by any other crop. The 
foliage at the top of the growing plants makes a dense shade 
and, in addition, all of the leaves below the top fall off, form- 
ing a mulch on the ground, so that the surface of the soil re- 
mains moist and in better condition for the action of soil 
bacteria. The rather coarse taproots (PI. XLI, fig. 3), pene- 
trating deeply and bringing up plant food from the subsoil, 
decay quickly after the crop is harvested and tend to loosen 
the soil more than do the fibrous roots of wheat, oats, and 
similar broadcast crops. Land is more easily plowed after 
hemp than after corn or small grain. 

HEMP DESTROYS WEEDS. 

Very few of the common weeds troublesome on the farm 
can survive the dense shade of a good crop of hemp. If the 
hemp makes a short, weak growth, owing to unsuitable soil, 
drought, or other causes, it will have little effect in checking 
the growth of weeds, but a good, dense crop, 6 feet or more 
in height, will leave the ground practically free from weeds at 
harvest time. In Wisconsin, Canada thistle has been com- 
pletely killed and quack-grass severely checked by one crop 
of hemp. In one 4-acre field in Vernon County, Wis., where 
Canada thistles were very thick, fully 95. per cent of the- 
thistles were killed where the hemp attained a height of 5 
feet or more, but on a dry, gravelly hillside in this same field 
where it grew only 2 to 3 feet high, the thistles were checked 
no more than they would have been in a grain crop. Some 
vines, like the wild morning-glory and bindweed climb up 
the hemp stalks and secure light enough for growth, but low- 
growing weeds can not live in a hemp field. 

HEMP DOES NOT EXHAUST THE PEKTILITY OF THE SOIL. 

An abundant supply of plant food is required by hemp, 
but most of it is merely borrowed during development and 
returned to the soil at the close of the season. The amounts 
of the principal fertilizing elements contained in. mature 
crops of hemp, as compared with other crops, are shown in 
the accompanying table. 



310 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



Amounts of principal fertilizing elements in an acre of hemp, corn, wheat, 
oats, sugar beets, and cotton. 



Crops. 



Hemp (yielding 1,000 pounds of clean fiber) i . . 

Corn (50 bushels and 1 J tons of stover) 2 

Wheat (25 bushels of grain, 1J tons of straw) 2. . 

Oats (50 bushels of grain, li tons of straw) 2 

Sugar beets (20 tons of roots) 2. ..'. 

Cotton (yielding 400 pounds of lint) 1 



Nitrogen. 


Phospho- 
Tic acid. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


62.7 


33.2 


74 


11.5 


48.0 


8.0 


48.5 


8.0 


100.0 


18.0 


29.2 


22.5 



Potassium. 



Pounds. 
101.3 

35.5 
24.0 
34.0 
157.0 
35.3 



1 Jaffa, M. E. Composition of the Ramie Plant. California Experiment Station Bulle- 
tin, p. 94, 1891. 

2 Hopkins, Cyril G., and Pettit, James H. The Fertility in Illinois Soils. Illinois Exper- 
iment Station Bulletin 123, p. 189, 1908. 

The data in the table indicate that hemp requires for its 
best development a richer soil than any of the other crops 
mentioned except sugar beetg. These other crops, except the 
stalks of corn and the tops of beets, are entirely removed 
from the land, thus taking away nearly all the plant food 
consumed in their growth. Only the fiber of hemp is taken 
away from the farm and this is mostly cellulose, composed 
of water and carbonic acid. 

The relative proportions by weight of the different parts 
of the hemp plant, thoroughly air dried, are approximately 
as follows: Roots 10 per cent, stems 60 per cent, and leaves 
30 per cent. 1 The mineral ingredients of these different 
parts of the hemp plant are shown in the following table: 

Ash ingredients of the leaves, stalks, and roots of the hemp plant, carbonic 
acid excluded, 100 parts dried material in each case. 1 



Ingredients. 



Lime 

Magnesia 

Potash 

Soda 

Phosphoric acid 

Sulphuric acid 

Chlorin 

Silica 

Percentage of ash 



Leaves. Stalks. Roots. 



4.992 
.585 

2.858 
.024 
.947 
.226 
.017 
.575 



10.224 



0.949 

.194 

1.659 

.447 
.040 
.019 
.035 



3.343 



0.713 

.291 

1.829 

.531 
.047 
.014 
.077 



3.502 



• Peter, Robert. Chemical Examination of the Ash of Hemp and Buckwheat Plants. 
Kentucky Geological Survey, p. 12, 1884. 



Hemj). 



311 



The foliage, constituting nearly one-third of the weight of 
the entire plant and much richer in essential fertilizing 
elements than the stalks, all returns to the field where the 
hemp grows. The roots also remain and, together with the 
stubble, they constitute more than 10 per cent of the total 
weight and contain approximately the same proportions of 
fertilizing elements as the stalks. The leaves and roots 
therefore return to the soil nearly two- thirds of the fertilizing 
elements used in building up the plant. 

After the hemp is harvested it is spread out on the same 
land for retting. In this retting process nearly all of. the 
soluble ingredients are washed out and returned to the soil. 
When broken in the field on small hand brakes, as is still the 
common practice in Kentucky, the hurds, or central woody 
portion of the stalk, together with most of the outer bark, are 
left in small piles and burned, returning the mineral ingredi- 
ents to the soil. Where machine brakes are used the hurds 
may serve an excellent purpose as an absorbent in stock 
yards and pig pens, to be returned to the fields in barnyard 
manure. 

The mineral ingredients permanently removed from the 
farm are thus reduced to the small proportions contained in 
the fiber. These proportions, calculated in pounds per acre 
and compared with the amounts removed by other crops, are 
shown in the following table : 

Mineral ingredients removed from the soil by hemp, wheat, corn, and tobacco, 
calculated in pounds per acre. 1 



Ingredients. 


Hemp fiber: 
In 800 
pounds. 


Wheat: In 
20 bushels. 


Corn: In 
50 bushels. 


Tobacco, 
including 
stalks: 
In 1,000 
pounds. 




7.872 
1.128 
.968 
.096 
2.080 
.232 
.016 
.736 


1.63 
2.43 

5.45 
.13 

9.12 
.08 
.35 
.41 


0.22 
3.61 
8.06 
6.22 
11.85 
(>) 

(') 

.71 


68.00 




8.67 


Potash 


69.73 


Soda 


6.80 




8.13 




8.40 




1.06 




6.86 






Total ash 


13.128 


19.60 


.30.67 


176.65 







I Peter, Eobert. Chemical Examination of the Ash ol Hemp and Buckwheat Plants. 
Kentucky Geological Survey, p. 17, 1884. 
> Not estimated. 



312 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

The hemp fiber analyzed was in the ordinary condition as 
it leaves the farm. When washed with cold water, removing 
some but not all of the dirt, the ashy residue was reduced 
more than one-third, and the total earthy phosphates were 
reduced nearly one-half. The amount of plant food ac- 
tually removed from the soil by hemp is so small as to 
demand little attention in considering soil exhaustion. The 
depletion of the humus is the most important factor, but 
even in this respect hemp is easier on the land than other 
crops except clover and alfalfa. The fact that hemp is 
often grown year after year on the same land for 10 to 20 
years, with little or no application of fertilizer and very 
little diminution in yield, is evidence that it does not exhaust 

the soil. 

ROTATION OF CROPS, 

In Kentucky, hemp is commonly grown year after year 
on the same land without rotation. It is the common 
practice in that State to sow hemp after bluegrass on land 
that has been in pasture for many years, or sometimes it is 
sown as the first crop on recently cleared timberland. It 
is then sown year after year until" it ceases to be profitable 
or until conditions favor the introduction of other crops. 
On the prairie soils in eastern Nebraska and also on the 
peaty soils in northern Indiana, more uniform crops were 
obtained after the first year; On some of the farms in 
California hemp is grown in rotation with beans. ( Hemp is 
recommended to be grown in rotation with other farm crops 
on ordinary upland soils suited to its growth. In ordinary 
crop rotations it would take about the same place as oats. 
If retted on the same land, however, it would occupy the 
field during the entire growing season, so that it would be 
impossible to sow a field crop after hemp unless it were a 
crop of rye. The growing of rye after hemp has been 
recommended in order to prevent washing and to retain the 
soluble fertilizing elements that might otherwise be leached 
out during the winter. This recommendation, however, has 
not been put in practice sufficiently to demonstrate that it is 
of any real value. Hemp will grow well in a fertile soil after 
any crop, and it leaves the land in good condition for any 
succeeding crop. Hemp requires a plentiful supply of fer- 
tilizing elements, especially nitrogen, and it is therefore best 



Hemp. 



313 



to have it succeed clover, peas, or grass sod. If it follows 
wheat, oats, or corn, these crops should be well fertilized 
with barnyard manure. The following crop rotations are 
suggested for hemp on fertile upland soils : 



First 


year. 


Second year. 


Third, year. 


Fonrt! 


year. 


Fifth year. 






Wheat 

...do 

Hemp . . 




Grass and pasture. 
Do. 


I>0 


Sugar beets, pota- 
toes, or onions. 
Peas or beans 


do... 

Barley or 


oats 













Hemp leaves the ground mellow and free from weeds and 
is therefore recommended to precede sugar beets, onions, 
celery, and similar crops which require hand weeding. If 
hemp is grown primarily to kill Canada thistle, quack- 
grass, or similar perennial weeds, it may be grown repeatedly 
on the same land until the weeds are subdued. 

FERTILIZERS. 

Hemp requires an abundant supply of plant food. At- 
taining in four months a height of 6 to 12 feet and pro- 
ducing a larger amount of dry vegetable matter than any 
other crop in temperate climates, it must be grown on a soil 
naturally fertile or enriched by a liberal application of fer- 
tilizer. In Europe and in Asia heavy applications of ferti- 
lizers are used to keep the soils up to the standard for growing 
hemp, but in the United States most of the hemp is grown 
on lands the fertility of which has not been exhausted by 
centuries of cultivation. In Kentucky, where the farms are 
well stocked with horses and cattle, barnyard manure is 
used to maintain the fertility of the soils, but it is usually 
applied to other crops and not directly to hemp. In other 
States no fertilizer has been applied to soils where hemp is 
grown, except in somewhat limited experiments. 

Barnyard manure. — The best single fertilizer for hemp 
is undoubtedly barnyard manure. It supplies the three im- 
portant plant foods, nitrogen, potash, and phosphoric acid, 
and it also adds to the store of humus, which appears to be 
more necessary for hemp than for most other farm crops. 
If other fertilizers are used, it is well to apply barnyard 
manure also, but it should be applied to thfi preceding crop, 



314 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

or, at the latest, in the fall before the hemp is sown. It 
must be well rotted and thoroughly mixed with the soil be- 
fore the hemp seed is sown, so as to promote a uniform 
growth of the hemp stalks. Uniformity in the size of the 
plants of other crops is of little consequence, but in hemp it 
is a matter of prime importance. An application of coarse 
manure in the spring, just before sowing, is likely to result 
in more injury than benefit. The amount that may be ap- 
plied profitably will vary with different soils. There is little 
danger, however, of inducing too rank a growth of hemp on 
upland soils, provided the plants are uniform, for it must be 
borne in mind that stalk and not fruit is desired. On soils 
deficient in humus as the result of long cultivation, the in- 
creased growth of hemp may well repay for the application 
of 15 to 20 tons of barnyard manure per acre. It would be 
unwise to sow hemp on such soils until they had been 
heavily fertilized with barnyard manure. 

Commercial fertilizers. — On worn-out soils, peaty soils, 
and possibly on some alluvial soils, commercial fertilizers 
may be used with profit in addition to barnyard manure. 
The primary effect to be desired from commercial fertilizers 
on hemp is a more rapid growth of the crop early in the season. 
This rapid early growth usually results in a greater yield and 
better quality of fiber. The results of a series of experiments 
conducted at the agricultural experiment station at Lexing- 
ton, Ky., in 1889 led to the following conclusions: 1 

(1) That hemp can be raised successfully on worn bluegrass soils with the 
aid of commercial fertilizers. 

(2) That both potash and nitrogen are required to produce the best 
results. 

(3) That the effect was the same, whether muriate or sulphate waB used 
to furnish potash. 

(4) That the effect was about the same, whether nitrate of soda or sul- 
phate of ammonia was used to furnish nitrogen. 

(5) That a commercial fertilizer containing about 6 per cent of available 
phosphoric acid, 12 per cent of actual potash, and 4 per cent of nitrogen 
(mostly in the form of nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia) would be a 
good fertilizer for trial. 

The increased yield and improved quality of the fiber on 
the fertilized plats compared with the yield from the check 
plat, not fertilized, in these experiments would warrant the 

i Scovel, M. A. Effect of Commercial Fertilizers on Hemp. Kentucky Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, Bulletin 27, p. 3, 1890. 



Hemp. 315 

application of nitrogen at the rate of 160 pounds of nitrate 
of soda or 120 pounds of sulphate of ammonia per acre, and 
potash at the rate of about 160 pounds of either sulphate or 
muriate of potash per acre. 

On the rich alluvial soils reclaimed by dikes from the 
Sacramento Eiver at Courtland, Cal., Mr. John Heaney has 
found that an application of nitrate of soda at the rate of 
not more than 100 pounds per acre soon after sowing and 
again two weeks to a month later, or after the first applica- 
tion has been washed down by rains, will increase the yield 
and improve the quality of the fiber. 

Leguminous crops or green manure. — Beans grown 
before hemp and the vines returned to the land and plowed 
under have given good results in increased yield and im- 
proved quality of fiber on alluvial soils at Courtland, Gal. 
Clover is sometimes plowed under in Kentucky to enrich the 
land for hemp. It must be plowed under during the preced- 
ing fall, so as to become thoroughly rotted before the hemp 
is grown. 

Hemp as a green manure. — In experiments with vari- 
ous crops for green manure for wheat in India, hemp was 
found to give the best results. 1 In exceptionally dry sea- 
sons, as in 1908 and 1913, many fields of hemp do not grow 
high enough' to be utilized profitably for fiber production. 
They are often left until fully mature and then burned. 
Better results would doubtless be obtained if the hemp were 
plowed under as soon as it could be determined that it would 
not make a sufficient growth for fiber production. Mature 
hemp stalks or dry hurds should not be plowed under, because 
they rot very slowly 

DISEASES, INSECTS, AND WEEDS. 

Hemp is remarkably free from diseases caused by fungi. 
In one instance at Havelock, Nebr., in a low spot where 
water had stood, nearly 3 per cent of the hemp plants were 
dead. The roots of these dead plants were pink in color 
and a fungous mycelium was found in them, but it was not 
in a stage of development to permit identification. The 
fungus was probably not the primary cause of the trouble, 
since the dead plants were confined to the low place and 

1 Report of Cawnpore Agricultural Station, United Provinces, India, for 1908, p. 12. 



316 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture 

there was no recurrence of the disease on hemp grown in 
the same field the following year. 

A fungus described under the name DendropTioma mar- 
conii Cav. was observed on hemp in northern Italy in 1887. 1 
This fungus attacked the plants after they were mature 
enough to harvest for fiber. Its progress over the plant 
attacked and also the distribution of the infection over the 
field were described as very rapid, but if the disease is 
discovered at its inception and the crop promptly har- 
vested it causes very little damage. 

In the fall of 1913 a disease was observed on seed hemp 
grown by the Department of Agriculture at Washington. 
(PI. XLIII, fig. 2.) It did not appear until after the stage of 
full flowering of the staminate plants and therefore after the 
stage for harvesting for fiber. A severe hailstorm had 
bruised the plants and broken the bark, doubtless making 
them more susceptible to the disease. The first symptoms 
-aioted in each plant attacked were wilted leaves near the 
ends of branches above the middle of the plant, accompanied 
by an area of discolored bark on the main stalk below the 
base of each diseased branch. In warm, moist weather 
the disease spread rapidly, killing a plant 10 feet high in 
five days and also infesting other plants. It was observed 
only on pistillate plants, but the last late-maturing staminate 
plants left in the plat after thinning the earlier ones were 
cut soon after the disease was discovered. 2 

In a few instances insects boring in the stems have killed 
some plants, but the injury caused in this manner is too 
small to be regarded as really troublesome. 

Cutworms have caused some damage in the late-sown 
hemp in land plowed in the spring, but there is practically 
no danger from this source in hemp sown at the proper 
season and in fall-plowed land well harrowed before sowing. 

A Chilean dodder (Cuscuta racemosa) troublesome on 
alfalfa in northern California was found on the hemp at 
Gridley, Cal., in 1903. Although it was abundant in some 
parts of the field at about the time the hemp was ready for 
harvest, it did hot cause any serious injury. 

1 Cavara, Fridiano. Appunti di Patologia Vegetal. Atti dell' Institute Botanico dell' 
Universita di Pavia, s. 2, v. 1, p. 425, 1888. 

2 This fungus was not in a stage permitting identification, but cultures for further study 
were made in the Laboratory of Plant Pathology. 



Hemp. 317 

Black bindweed (Polygonum convolvulus) and wild morning- 
glory (Convolvulus sepium) sometimes cause trouble in low, 
rich land by climbing tip the plants and binding them 
together. 

The only really serious enemy to hemp is branched broom 
rape (Orobanche ramosa) . (PI. XLIII, fig. 3.) This is a weed 
6 to 15 inches high, with small, brownish yellow, scalelike 
leaves and rather dull purple flowers. The entire plant is 
covered with sticky glands which catch the dust and give it 
a dirty appearance. Its roots are parasitic on the roots of 
hemp. It is also parasitic on tobacco and tomato roots. 1 
Branched broom rape is troublesome in Europe and the 
United States, but is not known in Asia. Its seeds are very 
small, about the size of tobacco seed, and they stick to the 
gummy calyx surrounding the hemp seed when the seed- 
hemp plants are permitted to fall on the ground in harvest- 
ing. There is still more opportunity for them to come in 
contact with the seed of hemp grown for fiber. The broom 
rape is doubtless distributed more by means of lint seed 
(seed from overripe fiber hemp) than by any other means. 
When broom rape becomes abundant it often kills a large 
proportion of the hemp plants before they reach maturity. 
As a precaution it is well to sow only well-cleaned seed from 
cultivated hemp and insist on a guaranty of no lint seed. If 
the land becomes infested, crops other than hemp, tobacco, 
tomatoes, or potatoes should be grown for a period of at 
least seven years. The seeds retain their vitality several 



years. 3 



HEMP-SEED PRODUCTION. 



All of the hemp seed used in the United States for the 
production of hemp for fiber is produced in Kentucky. 
Nearly all of it is obtained from plants cultivated especially 
for seed production and not for fiber. The plants cultivated 
for seed for the fiber crop are of the fiber-producing type and 
not the type commonly obtained in bird-seed hemp. Old 
stocks of hemp seed of low vitality are often sold for bird 
seed, but much of the hemp seed sold by seedsmen or dealers 
in bird supplies is of the densely branching Smyrna type. 

i Gannan, H. The Broom-Rape of Hemp and Tobacco. Kentucky Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Bulletin 24, p. 16, 1890. 

« Garman, H. The Broom-Rapes. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 
105, p. 14, 1903. 



318 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

LINT SEED. 

In some instances seed is saved from hemp grown for fiber 
but permitted to get overripe before cutting. This is known 
as lint seed. It is generally regarded as inferior to seed from 
cultivated plants. A good crop is sometimes obtained from 
lint seed, but it is often lacking in vigor as well as germinative 
vitality, and it is rare that good crops are obtained from lint 
seed of the second or third generation. 

CULTIVATED SEED. 

Nearly all of the cultivated seed is grown in the valley 
of the Kentucky River and along the creeks tributary to 
this river for a distance of about 50 miles above High Bridge. 
The river through this region flows in a deep gorge about 
150 feet below the general level of the land. The sides of 
this valley are steep, with limestone outcropping, and in 
some places perpendicular ledges of lime rock in level strata. 
(PI. XLII, fig. 3.) The river, which overflows every spring, 
almost covering the valley between the rocky walls, forms 
alluvial deposits from a few rods to half a mile in width. The 
seed hemp is grown on these inundated areas, and especially 
along the creeks, where the water from the river backs up, 
leaving a richer deposit of silt than along the banks of the 
river proper, where the deposited soils are more sandy. 
There is a longer season free from frost in these deep valleys 
than on the adjacent highlands. Instead of having earlier 
frosts in the fall, as may be usually expected in lowlands, 
the valley is filled with fog on still nights, thus preventing 
damage from frost. For the production of "hemp seed a 
rich, alluvial soil containing a plentiful supply of lime and 
also a plentiful supply of moisture throughout the growing 
season is necessary. The crop also requires a long season 
for development. The young seedlings will endure light 
frosts without injury, but a frost before harvest will nearly 
ruin the crop. A period of dry weather is necessary after 
the harvest in order to beat out and clean the seeds. 

PREPARATION OF LAND. 

The land is plowed as soon as possible after the spring 
floods, which usually occur in February and early in March. 



Hemp. 319 

After harrowing, it is marked in checks about 4 or 5 feet 
each way. Hemp cultivated for seed production must have 
room to develop branches. (PI. XL, fig. 1.) 

PLANTING. 

The seed is planted between the 20th of March and the 
last of April — usually earlier than the seed is sown for the pro- 
duction of fiber. It is usually planted by hand, 5 to 7 seeds 
in a hill, and covered with a hoe. In some instances planters 
are used, somewhat like those used for planting corn, and on 
some farms seeders are used which plant 1 or 2 drills at a 
time 4 or 5 feet apart. When planted in drills it is usually 
necessary to thin out the plants afterwards. One or two 
quarts of seed are sufficient to plant an acre. Less than 
one quart would be sufficient if all the plants were allowed 
to grow. 

CULTIVATION. 

On the best farms the crop is cultivated four times — 
twice rather deep and twice with cultivators with fine teeth, 
merely stirring the surface. When the first flowers are pro- 
duced, so that the staminate plants may be recognized, all 
of these plants are cut out except about one per square 
rod. These will produce sufficient pollen to fertilize the 
flowers on the pistillate, or seed-bearing plants, and the 
removal of the others will give more room for the develop- 
ment of the seed-bearing plants. 

HARVEST. 

The seed-bearing plants are allowed to remain until fully 
mature, or as long as possible without injury from frost. 
They are cut with corn knives, usually during the first half 
of October, leaving the stubble 10 to 20 inches high. The 
plants are set up in loose shocks around one or two plants 
which have been left standing. The shocks are usually 
bound near the top with binder twine. They are left in this 
manner for two or three weeks, until thoroughly dry. (PI. 
XLIII, fig. 1.) 

* COLLECTING THE SEED. 

When the seed hemp is thoroughly dry, men (usually in 
gangs of five or six, with tarpaulins about 20 feet square) go 



320 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

into the field. One man with an ax cuts off the hemp 
stubble between four shocks and clears a space large enough 
to spread the tarpaulin. The other men pick up an entire 
shock and throw it on the tarpaulin. They then beat off 
the seeds with sticks about 5 feet long and 1J inches in 
diameter. (Pl.XLIV,fig. 1.) When the seed has been beaten 
off from one side of the shock the men turn it over by means 
of the sticks, and after beating off all of the seed they pick 
up with the sticks the stalks in one bunch and throw them 
off the canvas, and then treat another shock in the same 
manner. They will beat off the seed from four shocks in 
15 to 20 minutes, securing 2 or 3 pecks of seed from each 
shock. While this seems a rather crude way of collecting 
the seed, it is doubtless the most economical and practical 
method that may be devised. The seed falls so readily 
from the dry hemp stalks that it would be impossible to 
move them without a very great loss. Furthermore, it 
would be very difficult to handle plants 10 to 14 feet high, 
with rigid branches 3 to 6 feet in length, so as to feed them 
to any kind of thrashing machine. 

CLEANING THE SEED. 

The seed and chaff which have been beaten on the tar- 
paulin are sometimes beaten or tramped to break up the 
coarser bunches and stalks, and in some instances they are 
rubbed through coarse sieves in order to reduce them 
enough to be put through a fanning mill. The seed is then 
partly cleaned by a fanning mill in the field and afterwards 
run once or twice through another mill with finer sieves and 
better adjustments of fans. Even after this treatment it is 
usually put through a seed-cleaning machine by the dealers. 
There has recently been introduced on some of the best 
seed-hemp farms a kind of homemade thrashing machine, 
consisting essentially of a feeding device, cylinder, and con- 
caves, attached to a rather large fanning mill, all being driven 
by a gasoline engine. (PI. XLIV, fig. 2.) The hemp seed 
is fed to this machine just as it comes from the tarpaulin 
after beating off from the shock. It combines the process 
of breaking up the chaff into finer pieces and the work of 
fanning the seed in the field, and it performs this work more 
effectively and more rapidly. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XLIV. 





Collecting Seed and Retting Stalks. 

Fig. l.— Beating ofTsccd from an entire shock of seed hemp. Fig. 2.— Homemade hemp seed- 
cleaning machine. Fig. 3.— Spreading fiber hemp for retting. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XLV 




Cutting Hemp. 

Fig. 1.— Cutting hemp by hand, about three-fourths acre per day. Fig. 2.— Self-rake reaper, 
mostly used; cuts about four acres per day. Fig. 3.— Mowing machine with bar to bend over 
hemp; cuts about six acres per day. 



Yearbook U S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XLVI. 




Breaking Hemp. 



Fig. 1.— The hand brake, cleans about 100 pounds of fiber per day. Fig. 2.— Shock of hemp 
tied in bundles for stacking. Fig. 3.— Machine brake which lias produced 9,000 pounds of 
fiber in one day. Fig. 4.— Machine brake which separates and cleans the tow and the lino 
fiber at the same time. 



Hemp. 321 

YIELD. 

Under favorable conditions the yield of hemp seed ranges 
from 12 to 25 bushels per acre. From 16 to 18 bushels are 
regarded as a fair average yield. 

COST OF SEED PRODUCTION. 

The hemp-seed growers state that it costs about $2.50 
per bushel to produce hemp seed, counting the annual rental 
of the land at about $10 per acre. With the introduction 
of improved machinery for cleaning the hemp this cost may 
be somewhat reduced, since it is estimated that with the ordi- 
nary methods of rubbing the seed through sieves or beating 
it to reduce the chaff to finer pieces the cost from beating it 
off the shock to delivering it at the market is about 50 cents 
per bushel. These estimates of cost are based on wages at 
$1.25 per day. 

PRICES. 

The price of hemp seed, as sold by the farmer during the 
past 10 years, has ranged from $2.50 to $5 per bushel. The 
average farm price during this period has been not far from 
$3 per bushel. Hemp seed is sold by weight, a bushel 
Weighing 44 pounds. 

CULTIVATION FOR FIBER. 

PREPARATION OF THE LAND. 

Fall plowing on most soils is generally regarded as best 
for hemp, since the action of the frost in winter helps to 
disintegrate the particles of soil, making it more uniform in 
character. In practice, hemp land is plowed at any time 
from October to late seeding time in May, but hemp should 
never be sown on spring-plowed sod. The land should be 
plowed 8 or 9 inches in order to give a deep seed bed and 
opportunity for root development. Plowing either around 
the field or from the center is recommended, since back fur- 
rows and dead furrows will result in uneven moisture condi- 
tions and more uneven hemp. Before sowing, the land is 
harrowed to make a mellow seed bed and uniform level sur- 
face. Sometimes this harrowing is omitted, especially 
when hemp is grown on stubble ground plowed just before 
seeding. Harrowing or leveling in some manner is recom- 

27306°— YBK 1913 21 



322 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

mended at all times, in order to secure conditions for cover- 
ing the seed at a uniform depth and also to facilitate close 
cutting at harvest time. 

SEEDING. 

METHODS OF SEEDING. 

Hemp seed should be sown as uniformly as possible all 
over the ground and covered as nearly as possible at a uni- 
form depth of about three-fourths of an inch, or as deep as 
2 inches in light soils. Ordinary grain drills usually plant 
the seed too deeply and in drills too far apart for the best 
results. Uniform distribution is sometimes secured by drill- 
ing in both directions. This double working, especially with 
a disk drill, leaves the land in good condition. Ordinary 
grain drills do not have a feed indicator for hemp seed, but 
they may be readily calibrated, and this should be done be- 
fore running the risk of sowing too much or too little. Fill 
the seed box with hemp seed, spread a canvas under the 
feeding tubes, set the indicator at a little less than one-half 
bushel per acre for wheat, and turn the drivewheel as many 
times as it would turn in sowing one- tenth acre; then weigh 
the seed that has fallen on the canvas. If the land is to be 
drilled in both directions, one-half bushel each way, the drill 
should feed 2.2 pounds for one-tenth acre. One method 
giving good results is to remove the lower sections of the 
feeding tubes on grain drills and place a flat board so that the 
hemp seed falling against it will be more evenly distributed, 
the seed being covered either by the shoes of the drill or by 
a light harrow. Good results are obtained with disk drills, 
roller press drills, and also with the end-gate broadcast 
seeder. Drills made especially for sowing hemp seed are now 
on the market, and they are superseding all other methods 
oi sowing hemp seed in Kentucky. Rolling after seeding is 
advised, in order to pack the soil about the seed and to se- 
cure a smooth surface for cutting, but rolling is not recom- 
mended for soils where it is known to have an injurious 
effect. 

AMOUNT OF SEED. 

Hemp is sown at the rate of about 3 pecks (33 pounds) 
per acre. On especially rich soil 1J bushels may be sown 
with good results, and on poor land that will not support a 



Hemp. 323 

dense, heavy crop a smaller amount is recommended. If 
conditions are favorable and the seed germinates 98 to 100 
per cent, 3 pecks are usually sufficient. 

When kept dry, hemp seed retains its germinative vitality 
well for at least three or four years, but different lots have 
been found to vary from 35 to 1 00 per cent, and it is always 
well to test the seed before sowing. 

TIME OF SEEDING. 

In Kentucky, hemp seed is sown from the last of March to 
the last of May. The best results are usually obtained from 
April seeding. Later seedings may be successful when there 
is a plentiful rainfall in June. In Nebraska, hemp seed was 
sown in April, May, or sometimes as late as June. In Cali- 
fornia it is sown in February or March; in Indiana and Wis- 
consin, in May. In general, the best time for sowing hemp 
seed is just before the time for sowing oats in any given 
locality. 

After the seed is sown, the hemp crop requires no further 
care or attention until the time of harvest. 

HARVEST. 

TIME. 

In California, hemp is cut late in July or in August; in 
Kentucky, Indiana, and Wisconsin it is cut in September. 
The hemp should be cut when the staminate plants are in 
full flower and the pollen is flying. If cut earlier, the fiber 
will be finer and softer but also weaker and less in quantity. 
If permitted to become overripe, the fiber will be coarse, 
harsh, and less pliable, and it will be impossible to ret the 
stalks properly. 

METHODS OF HARVESTING. 

HARVESTING BY HAND. 

In Kentucky, a small portion of the hemp crop is still 
cut by hand with a reaping knife or hemp hook. (PI. XL V, 
fig. 1.) This knife is somewhat similar to a long-handled 
corn cutter. The man cutting the hemp pulls an armful of 
stalks toward him with his left arm and cuts them off as near 
the base as possible by drawing the knife close to the ground; 
he then lays the stalks on the ground in a smooth, even row, 



324 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

with the butts toward him, that is, toward the uncut hemp. 
An experienced hand will cut with a reaping knife about three- 
fourths of an acre a day. The hemp stalks are allowed to 
lie on the ground until dry, when they are raked up by hand 
and set up in shocks until time to spread for retting. 

HARVESTING WITH REAPERS. 

Sweep-rake reapers are being used in increasing numbers 
for harvesting hemp in Kentucky and in all other localities 
where hemp is raised. (PI. XLV, fig. 2.) While not entirely 
satisfactory, they are being improved and strengthened so 
as to be better adapted for heavy work. Three men, one to 
grind sections, one to drive, and one to attend to the machine, 
and four strong horses or mules are required in cutting hemp 
with a reaper. Under favorable conditions, from 5 to 7 
acres per day can be cut in this manner. This more rapid 
work makes it possible to harvest the crop more nearly at the 
proper time. The stalks, after curing in the gavel, are set 
up in shocks, usually without binding into bundles unless 
they are to be stacked. 

HARVESTING WITH MOWING MACHINES. 

In some places hemp is cut with ordinary mowing ma- 
chines. (PI. XLV, fig. 3.) A horizontal bar nearly parallel 
with the cutting bar, the outer end projecting slightly for- 
ward, is attached to an upright fastened to the tongue of the 
machine. This bar is about 4 feet above the cutting bar and 
about 20 inches to the front. It bends the hemp stalks over 
in the direction the machine is going. The stalks are more 
easily cut when thus bent away from the knives and, further- 
more, the bases snap back of the cutting bar and never drop 
through between the guards to be cut a second time, as they 
often do when cut standing erect. With a 5J-foot mowing 
machine thus equipped) one man and one team of two horses 
will cut 6 to 8 acres per day.. The work is regarded as about 
equal to cutting a heavy crop of clover. The hemp thus cut 
all falls in the direction the machine is going, the tops over- 
lapping the butts of the stalks. The ordinary track clearer 
at the end of the bar clears a path, so that the stalks are not 
materially injured either by the horses or the wheels of the 
machine at the next round. 



Hemp. 325 

The hemp stalks are then left where they fall until retted, 
or in places where the crop is heavy the stalks are turned 
once or twice to secure uniform curing and retting. When 
sufficiently retted the stalks are raked up with a 2-horse hay- 
rake, going crosswise of the swaths, and then drawn, like 
hay, to the machine brake. This is the most inexpensive 
method for handling the crop. It is impossible to make clean, 
long, straight fiber from stalks handled in this manner, and 
it is not recommended where better methods are practicable. 
It is worthy of more extended use, however, for handling 
short and irregular hemp, and hundreds of acres of hemp now 
burned in Kentucky because it is too short to be treated in 
the regular manner might be handled with profit by this 
method. There may be nearly as much profit in 3J-cent 
fiber produced at a cost of 2 cents per pound as in 5-cent 
fiber produced at a cost of 3 cents, provided the land rent is 
not too large an item of cost. 

NEED FOB IMPROVEMENT IN HEMP HARVESTERS. 

The most satisfactory hemp-harvesting machines now in 
use are the self-rake reapers, made especially for this pur- 
pose. They are just. about as satisfactory for hemp now as 
the similar machines for wheat and oats were 30 years ago. 
More efficient harvesting machinery is needed to bring the 
handling of this crop up to present methods in harvesting 
corn or small grain. A machine is needed which will cut the 
stalks close to the ground, deliver them straight and not 
bruised or broken, with the butts even, and bound in bundles 
about 8 inches in diameter. A modified form of the upright 
corn binder, arranged to cut a swath about 4 feet wide, is sug- 
gested. Modified forms of grain binders have been tried, 
but with rather unsatisfactory results. Green hemp 8 to 14 
feet high can not be handled successfully by grain binders; 
furthermore, the reel breaks or damages a large proportion of 
the hemp. The tough, fibrous stalks, some of which may be 
an inch in diameter, are more difficult to cut than grain and 
therefore require sharp knives with a high motion. 

A hemp-reaping machine is also needed that will cut the 
hemp and lay it down in an even swath, as grain is laid with a 
cradle. The butts should all be in one direction, and the 
swath should be far enough from the cut hemp so as not to 



326 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

be in the way at the next round. A machine of this type 
may be used where it is desired to ret the hemp in the fall 
immediately after cutting. It might be used for late crops 
in Kentucky, or generally for hemp farther north, where 
there is little danger of "sunburn" after the hemp is har- 
vested. 

STACKING. 

Hemp stalks which are to be stacked are bound in bundles 
about 10 inches in diameter, with small hemp plants for 
bands, before being placed in shocks. (PL XLVI, fig. 2.) 
They are allowed to stand in the shock from 10 to 15 days, 
or a sufficient length of time to avoid danger of heating in 
the stack. The bundles are hauled from the shocks to the 
stacks in rather small loads of half a ton or less on a low 
rack or sled. Three men with a team and low wagon to haul 
the stalks can put up two hemp stacks of about 8 tons each 
in a day. 

A hemp stack must be built to shed water. It is started 
much like a grain stack with a shock, around which the bun- 
dles are placed in tiers, with the butts sloping downward and 
outward. The stack is kept higher in the center and each 
succeeding outer tier projects slightly to a height of 5 or 6 
feet, when another shock is built in the center, around which 
the bundles are carefully placed to shed water and the peak 
capped with an upright bundle. A well-built stack may be 
kept four or five years without injury. 

Hemp which has been stacked rets more quickly and more 
evenly, the fiber is usually of better quality, and the yield 
of fiber is usually greater than from hemp retted directly 
from the shock. Hemp is stacked before retting, but not 
after retting in Kentucky. Stacking retted hemp stalks for 
storage before breaking is not recommended in climates 
where there is danger of gathering moisture. Retted stalks 
may be stored in sheds where they will be kept dry. 

CARE IN HANDLING. 

Hemp stalks must be kept straight, unbroken, and with 
the butts even. They must be handled with greater care 
than is commonly exercised in handling grain crops. When 
a bunch of loose stalks is picked up at any stage of the opera- 
tion, it is chucked down on the butts to make them even. 
The loose stalks, or bundles, are handled by hand and not 



Hemp. 327 

with pitchforks. The only tool used in handling the stalks 
is a hook or rake, in gathering them up from the swath. 

RETTING. 

Retting is a process in which the gums surrounding the 
fibers and binding them together are partly dissolved and 
removed. It permits the fiber to be separated from the 
woody inner portion of the stalk and from the thin outer bark, 
and it also removes soluble materials which would cause rapid 
decomposition if left with the fiber. Two methods of retting 
are practiced commercially, viz, dew retting and water retting. 

DEW RETTING. 

In this country dew retting is practiced almost exclusively. 
The hemp is spread on the ground in thin, even rows, so that 
it will all be uniformly exposed to the weather. In spreading 
hemp the workman takes an armful of stalks and, walking 
backward, slides them sidewise from his knee, so that the butts 
are all even in one direction and the layer is not more than 
three stalks in thickness. (PI. XLIV, fig. 3.) This work is 
usually paid for at the rate of $1 per acre, and experienced 
hands will average more than 1 acre per day. The hemp is 
left on the ground from four weeks to four months. Warm, 
moist weather promotes the retting process, and cold or dry 
weather retards it. Hemp rets *apidly if spread during early 
fall, provided there are rains, but it is likely to be less uniform 
than if retted during the colder months. It should not be 
spread early enough to be exposed to the sun in hot, dry 
weather. Alternate freezing and thawing or light snows 
melting on the hemp give most desirable results in retting. 
Slender stalks one-fourth inch in diameter or less ret more 
slowly than coarse stalks, and such stalks are usually not 
overretted if left on the ground all winter. Hemp rets well 
in young wheat or rye, which hold the moisture about the 
stalks. In Kentucky most of the hemp is spread during 
December. A protracted January thaw with compara- 
tively warm rainy weather occasionally results in overret- 
ting. While this does not destroy the crop, ifc weakens the 
fiber and causes much loss. When retted sufficiently, so 
that the fiber can be easily separated from the hurds, or 
woody portion, the stalks are raked up and set up in shocks, 
care being exercised to keep them straight and with the 



328 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

butts even. They are not bound in bundles, but a band 
is sometimes put around the shock near the top. The work 
of taking up the stalks after retting is usually done by piece- 
work at the rate of $1 per acre. 

WATER RETTING. 

Water retting is practiced in Italy, France, Belgium, Ger- 
many, Japan, and China, and in some localities in Russia. 
It consists in immersing the hemp stalks in water in streams, 
ponds, or artificial tanks. In Italy, where the whitest and 
softest hemp fiber is produced, the stalks are placed in tanks 
of soft water for a few days, then taken out and dried, and 
returned to the tanks for a second retting. Usually the 
stalks remain in the water first about eight days and the sec- 
ond time a little longer. 

In either dew retting or water retting the process is com- 
plete when the bark, including the fiber, readily separates 
from the stalks. The solution of the gums is accomplished 
chiefly by certain bacteria. If the retting process is allowed 
to go too far, other bacteria attack the fiber. The develop- 
ment of these different bacteria depends to a large extent upon 
the temperature. Processes have been devised for placing 
pure cultures of specific bacteria in the retting tanks and 
then keeping the temperature and air supply at the best for 
their development. 1 These methods, which seem to give 
promise of success, have not been adopted in commercial 
work. 

CHEMICAL RETTING. 

Many processes for retting or for combined retting and 
bleaching with chemicals have been devised, but none of 
them have given sufficiently good results to warrant their 
introduction on a commercial scale. In most of the chemical 
retting processes it has been found difficult to secure a soft, 
lustrous fiber, like that produced by dew or water retting, or 
completely to remove the chemicals so that the fiber will not 
continue to deteriorate owing to their injurious action. 

One of the most serious difficulties in hemp cultivation at 
the present time is the lack of a satisfactory method of ret- 
ting that may be relied upon to give uniform results without 
injury to the fiber. An excellent crop of hemp stalks, capa- 

• Rossi, Giacomo. Macerazione della Canapa. Animli della Regia Scaola Superlore di 
Agriculture di Portici, s. 2, v. 7, p. 1-148, 1907. 



Hemp. 329 

ble of yielding more than $50 worth of fiber per acre, may be 
practically ruined by unsuitable weather conditions while 
retting. Water retting, although less dependent on weather 
conditions than dew retting, has not thus far given profitable 
results in this' country. The nearest approach to commer- 
cial success with water retting in recent years in America was 
attained in 1906 at Northfield, Minn., where, after several 
years of experimental work, good fiber, similar to Italian 
hemp in quality, was produced from hemp retted in water 
in large cement tanks. The water was kept in circulation 
and at the desired temperature by a modification of the 
Deswarte-Loppens system. 

STEAMING. 

In Japan, where some of the best hemp fiber is produced, 
three methods of retting are employed — dew retting, water 
retting, and steaming, the last giving the best results. 
Bundles of hemp stalks are first immersed in water one or 
two days to become thoroughly wet. They are then secured 
vertically in a long conical box open at the bottom and top. 
The box thus filled with wet stalks is raised by means of a 
derrick and swung over a pile of heated stones on which 
water is dashed to produce steam. Steaming about three 
hours is sufficient. The fiber is then stripped off by hand 
and scraped, to remove the outer bark. The fiber thus pre- 
pared is very strong, but less flexible than that prepared by 
dew retting or water retting. 

BREAKING. 

Breaking is a process by means of which the inner, woody 
shell is broken in pieces and removed, leaving the clean, long, 
straight fiber. Strictly speaking, the breaking process 
merely breaks in pieces the woody portions, while their 
removal is a second operation properly called scutching. In 
Italy and in some other parts of Europe the stalks are 
broken by one machine, or device, and afterwards scutched 
by another. In this country the two are usually combined 
in one operation. 

HAND BRAKES. 

Hand brakes (PI. XL VI, fig. 1), with little change or modifi-. 
cation, have been in use for many generations, and even yet 
more than three-fourths of the hemp fiber produced in 



330 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

Kentucky is broken out on the hand brake. This simple 
device consists of three boards about 5 feet long set edgewise, 
wider apart at one end than the other and with the upper 
edges somewhat sharpened. Above this a framework, with 
two boards sharpened on the lower edges, is hinged near the 
wide end of the lower frame, so that when worked up and 
down by means of the handle along the back these upper 
boards pass midway in the spaces between the lower ones. 
A carpenter or wagon maker can easily make one of these 
hand brakes, and they are sold in Kentucky for about $5. 

The operator takes an armful of hemp under his left arm, 
places the butts across the wide end of the brake near the 
hinged upper part, which is raised with his right hand, and 
crunches the upper part down, breaking the stalks. This 
operation is repeated several times, moving the stalks along 
toward the narrow end so as to break the shorter pieces, 
and when the hemp appears pretty well broken the operator 
takes the armful in both hands and whips it across the brake 
to remove the loosened hurds. He then reverses the bundle 
and breaks the tops and cleans the fiber in the same manner. 

The usual charge for breaking hemp on the hand brake 
in this manner is 1 cent to 1^ cents per pound. There are 
records of 400 pounds being broken by one man in a day, 
but the average day's work, counting six days in a week, 
is rarely more than 75 pounds. In a good crop, therefore, 
it would require 10 to 15 days for one man to break an acre of 
hemp. The work requires skill, strength, and endurance, 
and for many years there has been increasing difficulty in 
securing laborers for it. It is plainly evident that the 
hemp industry can not increase in this country unless 
some method is used for preparing the fiber requiring less 
hand labor than the hand brake. 

MACHINE BEAKES. 

Several years ago a brake was built at Eantoul, 111., for 
breaking and cleaning the fiber rapidly, but producing tow or 
tangled fiber instead of clean, straight, line fiber, such as is 
obtained by the hand brake. This machine consisted essen- 
tially of a series of fluted rollers followed by a series of beating 
wheels. Machines designed after this type, but improved 
in many respects, have been in use several years at Havelock, 
Nebr., and first at Gridley, then at Courtland and Rio Vista, 



Hemp. 331 

Cal. These machines have sufficient capacity and are oper- 
ated at comparatively small cost, the hurds furnishing more 
than sufficient fuel for the steam power required, but the 
condition of the fiber produced is not satisfactory for high- 
class twines and it commands a lower price than clean, long, 
straight fiber. 

The Sanford-Mallory flax brake, consisting essentially of 
five fluted rollers with an interrupted motion, producing a rub- 
bing effect, has been used to a limited extent for breaking 
hemp. This machine, as ordinarily made for breaking flax, 
is too light and its capacity is insufficient for the work of 
breaking hemp. 

A portable machine brake (PL XL VI, fig. 4) has been used 
successfully in Kentucky during the past two years. It 
has a series of crushing and breaking rollers, beating and 
scutching devices, and a novel application of suction to aid 
in separating hurds and tow. The stalks are fed endwise. 
The long fiber, scutched and clean, leaves the machine at 
one point, the tow, nearly clean, at another, and the hurds, 
entirely free from fiber, at another. It has a capacity of 
about 1 ton of clean fiber per day. 

Another portable machine brake has been in use in Cali- 
fornia during the past two years, chiefly breaking hemp that 
has been thoroughly air dried but not retted. This hemp, 
grown with irrigation, becomes dry enough in that arid cli- 
mate to break well, but this method is not practicable in 
humid climates without artificial drying. The stalks, fed 
endwise, pass first through a series of fluted or grooved 
rollers and then through a pair of beating wheels, removing 
most of the hurds, and the fiber, passing between three pairs 
of moving scutching aprons, each pair followed by rollers, 
finally leaves the machine in a kind of continuous lap folded 
back and forth in the baling box. 

A larger machine (PL XLVI, fig. 3), having the greatest 
capacity and turning out the cleanest and most uniform 
fiber of any of the brakes thus far brought out, has been used 
to a limited extent during the past eight years in Kentucky, 
California, Indiana, and Wisconsin. This machine weighs 
about 7 tons, but it is mounted on wheels and is drawn about 
by a traction farm engine, which also furnishes power for 
operating it. The stalks are fed sidewise in a continuous 
layer 1 to 3 inches thick, and carried along so that the ends, 



332 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

forced through slits, are broken and scutched simultaneously 
by converging revolving cylinders about 12 and 16 feet long. 
One cylinder, extending beyond the end of the other, cleans 
the middle portion of the stalks, the grasping mechanism 
carrying them forward being shifted to the fiber cleaned by 
the shorter cylinder. The cylinders break the stalks and 
scutch the fiber on the under side of the layer as it is carried 
along, and the loosened hurds on the upper side are scutched 
by two large . beating wheels just as it leaves the machine. 
The fiber leaves the machine sidewise, thoroughly cleaned and 
ready to be twisted into heads and packed in bales. This 
machine with a full crew of 15 men, including men to haul 
stalks from the field and others to tie up the fiber for baling, 
has a capacity of 1,000 pounds of clean, straight fiber of 
good hemp per hour. The tow is thrown out with the hurds, 
and until recent improvements it has produced too large a 
percentage of tow. It does good work with hemp retted 
somewhat less than is necessary for the hand brake, and it 
turns out more uniform and cleaner fiber. For good work it 
requires, as do all the machines and also the hand brakes, 
that the hemp stalks be dry. If the atmosphere is dry at the 
time of breaking, the hemp may be broken directly from the 
shocks in the field, but in regions with a moist atmosphere, 
or with much rainy weather, it would be best to store the 
stalks in sheds or under cover, and with a stationary plant it 
might be economical to dry them artificially, using the hurds 
for fuel. Extreme care must be exercised in artificial drying, 
however, to avoid injury to the fiber. 

IMPROVEMENT NEEDED IN HEMP-BREAKING MACHINES. 

While hemp-breaking machines have now reached a degree 
of perfection at which they are successfully replacing the 
hand brakes, as the thrashing machines half a century ago 
began replacing the flail, there is still room for improvement. 
This needed improvement may be expected as soon as hemp 
is grown more extensively, so as to make a sufficient demand 
for machinery to induce manufacturers to invest capital in 
this line. For small and scattered crops a comparatively 
light, portable machine is desirable, requiring not more than 
10 horsepower and not more than four or five laborers of 



Hemp. 333 

average skill for its operation. It should prepare the fiber 
clean and straight, ready to be tied in hanks for baling, and 
should have a capacity of at least 1,000 pounds of clean fiber 
per day. For localities where hemp is grown more abun- 
dantly, so as to furnish a large supply of stalks within short 
hauling distance, a larger machine operated in a stationary 
central plant by a crew of men trained to their respective 
duties, like workers in a textile mill, will doubtless be found 
more economical. Artificial retting and drying may also be 
used to good advantage in a central plant. 

The hemp growers of Europe have adopted machine brakes 
more readily than the farmers in this country, and the hemp 
industry in Europe is most flourishing and most profitable 
where the machines are used. Most of the hemp in northern 
Italy is broken and scutched by portable machines. Machines 
are also used in Hungary, and the machine-scutched hemp 
of Hungary is regularly quoted at $10 to $15 per ton higher 
than that prepared by hand. These European machines may 
not be adapted to American conditions, but, together with 
American machines which are doing successful work, they 
sufficiently contradict the frequent assertion of hemp growers 
and dealers that "no machine can ever equal the hand 
brake." 

SORTING. 

On many hemp plantations the stalks are roughly sorted 
before breaking, so that the longer or better fiber will be 
kept separate. The work of sorting can usually be done 
best at this point, short stalks from one portion of a field 
being kept separate from the longer stalks of another por- 
tion and overretted stalks from stalks with stronger fiber. 
Sometimes the men breaking the hemp sort the fiber as it is 
broken. An expert handler of fiber will readily sort it into 
two or three grades by feeling of it as it leaves the hand brake 
or the breaking machine. It is a mistaken policy to suppose 
that the average price will be higher if poor fiber is mixed 
with good. It may be safely assumed that the purchaser 
fixing the price will pay for a mixed lot a rate more nearly 
the value of the lowest in the mixture, and he can not justly 
do otherwise, for the fiber must be sorted later if it is to be 
used to the best advantage in the course of manufacture. 



334 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

PACKING FIBER FOE LOCAL MARKET. 

The long, straight fiber is put up in bundles, or heads, 4 to 

6 inches in diameter and weighing 2 to 4 pounds. (PI. XL, 

fig. 4.) The bundle of fiber is twisted and bent over, forming 

a head about one-third below the top end. It is fastened in 

this form by a few strands of the fiber itself, wound tightly 

around the neck and tucked in so that it may be readily 

unfastened without cutting or becoming tangled. Three 

ropes, each about 15 feet long, twisted by hand from the 

hemp tow, are stretched on the ground about 15 inches 

apart. The hanks of fiber are piled crosswise on these ropes 

with the heads of the successive tiers alternating with the 

loose ends, which are tucked in so as not to become tangled. 

When the bundle thus built up is about 30 inches in diameter, 

the ropes are drawn up tightly by two men and tied. These 

bundles weigh about 200 pounds each. Most of the hemp 

leaves the farm in this form. Hemp tow, produced from 

broken or tangled stalks and fiber beaten out in cleaning the 

long straight hemp, is packed into handmade bales in the 

same manner. 

HACKLING. 

In Kentucky, most of the hemp is sold by the farmers to 
the local dealers or hemp merchants. The hemp dealers 
have large warehouses where the fiber is stored, sorted, 
hackled, and baled. The work of hackling is rarely done on 
the farms. The rough hemp is first sorted by an expert, 
who determines which is best suited for the different grades 
to be produced. A quantity of this rough fiber, usually 112 
or 224 pounds, is weighed out to a workman, who hackles it 
by hand, one head at a time. The head is first unfastened 
and the fiber shaken out to its full length. It is then combed 
out by drawing it across a coarse hackle, beginning near the 
top end and working successively toward the center. When 
combed a little beyond the center, the bundle of fiber is 
reversed and the butt end hackled in the same manner. 
The coarse hackle first used consists of three or four rows of 
upright steel pins about 7 inches long, one-fourth of an inch 
thick, and 1 inch apart. The long fiber combed out straight 
on this hackle is called "single-dressed hemp." This may 
afterwards be treated in much the same manner on a smaller 



Hemp. 



335 



hackle with finer and sharper needles set closer together, 
splitting and subdividing the fibers as well as combing them 
out more smoothly. The fiber thus prepared is called 
" double-dressed hemp," and it commands the highest price 
of any hemp fiber on the American market. 

The work of hackling is paid for at a certain rate per 
pound for the amount of dressed fiber produced. The work- 
man therefore tries to hackle and dress the fiber in such a 
manner as to produce the greatest possible amount of 
dressed fiber and least amount of tow and waste. The 
dressed fiber is carefully inspected before payment is made, 
and there are few complaints from manufacturers that 
American dressed hemp is not up to the standard. 

A large proportion of the hemp purchased by the local 
dealers is sold directly to the twine and cordage mills without 
hackling or other handling except carefully sorting and 
packing into bales. 

BALING. 

The bales packed for shipment are usually about 4 by 3 by 
2 feet. The following table gives the approximate weights 
per bale: 

Average -weight per bale of hemp for shipment to mills. 



Class of hemp. 


Pounds. 




450 
500 
800 
900 




Single dressed 

Double dressed . . . 



When cleaned by machine brakes the fiber is often baled 
directly without packing it in the preliminary handmade 
bales. In this way it has sometimes escaped the process of 
careful sorting and has brought unjust criticism on the ma- 
chines. This cause for criticism may easily be avoided by 
exercising a little more care in sorting the stalks, and, if 
necessary, the cleaned fiber. 

YIELD. 

The yield of hemp fiber ranges from 400 to 2,500 pounds 
per acre. The average yield under good conditions is about 
1,000 pounds per acre, of which about three-fourths are line 



336 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

fiber and one-fourth is tow. The yield per acre at different 
stages of preparation may be stated as follows: 

Stalks: Pounds. 

Green, freshly cut 15, 000 

Dry, as cured in shock 10, 000 

Dry, after dew retting 6, 000 

Long fiber, rough hemp 750 

Tow 250 

If the 750 pounds of long fiber is hackled it will yield 
about 340 pounds of single-dressed hemp, 180 pounds shorts, 
140 pounds fine tow, and 90 pounds hurds and waste. 

The average yields in the principal hemp-producing coun- 
tries of Europe, based on statements of annual average 
yields for 5 to 10 years, are as follows: 

Pounds. 

Russia 358 

Hungary 504 

Italy 622 

France 662 

The yield is generally higher in both Europe and the 
United States in regions where machine brakes are used, 
but this is due, in part at least, to the better crops, for 
machine brakes usually accompany better farming. 

COST OF HEMP-FIBER PRODUCTION. 

The operations for raising a crop of hemp are essentially 
the same as those for raising a crop of wheat or oats up to the 
time of harvest, and the implements or tools required are 
merely a plow, disk, drill or seeder, a harrow, and a roller, 
such as may be found on any well-equipped farm. Esti- 
mates of the cost of these operations may therefore be based 
upon the cost of similar work for other crops with which all 
farmers are familiar. But the operations of harvesting, 
retting, breaking, and baling are very different from those 
for other farm crops in this country. The actual cost will, 
of course, vary with the varying conditions on different 
farms. 

Hemp can not be economically grown in areas of less than 
50 acres in any one locality so as to warrant the use of ma- 
chinery for harvesting and breaking. The following general 
estimate is therefore given for what may be considered the 
smallest practical area: 



Hemp. 337 

Estimated cost and returns for 50 acres of hemp. 
Cost: 

Plowing (in fall) 50 acres, $2 per acre $100 

Disking (in spring), 50 cents per acre 25 

Harrowing, 30 cents per acre 15 

Seed, 40 bushels, delivered, $4.50 per bus!iel 180 

Seeding, 40 cents per acre 20 

Rolling, 30 cents per acre 15 

Self-rake reaper for harvesting 75 

Cutting with reaper, $1 per acre 50 

Picking up from gavels and shocking, $1 per acre 50 

Spreading for retting, $1.50 per acre 75 

Picking up from retting swath and setting in shocks, $1.40 per 

acre 70 

Breaking 50,000 pounds fiber, including use of machine brake, 

1J cents per pound 750 

Baling 125 bales (400 pounds each), including use of baling press, 

$1.40 per bale 175 

Marketing and miscellaneous expenses 150 

Totalcost 1,750 

Returns : 

Long fiber, 37,500 pounds, 6 cents per pound 2,250 

Tow, 12,500 pounds, 4 cents per pound 500 

Total returns 2,750 

It is not expected that a net profit of $20 per acre, as indi- 
cated in the foregoing estimate, may be realized in all cases, 
but the figures given are regarded as conservative where all 
conditions are favorable. 

MARKET. 

All of the hemp produced in this country is used in Ameri- 
can spinning mills, and it is not sufficient to supply one-half 
of the demand. The importations have been increasing 
slightly during the past 20 years, while there has been a 
decided increase in values. The average declared value of 
imported hemp, including all grades, for the 4,817 tons 
imported in 1893, was $142.31 per ton, while in the fiscal 
year 1913 the importations amounted to 7,663 tons with an 
average declared value of $193.67 per ton. There have been 
some fluctuations in quotations, but the general tendency 
of prices of both imported and American hemp has been 
upward, (Fig. 19.) The quotations for Kentucky rough 
prime, since October, 1912, have been the highest recorded 
for this standard grade. Furthermore, the increasing 

27306°— YBK 1913 22 



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Fio. 19.— Variation in market quotations of American, Russian, and Italian hemp, and also of a standard high grade of jute. 



Hemp. 



339 



demand for this fiber, together with the scarcity of com- 
peting fibers in the world's markets, indicates a continuation 
of prices at high levels. 

EFFECT OF TARIFF. 

So far as can be determined from records of importations 
and prices since 1880, the earliest available statistics, the 
changes in the rate of import duty on hemp have had no 
appreciable effect on the quantity imported, on the declared 
import value 1 of the fiber, or on the quantity produced or 
the price of American hemp in this country. (Fig. 20.) The 
tariff acts of 1870, 1883, and 1890, in force until 1894, im- 
posed a duty of $25 per ton on line hemp. From 1894 to 
1899 hemp was on the free list, and from 1899 to 1913 it was 
dutiable at $22.50 per ton. 





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Fio. 20.— Importations and average Import price of hemp for 33 years, together 
with changes in the rate of import duty. 

The importations reached a high level in 1899, when hemp 
was extensively used for binder twine. From that year 
onward henequen from Yucatan and abaca from the Phil- 
ippines replaced hemp in binder twine, while jute from India 
replaced it completely for cotton-bale covering. The increas- 
ing demand for hemp for commercial twines has resulted 
in higher prices for both imported and American hemps, but 
this demand has been met in this country neither by impor- 
tation nor by production. There are no accurate statistics 
of acreage or production in the United States, but there has 
been a general decline from about 7,000 tons in 1880 to 
about 5,000 in 1913. The average annual production dur- 
ing the period of free importations, 1894 to 1899, was about 
5,000 tons, but slightly less than that of the previous 10 

i Declared value at port of shipment. 



340 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

years and about the same as the average of the period of duti- 
able hemp since then. 

The present tariff, 1913, with hemp on the free list, has not 
been in force long enough to indicate any appreciable effect. 

LOCATION OF AMERICAN MILLS. 

Some hemp from the larger farms is sold directly to the 
spinning mills, but most of that produced in this country 
passes through the hands of local dealers in Kentucky. The 
hemp imported is purchased either directly from foreign 
dealers by the mills or through fiber brokers in New York 
and Boston. 



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■ \»i *^> \ 



Fig. 21. — Map showing areas (shaded) of hemp cultivation and location (*) of hemp spin- 
ning mills to the United States. 

There is one twine mill at Frankfort, Ky., on the western 
edge of the hemp-producing region, and one at Covington, 
Ky., opposite Cincinnati, but aside from the comparatively 
small quantities used by these mills and a little used in the 
mill at Oakland, Cal., practically all the hemp fiber is shipped 
away from the States where it is produced. There are 28 
mills in this country using American hemp, most of them in 
the vicinity of Boston or New York, as indicated on the 
accompanying map 1 (fig. 21). Inmost of these mills other 
soft fibers, such as jute, China jute, and flax, are also used, 

i Some of the mills are so close together around New York and Boston that it is impossible 
to indicate each one by a separate star. 



Hemp. 341 

and many of them are also engaged in the manufacture of 
twines and cordage from the hard fibers — sisal, henequen, 
abaca (manila), phormium, and Mauritius. 

USES. 

Hemp is used in the manufacture of tying twine ; carpet 
warp, seine twine, sails, standing rigging, and heaving lines 
for ships, and for packing. It has been used to some extent 
for binder twine, but at the relative prices usually prevailing 
it can not well compete with sisal and abaca for this purpose. 
Binder twine made of American hemp and India jute mixed 
has been placed upon the market. This twine is said to give 
excellent results because it is more 3mooth and uniform than 
twine made of hard fiber. The hemp fiber is tougher and 
more pliable than hard fibers, and the twine is therefore 
more difficult to cut in the knotter. Hemp is also used to a 
limited extent for bagging and cotton baling. Only the tow 
and cheaper grades of the fiber can compete with other fibers 
for these purposes. The softer grades of hemp tow are ex- 
tensively used for oakum and packing in pumps, engines, and 
similar machinery. It endures heat, moisture, and friction 
with less injury than other fibers, except flax, used for these 
purposes. Hemp is especially adapted by its strength and 
durability for the manufacture of carpet warp, hall rugs, 
aisle runners, tarpaulins, sails, upholstery webbing, belt 
webbing, and for all purposes in textile articles where 
strength, durability, and flexibility are desired. Hemp will 
make fabrics stronger and more durable than cotton or 
woolen fabrics of the same weight, but owing to its coarser 
texture it is not well suited for clothing and for many articles 
commonly made of cotton and wool. 

COMPETING FIBERS. 

The principal fibers now competing with American-grown 
hemp are Russian and Hungarian hemp, cotton, and jute. 
Italian hemp, being water retted, is not only higher in price 
but it is different in character from the American dew-retted 
hemp, and it is used for certain kinds of twines and the finer 
grades of carpet warp for which American hemp is not well 
suited. Twine made of Italian hemp may, of course, be used 
sometimes where American hemp twine might serve just as 
well, but owing to its higher price it is not likely to be used 



342 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

as a substitute, and it can not compete to the disadvantage 
of American hemp. 

Russian and Hungarian hemp, chiefly dew retted, is of the 
same character as American hemp and is used for the same 
purposes. Russian hemp is delivered at the mills in this 
country at prices but little above those of rough hemp from 
Kentucky. Most of the Russian and Hungarian hemp im- 
ported is of the better grades, the poorer grades being re- 
tained in Europe, where many articles are made of low-grade 
hemp that would be made of low-grade cotton in this country. 

In some years, owing to unsuitable weather conditions for 
retting Kentucky hemp or to greater care in handling Rus- 
sian hemp and to care in grading the hemp for export from 
Russia, much of the Russian hemp of the better grades has 
been stronger and more satisfactory to twine manufacturers 
than American hemp placed on the market at approximately 
the same price. It is used for mixing with overretted and 
weak American hemp to give the requisite strength to twine. 

Cotton is now used more extensively than all other vege- 
table fibers combined. The world's supply of cotton is esti- 
mated in round numbers at 5,500,000 tons, valued at nearly 
$1,000,000,000. The total supply of all other fibers of com- 
merce — hemp, flax, jute, China jute, ramie, sisal, abaca, phor- 
mium, Mauritius fiber, cabuya, mescal fiber, and Philippine 
maguey — amounts annually to about 3,300,000 tons, valued 
at about $350,000,000. Cotton, therefore, so greatly over- 
shadows all other textile fibers that it may scarcely be re- 
garded as competing directly with any one of them. Cotton 
is prepared and spun on different kinds of machines from 
those used for preparing and spinning long fibers. Cotton is 
not mixed with hemp and is rarely spun in the same mills 
where hemp is used. Cotton twines do, however, compete 
with hemp tying twines, and cotton is largely used for carpet 
warp, where hemp, with its superior strength and durability, 
would give better service. Less than a century ago hemp 
and flax were used more extensively than cotton, but the 
introduction of the cotton gin, followed by the rapid develop- 
ment of machinery all along the line for preparing and spin- 
ning cotton fiber, while there has been no corresponding de- 
velopment in machinery for preparing and spinning hemp or 
other long fibers, has given cotton the supremacy among veg- 
etable fibers. There is little probability that hemp will regain 



Hemp. 343 

the supremacy over cotton, even with improved machinery 
for handling the crop and spinning the fiber, because cotton 
is better adapted to a wide range of textile products. Hemp 
should, however, regain many of the lines where it will give 
better service than cotton. 

Jute is the most dangerous competitor of hemp. Jute is 
produced in India from the bast or inner bark of two closely 
related species of plants, jute (Corchorus capsularis) and 
nalta jute (Corchorus olitorius). These plants are somewhat 
similar in appearance to hemp, though not at all related to it. 
They are grown on the alluvial soils in the province of Bengal, 
India, and to a much less extent in other parts of India, 
southern China, and Taiwan (Formosa). More than 3,000,000 
acres are devoted to this crop, and the annual production is 
approximately 2,000,000 tons of fiber, valued at $150,000,000. 
The plants are pulled by hand, water retted in slow streams 
or stagnant pools, and the fiber cleaned by hand without the 
aid of even crude appliances as effective as the hand brake for 
hemp. Jute fiber thus prepared, cleaner, softer, and more 
easily spun than Kentucky rough-prime hemp, is delivered 
in New York at an average price of about 4 cents per pound 
for the better grades. Jute butts, consisting of the coarser 
fiber cut off at the base, 5 to 10 inches long, are sold in this 
country at 1 to 2 cents per pound. Most of the long jute 
fiber comprising the "fight jute" grades are of a fight straw 
color, while the "dark jutes," also called "desi jute," are of 
a dark, brownish gray. The fresh fiber of both kinds when 
well prepared is lustrous, but with age it changes, to a dingy, 
brownish yellow. 

Fresh jute fiber is about two-thirds as strong as hemp fiber 
of the same- weight, but jute lacks durability and rapidly 
loses its strength even in dry air, while if exposed to moisture 
it quickly goes to pieces. It is not suitable for any purpose 
where strength or durability is required. 

Jute is used most extensively for burlaps, gunny bags, sugar 
sacks, grain sacks, wool sacking, and covering for cotton 
bales. Hemp has been used for all of these purposes, but 
the cheaper jute fiber now practically holds the entire field 
in the manufacture of coverings for agricultural products in 
transit. This is a legitimate field for jute, where it consti- 
tutes a "gift package," generally to be used but once, but 
even in this field hemp may regain some of its uses where it is 
found that jute does not give sufficient strength or durability. 



344 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



Jute is often used as an adulterant or as a substitute for 
hemp in the manufacture of twines, webbing, carpet warp, 
and carpets. The careless use of the name hemp to indicate 
jute aids in facilitating this substitution. Twine made of 
pure jute fiber is sold as "hemp twine" in the retail stores in 
Lexington, Ky., in the heart of the hemp-growing region. 
Many of the so-called hemp carpets and hemp rugs are made 
only of jute, and they wear out quickly, whereas a carpet 
made of hemp should be as durable as one made of wool. 
Jute is substituted for hemp very largely in the manufacture 
of warp for carpets and rugs, a purpose for which its lack of 
strength and durability makes it poorly fitted. It is to the 
interest of the purchaser of manufactured articles as well 
as to the producer of hemp and the manufacturer of pure 
hemp goods that the line between hemp and jute be sharply 
drawn. Unfortunately, the difference in the appearance of 
the fibers by which they may be distinguished is not as 
strongly marked as the differences between their strength 
and wearing qualities. 



TESTS FOB. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN JUTE AND HEMP. 

There are no satisfactory tests for these fibers without the 
aid of a microscope and chemical reagents. A ready, but 
uncertain, test consists in untwisting the end of twine or 
yarn. Jute fiber thus unwound is more fuzzy and more brit- 
tle than hemp. The two fibers may be distinguished with 
certainty with a microscope and chemical reagents, as indi- 
cated by the differences in the table which follows: 

Reactions of hemp and jute. 1 



Test. 


Hemp. 


Jute. 




Clean fiber dis- 
solved. 






tinct swelling. 




Greenish blue to 


Yellow to brown. 




pure blue. 










Warming in weak solution of nitric acid 


Uniform blue or 


Prismatic colors. 


and potassium chromate, then washing 


yellow. 




and wanning in dilute solution of soda 






ash and washing again; place on micro- 






scopic slide, and when dry add drop of 






glycerol. Use polariscope (dark field). 







i Matthews, J. Merritt. The Textile Fibers, p. 349, 1908. 



Hemp. 345 

At the present high prices of jute (fig. 4), resulting from 
increasing demands in foreign markets and a partial failure 
of the crop in India, jute could not compete successfully with 
hemp were it not that manufacturers are using it in estab- 
lished lines of goods, and, further, that they are uncertain 
about securing supplies of hemp. 

SUMMARY. 

Hemp is one of the oldest fiber-producing crops and was 
formerly the most important. 

The cultivation of hemp is declining in the United States 
because of the (1) increasing difficulty in securing sufficient 
labor for handling the crop with present methods, (2) lack 
of labor-saving machinery as compared with machinery for 
handling other crops, (3) increasing profits in other crops, 
(4) competition of other fibers, especially jute, and (5) 
lack of knowledge of the crop outside of a limited area in 
Kentucky. 

Hemp was cultivated for fiber in very early times in 
China. 

The history of the distribution of hemp from Asia to other 
continents indicates its relationships and the development of 
the best fiber-producing types. 

Hemp is cultivated in warm countries for the production 
of a narcotic drug, but for fiber only in moderately cool and 
humid temperate regions. 

Very few well-marked varieties of hemp of fiber-producing 
types have been developed. 

The climate and soils over large areas in the valley of the 
Mississippi and its tributaries and in the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin Valleys in California are suited for hemp. 

Hemp improves the physical condition of the soil, destroys 
weeds, and when retted on the ground, as is the common 
practice, does not exhaust fertility. 

Hemp is recommended for cultivation in regular crop 
rotations to take the place of a spring-sown grain crop. 

Fertilizers are not generally used in growing hemp, but 
barnyard manure applied to previous crops is recommended. 

Hemp is rarely injured by insects or fungous diseases. 

Broom rape, a root parasite, is the most serious pest in 
hemp. 



346 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

Practically all of the hemp seed used in the United States 
is produced in Kentucky. 

The best seed is obtained from plants cultivated especially 
for seed production, but some seed is obtained from broad- 
cast overripe fiber crops. 

The land should be well plowed and harrowed, so as to 
be level and uniform. 

The seed should be sown early in spring by any method 
that will distribute and cover it uniformly. 

Some hemp is still cut by hand in Kentucky, but the use 
of machinery for harvesting the crop is increasing. 

Dew retting is regarded as the most practical method in 
this country. 

Hand brakes for preparing the fiber are still used, but they 
are being replaced by machines. 

The price of hemp has been generally increasing during the 
past 30 years. 

About 30 different spinning mills in the United States, 
beside dealers in oakum supplies, offer a market for raw 
hemp fiber. 

The market would expand if manufacturers could be 
assured of larger supplies. 

India jute, often retailed under the name hemp, is the 
most dangerous competitor of hemp. 



THE SOUTH AMERICAN MEAT INDUSTRY. 

By A. D. Melvin, 
Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry. 

IT is well known that the domestic supply of meat in the 
United States, especially of beef, has in recent years 
shown an alarming decrease, so much so, in fact, that for the 
first time in our history it has become necessary to look to the 
foreign field for relief. Certain distant countries, having 
sparse populations and vast herds and flocks combined with 
abundant natural grazing facilities, have now taken the place 
of the United States as the world's great source of the meat 
surplus. South America and the Australian colonies, partic- 
ularly the former, have in the last decade produced immense 
quantities of beef and mutton for export, and already ship- 
ments have been received in our ports from these places, 
mostly of beef from Argentina, with a probability that the 
trade will soon grow to considerable proportions. In view 
of these fads, and pursuant to the instructions of the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, an investigation of the South American 
meat inspection and meat industry was made by the writer 
in the late summer of 1913, the results of which, together with 
the main facts connected with live-stock conditions and the 
meat trade of the South American countries, are herewith 
given. 

The investigation was undertaken primarily for the purpose 
of ascertaining at first hand whether the meat inspection was 
adequate and whether the conditions under which food ani- 
mals were slaughtered and the meat prepared for export were 
such as would reasonably insure that the product was sound 
and healthful, as is required by our laws. To dispose of this 
point at the outset it may be stated that the official inspection 
of meat for export, as observed at the various establishments 
engaged in this trade, was on the whole satisfactory. Some 
more or less important details, however, were not in accord- 
ance with the practice of the Federal meat inspection as 
administered by this bureau, but in this connection it should 

347 



348 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



be said that the chief of the Argentine Bureau of Animal 
Industry was very desirous of having the inspection brought 
up to a standard satisfactory to the United States Govern- 
ment, and it was stated that a request has been made through 
the Argentine minister at Washington that an inspector of 
this Government be sent to Argentina to instruct the inspec- 
tion authorities there in detail regarding such matters, the 
Argentine Government agreeing to pay his expenses. 

Every f acility and courtesy was extended by the Argentine 
Government in connection with the investigation, free rail- 
road transportation was provided, and a veterinary inspector 
of the Argentine Bureau of Animal Industry, who was familiar 
with English, was detailed to act as guide. 

The Federal Governments of both Argentina and Uruguay 
maintain veterinary inspection at all of the establishments 
exporting fresh meats, the Federal inspection being confined 
to animals and meats intended for export. Municipal abat- 
toirs are maintained very generally at the more important 
South American cities, and local meat supplies are slaught- 
ered at these places under municipal inspection. 

IMPORTS OF POOD ANIMALS AND MEAT PRODUCTS INTO 
THE UNITED STATES. 

The fact that an import trade in food animals and meat- 
food products has already become well established is shown in 
the following statements, compiled from the records of this 
bureau, which cover the operations during six months, from 
October, 1913, to March, 1914. 

Imports of food animals into the United States, October, 1913, to March, 1914. 



Month and country of export. 


Cattle. 


Swine. 


Sheep. 


Goats. 


1913. 
October: 


Number. 

47,442 

80,583 

434 


Number. 
119 
42 


Number. 

40,147 

2,841 

24 


Number. 
41,542 




5 




2 








Total 


128,459 


161 


43,012 


41, 549 






November: 


40,825 

40,030 

2 


410 
182 


27,426 

10,027 

6 


18,793 








2 








Total 


80,857 


592 


37,459 


18, 795 







The South American Meat Industry. 



349 



Imports of food animals into the United States, October, 1913, to March, 1914- 

Continued. 



Month and country of export. 


Cattle. 


Swine. 


Sheep. 


Goats. 


1913. 
December: 


Number. 

69, 544 

14,010 

56 


Number. 

211 

4,241 


Number. 

33, 737 

280 

17 


Number. 
22, 449 




1 




7 








Total 


83,610 


4,452 


34,034 


22, 457 






1914. 

January: 


84,583 
4,264 


82 
8,730 


12, 165 
34 


17, 169 




















Total 


88,847 


8,812 


12,199 


17, 169 






February: 


107, 799 
2,221 


48 
8,189 


1,148 
62 


19,845 




















Total 


110,020 


8,237 


1,210 


19,845 






March: 


33,097 
3,584 


64 
8,192 


2,036 
17 


13, 174 




















Total 


36,681 


8,256 


2,053 


13, 174 







1 The figures for Mexico for March are preliminary and subject to revision. 

Imports of meats and meat food products into the United States, October, 1913. 

to March, 1914. 



Month and country of export. 


Fresh and refriger- 
ated meats. 


Canned 

and 

cured 

meats. 


Other 
products. 


Total. 


Beef. 


Other 
meats. 


1913. 
October: 


Pounds. 

2, 069, 794 

2,337,272 

653,145 

559, 843 

5,357 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 
46,070 
8,809 


Pounds. 
2, 115, 864 




6,900 
2,179 


148, 127 
152,280 


2, 501, 108 




807,604 






559, 843 




9,915 


280 


764 


16, 316 






Total 


5,625,411 


18,994 


300,687 


55,643 


6, 000, 735 







350 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



Imports of meats and meat food products into the United States, October, 191S, 
to March, 1914 — Continued. 



Month and country of export. 



Fresh and refriger- 
ated meats. 



Beef. 



Other 

meats. 



Canned 
and 
cured 

meats. 



Other 
products 



Total. 



1913. 
November: 

Argentina 

Canada 

Australia 

Other countries.. 



Total. 



December: 

Argentina 

Canada 

Australia 

Uruguay 

Other countries.. 



Total. . 



1914. 
January: 

Argentina 

Canada 

Australia 

Uruguay 

Other countries. . . 



Total. 



February: 

Argentina 

Canada 

Australia 

Uruguay 

Other countries.. 



Total. 



March: 1 

Argentina 

Canada 

Australia 

Uruguay 

Other countries. . 



Total.. 



Pounds. 

3, 988, 898 

4,811,998 

1, 681, 156 

27,252 



Pounds. 

10,204 

179, 727 



14,785 



Pounds. 

31,025 
611, 701 
236,382 

18,035 



10,509,304 



204, 716 



897, 143 



9,440,488 

2, 048, 475 

1,286,193 

494,454 

25,417 



237,422 
149,503 

83,868 



130, 176 
357, 178 

484, 774 



347 



105,185 



13,295,027 



471, 140 



1,077,313 



;, 935, 797 
595,011 

1,330,699 
777,033 
148,453 



290,317 
212,320 
418,889 



4,237 



16,600 
251,417 
918,454 
132,978 
110, 054 



12,786,993 



925,763 



1,429,503 



4,346,565 
347,933 
977, 746 

2,401,855 



278, 751 

186,300 

892,225 

5,881 



50,801 

163,974 

671,019 

6,759 

67,402 



8,074,099 



1,363,157 



959, 955 



20,784,393 

540,408 

1,389,877 

5,783,602 



1,663,542 
379,641 

478, 834 

423,804 

11,219 



102,375 
260,941 
717,765 
72,654 
148,422 



28, 498, 280 



2,957,040 



1,302,157 



Pounds. 
63,709 
21,976 



124, 041 



209,726 



546,588 
46,117 



638,275 



1,231,040 



612,990 
41,837 



199,648 



854,475 



222,115 
19,637 



127,323 



369,075 



60,120 

70,873 

21,753 

2,400 

106,016 



261, 162 



Pounds. 

4, 093, 836 

5, 625, 402 

1, 917, 538 

184,113 



11,820,889 



10,354,674 

2,601,273 

1, 854, 895 

494,454 

769,224 



16,074,520 



9, 855, 704 

1,100,585 

3, 668, 042 

910,011 

462,392 



15, 996, 734 



4,619,481 

810,295 

1,835,065 

3,300,839 

200,606 



10, 766, 286 



22,610,430 
1,251,863 
2,608,229 
6,282,460 

. 265,657 



33,018,639 



i The figures for March are preliminary and subject to slight revision. 



The South American Meat Industry. 351 

THE SOUTH AMERICAN EXPORT MEAT TRADE. 

The only South American countries exporting refrigerated 
meats are Argentina and Uruguay. The large exporting 
establishments are situated mostly on the River Plate, and 
the frozen and chilled meats are in most cases loaded directly 
into the ocean steamers. The export trade in refrigerated 
meats owes its beginning and development to the invention 
by a French engineer, Charles Tellier, of a system for pre- 
serving fresh meats by refrigeration during the time required 
for the ocean voyage from South America to Europe. The 
pioneer steamship in this trade, Le FrigoriUque, constructed 
with refrigerating facilities according to the Tellier system, 
made a successful trial voyage with fresh meat from Rouen, 
France, to Buenos Aires in 1876. In the following year this 
vessel and Le Paraguay began the transportation of frozen 
meat from Argentina to Europe under the respective man- 
agement of two French firms, the Tellier and Jullien com- 
panies, which were given a five-year monopoly by the 
Argentine Government. 

Incidentally it may be noted that Tellier, who was known 
as "the father of cold storage," recently died at an advanced 
age in Paris in the utmost poverty, having refused proffered 
assistance. 

In 1883 the frozen-meat industry was definitely established 
in Argentina by the erection of the "Campana" plant, which 
was soon followed by other establishments. 

In 1907 a United States packing firm acquired one of the 
Argentine plants, and four of the large establishments are 
now under United States ownership. English capital is also 
invested in several plants. The competition between the 
United States firms on the one hand and the native or Anglo- 
Argentine on the other is very keen. These establishments 
that prepare and export refrigerated meats are known as 
"frigorificos." There are now 10 in Argentina and 2 in 
Uruguay, as shown in the following list, compiled from the 
report of the Argentine Commission to the recent Cold 
Storage Congress at Chicago. It is understood that two new 
plants in Argentina will soon be in operation also, namely, the 
Union Cold Storage Co., at Zarate, owned by an English firm, 
and the Compania Frigorifico Santiago, at La Plata, owned 
by Armour & Co. 



352 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

South American companies and establishments producing refrigerated meats 

for export. 



Name of company. 


Capital 

stock (gold) 

1912. 


Name of 
establishment. 


Location. 


The River Plate Fresh Meat Co. 

(Ltd.). 
Companfa Sansinena de Carries 

Congeladas. 
Do 


$2,250,000 
4,500,000 




Province of Buenos 




Aires. 
Do. 




Do. 


Do 




Frigorffica Uruguaya.-i Uruguay. 


Las Palmas Produce Co. (Ltd.) — 

Companfa Argentina de Carnes 

Congeladas. 
La Plata Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.). . 


2, 500, 000 
1,500,000 

5,000,000 




Province of Buenos 
Aires. 
Do. 

Uruguay. 


La Blanca 


Montevideo 


The Smithfield and Argentine 
Meat Co. (Ltd.). 

Sociedad An6nima Frigorfflco Ar- 
gentino. 

The New Patagonian Meat Pre- 
serving and Cold Storage Co. 
(Ltd.) (branch of La Plata). 


1,250,000 
2,000,000 
2,608,607 




Aires. 
Do. 


Rio Gallegos 


Patagonia. 
Do. 









Regarding the United States ownership in the above South 
American refrigerating companies, from our present informa- 
tion it may be stated that the two establishments, La Plata 
and Frigorifico Montevideo, the latter in Uruguay, with the 
two branches in Patagonia, are owned by the Swift Company; 
the La Blanca plant is owned by Morris & Co. and Armour & 
Co., and the Frigorifico Argentino has been leased by the 
Sulzberger Company. 

The following table shows the exports of Argentine refrig- 
erated meat since the commencement of the trade. The in- 
crease in chilled beef with a corresponding decline in frozen 
beef exports in recent years shows a growing preference for 
the former. The great bulk of the exports has gone to Eng- 
land. 



YearDooK U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XLVII. 




Fig. 1.— Type of Cattle Slaughtered for the Export Trade. 




Fig. 2 —Young Cattle on a Typical Ranch in the Alfalfa Region. 
ARGENTINE CATTLE. 






Yearbook U. S Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XLVIII. 







1 ?M%, 


i 




JP 


k - - 



Fig. 1.— Beef in an Argentine Frigorifico. 




Fig. 2.— Mutton in an Argentine FrigorIfico. 
EXPORT MEAT IN ARGENTINA. 






Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate XLIX. 




Fig. 1.— Stock Car. 



MBflH 


u 


"' S = '?^^; ,— | ^^^5 


• - — • 





Fig. 2.— Unloading a Train of Cattle from the End Car. 



LIVE-STOCK TRANSPORTATION IN ARGENTINA. 



Yearbook U S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate L. 




Fig. 1.— Loading Beef for Export in Argentina. 




Fig. 2.— Shorthorn Bull at Palermo Stock Show, Argentina. Sold at 
Auction for $35,000 Gold. 



The South American Meat Industry. 
Argentine exports of beef and mutton. 



353 



Year. 


Beef. 


Mutton 
(frozen). 


Year. 


Beef. 


Mutton 


Frozen. 


Chilled. 


Frozen. 


Chilled. 


(frozen). 


1884 


Quarters. 

112 

1,193 

3,702 

2,729 

2,908 

8,110 

1,003 

8,849 

11,824 

52, 105 

3,735 

21,890 

37,420 

53,984 

71, 463 


Quarters. 


Carcasses. 

152,605 

308, 145 

501,885 

C;3,297 

743, 742 

848,277 

070,904 

968,695 

1,206,406 

1, 299, 605 

.1,594,367 

2,022,650 

1,992,304 

2, 155, 169 

2,542,529 


1899 


Quarters. 

113,984 

266,283 

479,372 

735,715 

877,342 

1,018,072 

1,533,745 

1,580,589 

1,403,835 

1,579,163 

1,615,888 

1, 434, 078 

1,693,494 

2,086,780 

978, 498 


Quarters. 


Carcasses. 
2,485,949 
2,385,482 
2, 755, 788 
3,423,285 
3, 427, 783 
3,679,587 
3,346,670 
2,785,908 
2,802,014 
3,297,667 


1885 




1900 




1886 




1901 


24,919 

94,498 

142,542 

198,300 

426,002 

455,459 

849, 613 

789,348 

1,071,474 

1,608,608 

2,131,791 

2, 269, 474 

1,384,085 


18S7 




1902 


1888 




1903 


1889 


'X 


1904 


1890... 


1905 


1891 




1906 


1892 




1907 


1893 




1908 


1894 




1909 


2,723,870 
2,843,676 
3,497,639 
3,266,755 
968,007 


1895 




1910 


1896 




1911 


1897 




1912 


1898 




1913 (6 mos.). 









The following tables show the exports in detail of food 
animals and meat food products from Argentina in 1912; 
also the destination of the principal items as officially re- 
ported by the Argentine Government : 

Exports of food animals and meat food products from Argentina in 1912. 



Item. 


Quantity. 


Value 
(gold).i 


Live animals: 
Cattle 




261,416 

104,898 

7 

9 

342,851 

70, 175 

2,582 

632 

8,824 

15,661 

658 

17,699 

612 

3,374 

3 

6,264 

75,556 


$9,140,080 




do.... 


314,694 




do.... 


17 




do.... 


270 


Meat food products: 




34,285,076 




do.... 

do.... 


5,613,971 
2,111,177 




do.... 


189,523 




do.... 

do.... 


1, 400, 748 
1,017,992 




do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


197, 433 
1,769,882 
1,223,860 




do.... 


1,349,557 




do.... 


657 




do.... 

do.... 


939,534 
11,314,728 












70,869,199 









i Argentine gold peso equals $0.9647 United States. 
-ybk 1913 23 



354 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

Destination of principal meat food exports from Argentina in 191t. 



Item. 


United 
King- 
dom. 


Italy. 


Bel- 
gium. 


France. 


United 
States. 


Uru- 
guay. 


Brazil. 


Cattle 






15,689 

15, 738 

9,522 

70 

277 








90,025 
37,304 


72,103 
13,888 


Sheep 


do.... 




22,785 

25 

11 

936 






Beef 


tons.. 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


303,099 

69,534 

176 

40 

29,771 


192 

405 

252 

19 

4,368 












Pork 

Dried beef 


679 

301 

1,210 




6 
1,913 
1,037 


Oleo stock 


5,096 


3,787 



The total value of all exports of animals and animal 
products from Argentina in 1912 as given in the report 
referred to was $188,215,926 gold, an increase of $19,821,223 
compared with 1911. This total includes, however, not 
only food animals and meat food products, but various 
other animals and products, such as horses, hides, wool, 
leather, and sundry other inedible products. 

PRICES OF ARGENTINE EXPORT CATTLE AND MEAT. 

In September, 1913, cattle in Argentina that would 
dress about 800 to 820 pounds were selling on the hoof at 
$70 to $80 gold, with freight. This grade of Argentine beef, 
which is of very high quality, was selling in England for 
from 8 to 9 cents a pound wholesale. The London quota- 
tions of October 10, 1913, for South American dressed beef 
ranged from 6 J to 11 cents a pound for chilled beef and Q\ 
to 8£ cents for frozen beef. Besides the price received for 
the meat there is a considerable return from the hide and 
offal, and since the entrance of American packers into the 
South American trade these by-products are being carefully 
prepared and utilized. 

A very high quality of mutton is also produced in Argen- 
tina, but at this time shipments were scarce, on account of 
the floods which were quite prevalent in sections of the 
Province of Buenos Aires and farther south. London quo- 
tations for South American mutton October 10 were 8 to 8$ 
cents a pound. An idea of the quality of the Argentine export 
meat maybe gained from Plates XL VII and XL VIII, although 
in regard to the cattle it may be said that those slaughtered 



The South American Meat Industry. 355 

for the refrigerated trade are frequently in fatter condition 
than is seen in the illustration. 

The relative prices of Argentine beef and mutton on the 
London market on October 10, 1913, as compared with the 
prices of high-grade meat in the principal markets of the 
United States and Europe at about the same date were as 
follows : 

Wholesale prices per pound of beef and mutton in October, 1913. 

BEEF. 

Chicago: Cents. 

Good native steers sides. . 12|~13J 

New York: 

Choice native heavy do 13J-14 

London: 

English beef do 11J-13 

South American chilled hinds. . 10-11 

Do fores. . 6J-7 

South American frozen hinds. . 8£-8J 

Do fores.. 6J 

Berlin: 

Fat oxen sides. . 19J-20J 

Paris: 

Beef hinds. . 9f-15J 

Do fores. . 6J-10I 

MUTTON. 

Chicago: 

Good sheep carcass. . 9$ 

New York: 

Choice sheep do 10 

London: 

English wethers do 13-15J 

South American frozen do 8-8J 

Berlin: 

Fat wethers do 18-20 

Paris: 

First quality do. .. . 20-21 

THE QUARANTINE STATION FOR IMPORTED LIVE STOCK 
AT BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA. 

The quarantine yards for imported live stock were visited 
on August 21, 1913. The station is situated alongside the 
docks. Government attendants unload the animals, which 
remain under their supervision and care until released from 
quarantine. Cattle are held in quarantine 30 days, sheep 
15 days, and hogs 3 days from the time of landing. Neither 



356 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

the owners nor any of their attendants are permitted within 
the quarantine premises. All temporary fittings upon the 
steamers are burned. Cattle are submitted to the tuber- 
culin test and horses to the mallein test and all animals to 
a daily veterinary inspection. After unloading, all animals 
are submitted to external disinfection. Sheep are shorn and 
disinfected before being released from quarantine. Eleven 
camels were in quarantine at the time, having been im- 
ported from the Canary Islands to determine by experiment 
whether they may be used as beasts of burden in certain 
arid regions of the Eepublic. 

LA TABLADA SHEEP YARDS 

On August 25, 1 91 3, a visit was paid to the sheep stock yards 
at La Tablada, about 1 2 miles from Buenos Aires. The aver- 
age daily receipts are said to be about 7,000, although as high 
as 40,000 have been received in a single day. The receipts 
on the day of the visit were very light, being about 1,680, 
and had been disposed of before my arrival. Last year 
4,500,000 sheep were received and during the first six months 
of this year 1,200,000 were handled. Veterinary inspection 
is maintained at these yards and a dipping vat is provided 
for treating infected and exposed sheep. Sheep that are to 
be removed to the country for feeding having been found 
scabby must be dipped twice at a cost of 15 cents (paper) 
per head each time, or the owner must pay a fine of 50 cents 
per head, submit to one dipping, and then sell the sheep for 
slaughter. These provisions apply in case a herd is found 
with over 5 per cent with scab. In case a less percentage is 
found the remedies are left to the discretion of the bureau. 
Scabies appears in the most aggravating form in the Lincoln 
breed, which is considered more susceptible to this disease 
than other breeds. Sheep are ordinarily transported in 
double-decked cars which do not have a roof. Sheep are 
bought in these yards for both local markets and frigorificos. 

THE VETERINARY COLLEGE OF THE ARGENTINE 
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY. 

This school, which is located at La Plata, Argentina, was 
visited on August 26, 1913. Each student must take certain 
prescribed courses, which include dairying and animal hus- 
bandry. There are no electives. In the four years a course 



The South American Meat Industry, 357 

in meat inspection is given. In general the various subjects 
are taught in separate buildings. The equipment is modern 
and apparently sufficient. A large clinic is also maintained, 
there being on hand at the time of our visit 60 patients. The 
school is under the direction of Dr. C. Griffin, an Argentinian, 
educated at home. Eighty students now attend. The 
writer was informed that there was another veterinary school 
in Argentina, near Buenos Aires, and also one at Monte- 
video, Uruguay, but it was impossible to arrange time to visit 
them. 

TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE TO THE FRIGORIFICOS. 

The cattle slaughtered in the frigorificos are usually shipped 
directly from the ranches to the establishments in trainload 
lots. The railroads make a minimum charge for a train of 
20 cars of cattle, whether the train contains that many cars 
or not. Small lots of cattle which may go to public markets 
are charged for by the car and shipped in with other freight. 

Cattle cars are arranged with the doors in the ends. In 
loading and unloading the train is backed up to the platform 
and the animals pass in and out at the end of the rear car and 
through that to and from other cars, the ends being arranged 
so as to open toward each other in the form of vestibules, allow- 
ing continuous passage from oneendof the train to the other. 
Some of the cars are covered and some are not. They hold an 
average of about 17 fat cattle. The style of the cars and the 
method of unloading cattle are illustrated in Plate XLIX. 

ARGENTINE CATTLE AND PASTURES. 

Nearly all of the cattle slaughtered in the frigorificos are 
either raised upon alfalfa pastures or are brought in from 
native grass pastures and finished on alfalfa. These cattle 
as a rule are highly bred, the principal breeds being the Dur- 
ham (Shorthorn), Hereford, and Polled Angus, ranking 
numerically in the order named. As a rule these alfalfa pas- 
tures will maintain the year round one adult steer upon 2| 
acres of land, while in the fattening period this is increased 
to 3 to 3 1 acres. Usually no other feed is used to supplement 
the alfalfa pastures except in occasional times of drought or 
invasion of locusts, although some owners are beginning to 
finish their cattle on corn. With some cattle growers it is 
the practice to turn cattle for a short period on the native 



358 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

grass pastures rather than keep them constantly on the 
alfalfa pastures, as they believe this is beneficial. 

Alf alfa is not being grown nearly as extensively as it could 
be. The extension of its growth will depend very largely 
upon the prices that the cattle raisers receive for their cattle. 
Because of present satisfactory prices the tendency now is 
to convert the grain lands into alfalfa pastures. As cattle 
raising is a much more certain enterprise than grain growing, 
the people prefer to raise cattle when the prices are remu- 
nerative. 

A visit was made to two large ranches in Argentina, namely, 
the establishment of Mr. Robert Murphy, "La Anita Ran- 
cho," at Cambaceres, in the Province of Buenos Aires, and 
that of Mr. James P. Cavanagh, at La Chispa, in Santa Fc 
Province. The illustration in Plate XLVII shows the nature 
of the land and the character of the cattle raised on these 
ranches, which are in the alfalfa district of Argentina. These 
ranches are typical of the establishments of the progressive 
cattle raisers. 

Argentina for many years has been importing the best 
breeding cattle and sheep from Great Britain, and to-day has 
some of the finest types in the world. A visit was made to 
the National Live Stock Show at Palermo given by the Argen- 
tine Rural Society, also the fair at Rosario given by the Rural 
Society of the Province of Santa Fe. At Palermo the entries 
comprised 2,438 animals, including 1,334 cattle, 270 horses, 
672 sheep, 151 swine, and 11 goats, besides 882 fowls. Most 
of the animals were pedigreed stock. A splendid example 
of the animals exhibited at Palermo is shown in Plate L, 
fig. 2. In order to avoid any possibility of favoritism, the 
judges for the show at Palermo were all brought from Europe 
for the special purpose of judging at this show. 

It is the practice in Argentina for cattle growers to pay 
their taxes upon cattle at the time of selling them. This 
seems to be a fairer arrangement than to require stock owners 
to pay the tax on growing cattle from year to year. 



The South American Meat Industry. 359 

ANIMAL DISEASES IN ARGENTINA. 

Coccidiosis 1 and actinobacillosis 2 are quite common dis- 
eases among live stock in Argentina, and foot-and-mouth 
disease is also common, at some periods extending over a 
large section of the country. Tuberculosis is not prevalent 
except among dairy cows, work oxen, and bulls. Screw 
worms are a very common affliction and require close atten- 
tion during the summer months. The bloating of cattle 
from alfalfa is not considered a very serious menace, most 
ranches keeping rock salt available for the cattle at all times 
and some placing this in their drinking troughs . When bloat- 
ing occurs, the usual relief is furnished by puncturing the 
rumen with a long sheath knife, which all "gauchos" (cow- 
boys) carry in the belt. 

URUGUAY. 

Uruguay has a good grade of cattle, but in general they are 
not equal to those in the alfalfa region of Argentina. The 
country, although very small in comparison with the neigh- 
boring Republics of Argentina and Brazilj nevertheless has 
an area of 72,210 square miles, a large proportion of which is 
well watered and naturally suited for stock raising, which is 
the principal industry. Furthermore, the southern part of 
the country is bounded by the River Plate, upon the other 
shore of which is Argentina, and in this vicinity are situated 
most of the great meat packing and exporting establishments. 
The Uruguayan Government, also, has in recent years been 
making a determined bid for a share of the export trade. It 
is therefore highly probable that the production of meat for 
the foreign trade will increase both in quantity and quality. 
Some examples of improved animals are seen in Plates LI, 
LII, and LIII. 

1 Coccidiosis is an infection of the intestinal tract by minute animal parasites known as 
coccidia. 

2 Actinobacillosis is a disease with lesions somewhat similar in appearance to those of 
lumpy jaw (actinomycosis). It is caused by a bacillus, while actinomycosis is caused by a 
fungus. 



360 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



The following tables show the extent of the Uruguayan 
meat trade for a series of years : 

Animals slaughtered and meat produced at frigorificos in Uruguay. 



Year. 


Cattle. 


Sheep. 


[ 

Frozen j Frozen 

beef, i mutton. 


Other 
frozen 
meats. 


1905 


3,982 
4,093 
12,104 
21,856 
26, 711 
34, 127 
23, 231 
68,481 
69,512 


72, 421 
93, 689 
117, 400 
143, 099 
150, 358 
241,418 
288,465 
333, 544 
258,094 


Kilos. 
1,006,717 
1, 066, 352 
3,170,248 
. 5, 749, 128 
6,973,571 
8,634,888 


Kilos. 
1, 644, 158 
2, 154, 743 
2, 873, 722 
3,205,419 
3,353,005 
5,552,783 


Kilos. 
98, 773 


1906 


118, 465 


1907 


209,837 
318, 260 
367,623 
500,754 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 




1912 








1913 (first half) 


1 1 




1 ! ' 



CURED OR SALTED BEEF ("TASAJO"). 

South American countries produce and export considerable 
quantities of cured or salted beef, known as "tasajo" or 
"jerked beef," much of which goes to Central America and 
Cuba. As an example of the importance of this industry, 
statistics of cattle slaughtered at the "saladeros" (salting 
establishments) of Uruguay are given in the following table: 

Cattle slaughtered at Uruguayan saladeros. 



Cattle. 



Year. 


Cattle. 


Year. 


Cattle. 


Year. 


Cattle. 


Year. 


1892 


480,200 


1898 


496, 700 


1904 


685,400 


1910 


1893 


877, 400 


1899 


684,300 


1905 


440,800 


1911 


1894 


640,500 


1900.- 


597, 500 


1906 


550,000 


1912 


1895 


712,200 


1901 


512,000 


1907 


548,800 


1913 (first 


1896 


518,900 


1902 


557, 500 


1908 


467, 400 


half).... 


1897 . 


570, 400 


1903 


544, 600 


1909 


544,900 





446,600 
577,31 

178,274 



BRAZIL. 

In Brazil observations were made in the cities of Sao 
Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Santos, and also on a cattle ranch 
in the interior. 

The cattle of Brazil are not of such good quality as those 
of Argentina and Uruguay, and the stock is largely mixed 



Yearoook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate LI. 




Fig. 1 .—Shorthorn Bull. 




Fig. 2.— Hereford Bull. 
PRIZE CATTLE AT STOCK SHOW IN URUGUAY. 






Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate Lll. 




Fig 1.— Prize Aberdeen-Angus Calf. 




Fig. 2.— Champion Middle White Yorkshire Boar. 
LIVE STOCK IN URUGUAY. 






Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 


Plate Llll. 


C^k. 






A - 








pfr 


''^^^* 






- 4.*T 

■ 




PRIZE SHEEP AT STOCK SHOW IN URUGUAY. 



Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 



Plate LIV. 




Fig. 1 .—Brazilian Cattle for Slaughter at Municipal Abattoir, Sao Paulo, 

Brazil. 





1 — 










, ,- - 


/ 




- 


. 


m 






/ 1 

1 
















i^t 





Fig. 2.— Shorthorn Bulls Imported from the United States by the Brazil 
Land, Cattle, and Packing Company. 



CATTLE IN BRAZIL. 



The South American Meat Industry. 361 

with the zebu or East Indian cattle. This zebu strain is very 
readily seen in most of the Brazilian cattle, and may be ob- 
served in some of the animals shown in Plate LIV, figure 1. 

The ranch referred to is owned by the Brazil Land, Cattle & 
Packing Co., and is situated in the Province of Parana. This 
company has imported several hundred pure-bred Shorthorn 
and Hereford bulls and cows for the purpose of improving 
its cattle. These imported cattle were all immunized against 
Texas fever before leaving the United States, but besides this 
disease, which exists in Brazil as in the southern part of the 
United States, there is also said to be prevalent another dis- 
ease very similar to Texas fever, known as anaplasmosis, 
which is also caused by a blood parasite transmitted by ticks. 
The immunization that the cattle received against Texas 
fever was not sufficient to protect them also against this other 
disease. Foot-and-mouth disease has also been quite preva- 
lent at different times in Brazil. The imported cattle seem to 
have regained their vigor and are now in thriving condition. 
Some of the cattle on this ranch are shown in Plate LIV, 
figure 2. 

There is no Federal me,at inspection in Brazil, and no fresh 
meat is exported. The more important cities, however, 
have municipal abattoirs with inspection. At these abattoirs 
the owners of live stock are required to pay fees for slaughter 
and inspection. The municipality owns the abattoir and 
employs the butchers and inspectors. Rio de Janeiro has a 
fine municipal abattoir, recently completed, at which all of 
the slaughtering for the city is done. 

Incidentally, there was seen at Sao Paulo the Government 
institute where snake venom is prepared for the treatment of 
persons bitten by venomous snakes. 

PARAGUAY. 

Paraguay exports no cattle or fresh meats. It has several 
"saladeros" (salting establishments producing "tasajo" or 
"jerked beef") and one extract and canning establishment. 
There is a good prospect of its becoming a cattle country 
for the grosser breeds of cattle. 



362 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

STEAMSHIP TRANSPORTATION TO SOUTH AMERICA. 

There is but one steamship company plying between 
Argentina and New York, namely, the Lamport & Holt 
Line, which at present has five vessels with a biweekly 
service. Two of these vessels are now equipped with 
refrigerator beef boxes, and it is understood that some of 
the others are to be likewise equipped. It was also said 
that this line would shortly acquire three vessels from the 
Nelson Line which are already equipped with refrigerators 
and which have been plying between South America and 
England. 

Since many of the trans-Atlantic steamers are already 
equipped with refrigerator boxes, it would be very easy to 
supply United States markets with South American meats 
by transshipment by way of England, although this would 
probably call for a somewhat higher rate than direct ship- 
ments to the United States. 

During 1912-13, according to the report of the Argentine 
Commission to the International Refrigeration Congress, 
there were 91 steamships equipped with refrigerating 
facilities and engaged in transporting chilled and frozen 
meat from Argentina to England. These ships have a 
storage capacity approximating 20,000,000 cubic feet, 
which is equivalent to space for between 300,000,000 and 
400,000,000 pounds of meat. 

Freight on the refrigerator steamers from Argentina to 
England is about 1 cent a pound. 

THE SUPPLY OF CATTLE AND SHEEP IN SOUTH AMERICA. 

The latest authentic statistics of the number of cattle and 
sheep in the principal stock-raising countries of South 
America are as follows : 



Country. 



Cattle. 



Sheep. 



Argentina (1908 census). 

Argentina (1912) 

Uruguay (1908 census) . . 

Brazil (estimated) 

Paraguay (estimated) . . . 



29,116,625 

29,016,000 

8, 192, 602 

25,000,000 

5 ,500, 000 



67,211,754 

» 80, 401, 486 

26,286,296 



214,060 



1 The estimate for sheep is for 1911. 



The South American Meat Industry. 



363 



For comparison the number of cattle and sheep in certain 
other countries of the world is given below: „ 



Country. 



Gallic. 



Sheep. 



North America: 

United States (1913).... 

Canada (1912) 

Mexico (1902) 

Europe: 

United Kingdom (1912) 

France (1911) 

Germany (1912) 

Australasia: 

Australia (1911) 

New Zealand (1911).... 



58,386/000 : 51,873,000 
7,103,702 I 2,393,950 
5,142,457 j 3,424,430 



11,909,469 
14, 552, 430 
20, 158, 738 

11,358,977 
2,020,171 



28,951,469 
16,425,330 

5,787,848 

92,897,368 
23,996,126 



The proportion of cattle to population in various countries 
is shown in the following table: 

Proportion of cattle to population and estimated surplus in principal 

coun ries. ' 



Country. 



Population. 


Cattle per 

head of 
population. 


7, 123, 663 


4.04 


1,094,686 


7.48 


21,580,000 


1.16 


800,000 


6.87 


95,410,503 


.61 


7,204,772 


.99 


15,063,207 


.34 


45,365,599 


.26 


39,601,509 


.37 


64,925,993 


.31 


4,918,707 


2.31 


1,021,066 


1.97 



Approxi- 
mate 
annual sur- 
plus (+) or 

deficiency 
(-)'■ 



South America: 

Argentina (1910) 

Uruguay (1908) 

Brazil (estimated) 

Paraguay (estimated) . . . 
North America: 

United States (1912) 

Canada (1911) 

Mexico (1910) 

Europe: 

United Kingdom (1911). 

Trance (1911) 

Germany (1910) 

Australasia: 

Australia (1911) 

New Zealand (1911) 



+4,739,596 
+ 1,482,126 
+1,917,000 
+ 985, 700 

-1,952,872 
+ 392,487 
- 477,830 

-4,098,906 
-1,049,665 
-2,460,851 

+1,569,123 
+ 112,300 



i This column is calculated on the basis of an annual increase of 20 per cent on the total cattle 
in each country, and on an annual allowance for home consumption of one-seventh of an 
animal per capita for all countries except Mexico, France, and Germany, for which the 
allowance is reduced to one-tenth. 

THE FUTURE SUPPLY IN SOUTH AMERICA. 

During the early part of the year there was considerable 
discussion in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil regarding the 
slaughtering of cows and calves and its effect in decreasing 



364 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

the number of cattle. Many suggested that the slaughter of 
cows and calves be prohibited by law in order that the num- 
ber of cattle might be increased. Several statements ap- 
peared in the press that Argentina and Uruguay had passed 
laws prohibiting the slaughter of female cattle. It appears, 
however, that this was not correct, but the subject was con- 
sidered by the legislature of Argentina, and a committee was 
appointed by the Rural Society to investigate the matter. 
This committee reported that the increase in price which 
stock raisers were receiving for their cattle had produced 
the effect of stopping the slaughter of female cattle. On 
account of this increase in the price of cattle many are now 
converting the grain lands into alfalfa pasture lands as a 
means for increasing the number of cattle. No action was 
taken by the legislature, as it was believed that trade condi- 
tions would regulate the matter. 

The export duty on live cattle from Uruguay was increased 
so as to avoid any depletion of the herds of that country. 

In the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, the legislature passed a 
law placing an export tax upon female cattle shipped out of 
that State, but providing that when such cattle were replaced 
by pure-bred cattle the tax was very much less. 

While statistics show that Argentina is already slaughter- 
ing up to the limit of its present stock of cattle, that country 
has such great resources for cattle raising that it is easily 
possible for the stock raisers to bring about a large increase 
in the meat output if present prices are maintained, which, 
with the opening of the United States market, seems very 
probable. 

The absence of American banks in these South American 
countries, and the lack of an American line of steamers, are 
handicaps to commerce between the United States and 
South America. The establishment of such banking and 
transportation facilities would probably be strong factors in 
promoting closer trade relations. 

The author wishes to acknowledge the courtesy and 
assistance received from Hon. John W. Garrett, minister to 
Argentina, and Mr. Bartleman, Dr. Goding, and Mr. Lay, 
consular officers of the United States stationed, respectively, 
at Buenos Aires, Montevideo, and Rio de Janeiro. 



APPENDIX. 



AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES IN THE UNITED STATES.' 

College instruction in agriculture is given in the colleges and universities receiving 
the benefits of the acts of Congress of July 2, 1862, August 30, 1890, and March 4, 
1907, which are now in operation in all the States and Territories except Alaska. 
The total number of these institutions is 68, of which 65 maintain courses of instruc- 
tion in agriculture. In 23 States the agricultural colleges are departments of the 
State universities. In 16 States and Territories separate institutions having courses 
in agriculture are maintained for the colored race. All of the agricultural colleges 
for white persons and several of those for negroes offer four-year courses in agriculture 
and its related sciences leading to bachelors' degrees, and many provide for graduate 
study. About 60 of these institutions also provide special, short, or correspondence 
courses in the different branches of agriculture, including agronomy, horticulture, 
animal husbandry, poultry raising, cheese making, dairying, sugar making, rural 
engineering, farm mechanics, and other technical subjects. Officers of the agri- 
cultural colleges engage quite largely in conducting farmers' institutes and various 
other forms of college extension. The agricultural experiment stations, with very 
few exceptions, are departments of the agricultural colleges. The total number of 
persons engaged in the work of education and research in the land-grant colleges and 
the experiment stations in 1913 was 7,651, the number of students (white) in interior 
courses in the colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts, 47,216; the total number of 
students in the whole institutions, 88,408 ; 2 the number of students (white) in the 
four-year college courses in agriculture, 12,462; the total number of students in the 
institutions for negroes, 8,561, of whom 1,795 were enrolledin agricultural courses. 
With a few exceptions, each of these colleges offers free tuition to residents of the 
State in which it is located. In the excepted cases scholarships are open to promising 
and energetic students, and in all opportunities are found for some to earn part of 
their expenses by their own labor. The expenses are from $125 to $300 for the school 
year. 



Agricultural colleges in the United States. 



State or Territory. 


Name of institution. 


Location. 


President. 




Alabama Polytechnic Institute 

Agricultural School of the Tuskegee 

Normal and Industrial Institute. 
Agricultural and Mechanical College 

for Negroes. 




C. C. Thach. 




Tuskegee Institute 


B. T. "Washington. 






Arthur H. Wilde. 




College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Arkansas. 








PineBiuft 


F. T. Venegar. 




College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of California. 

The State Agricultural College of 
Colorado. 

Connecticut Agricultural College 




T. F. Hunt. 3 




Fort Collins 


C. A. Lory. 




C. L. Beach. 






G. A. Harter. 




State College for Colored Students. . . 

College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Florida. 

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical 
College for Negroes. 

Georgia State College of Agriculture. - 

Georgia State Industrial College. . . . 




W. C. Jason. 












N. B. Young. 






A. M. Soule. 






R. R. Wright. 


Hawaii 


Honolulu 


J. S. Donaghho.* 



* Including only institutions established under the land-grant act of July 2, 1862. 

* Not including students in correspondence courses and extension schools. 
8 Dean. 

* Acting president. 



365 



366 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

Agricultural colleges in the United States — Continued. 



State or Territory. 



Name of institution. 



Idaho.. - 
Illinois.. 
Indiana . 
Iowa 



Kansas 

Kentucky. 



Louisiana. 



Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota.... 

Mississippi... 
Missouri 



Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 
New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina.. 

North Dakota... 
Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania... 
Porto Rico 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina . . 



South Dakota. 
Tennessee 



College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Idaho. 

College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. 

School of Agriculture of Purdue 
University. 

Iowa State College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts. 

Kansas State Agricultural College . . . 

The College of Agriculture of the 
State University. 

The Kentucky Normal and Indus- 
trial Institute for Colored Persons. 

Louisiana State University and Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College. 

Southern University and Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical College of 
the State of Louisiana. 

College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Maine. 

Maryland Agricultural College 

Princess Anne Academy, Eastern 
Branch of the Maryland Agricul- 
tural College. 

Massachusetts Agricultural College. . 

Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology^ 

Michigan Agricultural College 

College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota. 

Mississippi Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College. 

Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical 
College. 

College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Missouri. 

School of Mines and Metallurgy of 
the University of Missouri. 2 

Lincoln Institute 

Montana State College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts. 

College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska. 

College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Nevada. 

New Hampshire College of Agricul- 
ture and the Mechanic Arts. 

Rutgers Scientific School (the New 
Jersey State College for the Benefit 
of Agriculture arid the Mechanic 
Arts). 

New Mexico College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts. 

New York State College of Agricul- 
ture. 

The North Carolina College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic Arte. 

The Agricultural and Mechanical 
College for the Colored Race. 

North Dakota Agricultural College. . 

College of Agriculture of Ohio State 
University. 

Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechan- 
ical College. 

Agricultural and Normal University. 

Oregon State Agricultural College. .. 

The Pennsylvania State College 

College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Porto Rico. 

Rhode Island State College 

The Clemson Agricultural College of 
South Carolina. 

The Colored Normal, Industrial, 
Agricultural, and Mechanical Col- 
lege of South Carolina. 

South Dakota State College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic Arts. 

College of Agriculture, University of 
Tennessee. 



Location. 



Moscow 

Urbana 

La Fayette 

Ames 



Manhattan 

Lexington 

Frankfort 

Baton Rouge. 



Scotland Heights, 
Baton Rouge. 



College Park... 
Princess Anne . 



Amherst . 
Boston... 



East Lansing 

University Farm, St. 

Paul. 
Agricultural College. . 



Alcorn 

Columbia. 
Rolla 



Jefferson City. 
Bozeman 



Lincoln 

Reno 

Durham 

New Brunswick. 



State College. 
Ithaca 



West Raleigh 

Greensboro 

Agricultural College 
Columbus 

Stillwater 

Langston 

Corvallis 

State College 

Mayaguez 

Kingston 

Clemson College 

Orangeburg 

Brookings 

Knoxville 



President. 



W. L. Carlyle.' 

E. Davenport.' 

J. H. Skinner.' 

R. A. Pearson. 

H. J. Waters. 
J. H. Kastle.' 

G. P. Russell. 

T. D. Boyd. 

J. S. Clark. 

R. J. Aley. 

H. J. Patterson. 
T. H. Kiah. 

K. L. Butterfleld. 
R. C. Maclaurin. 

J. L. Snyder. 

A. F. Woods.' 

G. R. Hightower. 
J. A. Martin. 

F. B. Mumford.' 
L. E. Young.' 

B. F. Allen. 
•Jas. M. Hamilton. 

E. A. Burnett.! . 

J. E. Stubbs. 

E. T. Fairchild, , 

W. II. S. Demarest. 

George E. Ladd. 
W. A. Stocking, jr.* 

D. H. Hill. 

J. B. Dudley. 

J. H. Worst. 
H. C. Price.' 

J. H. Connell. 

I. E. Page. 
W. J. Kerr. 
Edwin E. Sparks. 
R. I. Smith.* 

Howard Edwards. 
W. M. Riggs. 

E. S. Wilkinson. 

G. L. Browni* 
Brown Ayres. 



1 Dean. 3 Does not maintain courses in agriculture. 3 Director. * Acting dean. 5 Acting president. 



Agricultural Experiment Stations. 
Agricultural colleges in the United States — Continued. 



367 



State or Territory. 


Name of institution. 


Location. 


President. 




Agricultural and Mechanical College 
of Texas. 

Prairie View State Normal and In- 
dustrial College. 

The Agricultural College of Utah 

College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Vermont. 

The Virginia Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College and Polytechnic 
Institute. 

The Hampton Normal and Agricul- 
tural Institute. 

State College of Washington 

College of Agriculture of West Vir- 
ginia University. 

The West Virginia Colored Institute. 

College of Agriculture of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. 

College of Agriculture, University of 
Wyoming. 


College Station 


Charles Puryear. 1 


Utah 






Vermont 




J L Hills 2 






J. D. Eggleston. 
H. B. Frissell. 






Washington 






West Virginia 
















H. L. Russell 2 















i Acting president. 2 Dean. 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 
THEIR LOCATIONS AND DIRECTORS. 



^E. H.Jenkins. 



Alabama (College), Auburn: J. F. Duggar. 
Alabama (Canebrake), Uniontown: L. H. Moore. 
Alabama (Tuskegee), Tuskegee Institute: G. W. 

Carver. 
Alaska, Sitka (Rampart, Kodiak, and Fairbanks): 

C. C. Georgeson. 3 
Arizona, Tucson: R. H. Forbes. 
Arkansas, Fayetteville: Martin Nelson. 
California, Berkeley: T. F. Hunt. 
Colorado, Fort Collins: C. P. Gillette. 
Connecticut (State), New Haven) 

Connecticut (Storrs), Storrs j 

Delaware, Newark: Harry Hayward. 

Florida, Gainesville: P. H. Rolfs. 

Georgia, Experiment: R. J. H. DeLoach. 

Guam: 2 J. B. Thompson. 1 

Hawaii (Federal), Honolulu: B. V. Wilcox." 

Hawaii (Sugar Planters'), Honolulu: H. P. Agee. 

Idaho, Moscow: W. L. Carlyle. 

Illinois, Urbana: E. Davenport. 

Indiana, La Fayette: Arthur Goss. 

Iowa, Ames: C. F^ Curtiss. 

Kansas, Manhattan: W. M. Jardine. 

Kentucky, Lexington: J. H. Kastle. 

Louisiana (Sugar), New Orleans! 

Louisiana (State), Baton Rouge 

t • • )tt «.! o 1,. f w - R - Dodson. 

Louisiana (North), Calhoun 

Louisiana (Rice); Crowley J 

Maine, Orono: C. D. Woods. 
Maryland, College Park: H. J. Patterson. 
Massachusetts, Amherst: W. P. Brooks. 
Michigan, East Lansing: R. S. Shaw. 
Minnesota, University Farm, St. Paul: 

Woods. 
Mississippi, Agricultural College: E. R. Lloyd 

1 Special agent in charge. ' Address: Island of 



A. F. 



Missouri (College), Columbia: F. B. Mumford. 

Missouri (Fruit), Mountain Grove: Paul Evans. 

Montana, Bozeman: F. B. Linfleld. 

Nebraska, Lincoln: E..A. Burnett. 

Nevada, Reno: S. B. Doten. 

New Hampshire, Durham: J. C. Kendall. 

New Jersey (State), New Brunswick] 

New Jersey(College),New Brunswick} J - G - Li P man - 

New Mexico, State College: Fabian Garcia. 

New York (State), Geneva: W. H. Jordan. 

New York (Cornell), Ithaca: W. A. Stocking, jr.' 

North Carolina (College), West Raleigh) B. W. Kil- 

North Carolina (State), Raleigh | gore. 

North Dakota, Agricultural College: T.P.Cooper. 
Ohio, Wooster: C. E. Thorne. 
Oklahoma, Stillwater: L. L. Lewis.' 

Oregon, Corvallis: . 

Pennsylvania, State College: R. L. Watts. 
Pennsylvania (Institute of Animal Nutrition), 

State College: H. P. Armsby. 
Porto Rico (Federal), Mayaguez: D. W. May.' 
Porto Rico (Sugar), Rio Piedras: J. T. Crawley. 
Rhode Island, Kingston: B. L. Hartwell. 
South Carolina, Clemson College: J. N. Harper. 
South Dakota, Brookings: J. W. Wilson. 
Tennessee, Knoxville: H. A. Morgan. 
Texas, College Station: B. Youngblood. 
Utah, Logan: E. D. Ball. 
Vermont, Burlington: J. L. Hills. 
Virginia (College), Blacksburg: S. W. Fletcher. 
Virginia (Truck), Norfolk: T. C. Johnson. 
Washington, Pullman: I. D. Cardiff. 
West Virginia, Morgantown: E. D. Sanderson. 
Wisconsin, Madison: H. L. Russell. 
Wyoming, Laramie: H. G. Knight. 
Guam, via San Francisco. » Acting director. 



368 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

STATE OFFICIALS IN CHARGE OF AGRICULTURE. 



Alabama: Commissioner of Agriculture, Mont- 
gomery. 

Alaska: Special Agent in Charge of Experiment 
Stations, Sitka. 

Arizona: Director of Experiment Station, Tucson. 

Arkansas: Commissioner of Agriculture, Little 
Rock. 

California: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Sacramento. 

Colorado: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Fort Collins. 

Connecticut: Secretary of State Board of Agricul- 
ture, Hartford. 

Delaware: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Dover. 

Florida: Commissioner of Agriculture, Tallahassee. 

Georgia: Commissioner of Agriculture, Atlanta. 

Hawaii: Secretary of Territorial Board of Agricul- 
ture, Honolulu. 

Idaho: Commissioner of Immigration, Labor, and 
Statistics, Boise. 

Illinois: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Springfield. 

Indiana: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Indianapolis. 

Iowa: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, Des 
Moines. 

Kansas: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Topeka. 

Kentucky: Commissioner of Agriculture, Frank- 
fort. 

Louisiana: Commissioner of Agriculture, Baton 
Rouge. 

Maine: Commissioner of Agriculture, Augusta. 

Maryland: Director of Experiment Station, College 
Park. 

Massachusetts: Secretary of State Board of Agri- 
culture, Boston. 

Michigan: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
East Lansing. 

Minnesota: Secretary of State Agricultural Society, 
St. Paul. 

Mississippi: Commissioner of Agriculture, Jackson. 

Missouri: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Columbia. 

Montana: Commissioner of Agriculture, Helena. 



Nebraska: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Lincoln. 

Nevada: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Carson City. 

New Hampshire: Secretary of State Board of Agri- 
culture, Concord. 

New Jersey: Secretary of State Board of Agricul- 
ture, Trenton. 

New Mexico: Director of Experiment Station, 
Agricultural College. 

New York: Commissioner of Agriculture, Albany. 

North Carolina: Commissioner of Agriculture, 
Raleigh. 

North Dakota: Commissioner of Agriculture, Bis- 
marck. 

Ohio: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Columbus. 

Oklahoma: President of State Board of Agriculture, 
Oklahoma. 

Oregon: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Salem. 

Pennsylvania: Secretary of Agriculture, Harris- 
burg. 

Philippine Islands : Director of Agriculture, Manila. 

Porto Rico: Director of Experiment Station, 



Rhode Island: Secretary of State Board of Agricul- 
ture, Providence. 

South Carolina: Commissioner of Agriculture, 
Columbia. 

South Dakota: Secretary of State Board of Agricul- 
ture, Huron. 

Tennessee: Commissioner of Agriculture, Nashville. 

Texas: Commissioner of Agriculture, Austin. 

Utah: Director of Experiment Station, Logan. 

Vermont: Commissioner of Agriculture, Plainfield. 

Virginia: Commissioner of Agriculture, Richmond- 
Washington: Director of Experiment Station, Pull- 
man. 

West Virginia: Secretary of State Board of Agri- 
culture, Charleston 

Wisconsin: Secretary of State Board of Agriculture, 
Madison. 

Wyoming: Director of Experiment Station, Lara- 
mie. 



Statistics of Corn. 
STATISTICS OF THE PRINCIPAL CROPS. 



369 



[Figures furnished by the Bureau of Statistics, Department of Agriculture, except where otherwise 

stated. All prices on gold basis.] 

CORN. 

Table 1. — Corn crop of countries named, 1911-1913. 



Country. 


Area. 




Production. 




1911 


1912 


1913 


1911 


1912 


1913 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Acres. 
105,825.000 


Acres. 
107,083.000 


Acres. 
105,820,000 


Bushels. 
2,531,488,000 


Bushels. 
3,124,740,000 


Bushels. 
2,446,988,000 




Canada: 


298, 000 
23,000 
(») 


279, 000 
19,000 

(') 


260,000 
18,000 
(') 


18,467,000 

712,000 

6,000 


10,466,000 

476,000 

8,000 


10, 182, 000 


Quebec 

Other 


586.000 
5,000 








321,000 


298, 000 


278,000 


19,185,000 


16,950,000 


16,773,000 




s 13,375,000 


CO 


O) 


190,000,000 


190,000,000 


190,000,000 






Total 








2,740,673,000 


3,331,696,000 


2,653,761,000 












SOUTH AMERICA. 


7,945,000 

46.000 

498.000 


8,456,000 

50.000 

591.000 


9,464,000 
( 3 ) 
CO 


27,675,000 
1,221,000 
3,643,000 


295,849,000 
1,527,000 
8,000,000 


196,642,000 


Chile 


1,200,000 


Uruguay 


4,000,000 


Total .... 








32,539,000 


305,376,000 


201,842,000 












EUROPE. 

Austria-Hungary : 


748.000 
6,090,000 
1,024,000 

510,000 


752,000 
6,022,000 
1,065,000 

549,000 


705, 000 
6, 129, 000 
1,882.000 

805,000 


11,856,000 

137,423,000 

24,006,000 

8,416,000 


15,053,000 

176,694,000 

24,166,000 

8,555,000 


13,280,000 


Hungary proper 

Croatia-Slavonia 

Bosnia-Herzegovina. . . 


182.069,000 

24,000,000 

7,559,000 


Total Austria- 
Hungary 


8,372,000 


8,388,000 


9,521,000 


181,701,000 


224,468,000 


226,908,000 




1,502,000 
1,049,000 
4,066,000 

( 3 ) 
5,153,000 


( 3 ) 
1,177,000 
3,938,000 

( 3 ) 
5,138,000 


( 3 ) 

( 3 ) 
3,888,000 

( 3 ) 
5,305,000 


30,589,000 
16,860,000 
93,680,000 
15,000,000 
110,712,000 


30,000,000 
23,733,000 
98,668,000 
15,000,000 
103,921,000 


30,000,000 




22,000,000 


Italy .. 


108,388,000 




15,000,000 




118,104,000 






Russia: 


3,177,000 
759,000 


3,393,000 
662, 000 




67,842,000 
14,087,000 


62,904,000 
16,704,000 














, 


Total Russia 


* 3,936,000 


4,055,000 


'4,233,000 


81,929,000 


79,608.000 


« 72,870,000 




1,443.000 
1,145,000 


1,446,000 
1,149,000 


1,445 000 
1,105,000 


26,531,000 
28,730,000 


22,833,000 
25,069,000 


23,621,000 




25,140,000 






Total 








585,732,000 


623,300,000 


642,031,000 












ASIA. 

British India (including 


6,312,000 
132,000 
747,000 


( 3 ) 

136,000 
840,000 


( 3 ) 
( 3 ) 
988,000 


( 3 ) 
3,550,000 
5,293,000 


( 3 ) 

m 

7,810.000 


( 3 ) 




( 3 ) 


Philippine Islands 


10,224,000 



1 Less than 500 acres. 

2 Estimate lor 1910. 

27306°— YKB 1913— 



» No official statistics. 

* Includes 10 governments of Asiatic Russia. 



370 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

CORN— Continued. 
Table 1. — Corn crop of countries named, 1911-1913 — Continued. 



Country. 


Area. 


Production. 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1911 


1912 


1913 


AFRICA. 


Acres. 

39,000 
1.840,000 
(') 


Acres. 

31,000 
1,903,000 
(') 


A cres. 
24,000 
(') 
(') 


Bushels. 

554,000 
67,903,000 
30,830,000 


Bushels. 

374.000 

60, 857; 000 

2 30,830,000 


Bushels. 
394,000 




57,5OO;O0O 
2 30,830,000 


Union of South Africa. . . 


Total 








99,287,000 


92,061,000 


88,724,000 










AUSTRALASIA. 

Australia: 


181,000 
213,000 
20,000 


154,000 
168,000 
18,000 


118,000 
176,000 
20,000 

( 3 ) 
(') 


4,601,000 

7,833,000 

1,013,000 

1,000 

7,000 


3,752,000 
4,649,000 
818,000 
\ 


2,604,800 


New South Wales. . . . 


5,112,000 
738 000 






South Australia 


1,000 


( 3 ) 


2,000/ 


166,000 


Total Australia'. . . 


415,000 


340,000 


315,000 


13,455,000 


9,221,000 


8,620,000 




13,000 


6,000 


5,000 


478,000 


278,000 


220,000 






Total Australasia - 


428,000 


346,000 


320,000 


13,933,000 


9,499,000 


8,840,000 










3,481,007,000 


4,369,742,000 


3,605,442,000 











"■ No official statistics. 2 Census figures of 1911 repeated. s Less than 500 acres. 

Table 2. — Total production of corn in countries namedin Table 1, 1894-1913. 



Year. 


Production. 


Year. 


Production. 


Year. 


Production. 


Year. 


Production. 


1894.... 

1895 
1896 
1897 
1898. 


Bushels. 
1,671,307,000 
2,834,750,000 
2,964,435,000 
2,587,206,000 
2,682,619,000 


1899.... 
1900.... 
1901.... 
1902.... 
1903.... 


Bushels. 
2,724,100,000 
2,792,561,000 
2,366,883,000 
3,187,311,000 
3,066,506,000 


1904.... 
1905.... 
1906.... 
1907.... 
1908.... 


Bushels. 
3,109,252,000 
3,461,181,000 
3,963,645,000 
3,420,321,000 
3,606,931,000 


1909.... 
1910.... 
1911 ... 
1912.... 
1913.... 


Bushels. 
3,563,226,000 
4,031,630,000 
3,481,007,000 
4,369,742,000 
3,605,422,000 



Statistics of Corn. 



371 



CORN— Continued. 
Table 3.— Acreage, production, value, and exports of corn, United States, 1849-1913. 

Note —Figures in italics are census returns; figures in roman are estimates of the Department of Agri- 
culture. Estimates of acres.are obtained l>v applying estimated percentages of increase or decrease to the 
published numbers of the preceding year, except that a revised base is used for applymg percentage esti- 
mates whenever new census data are available. 





Acreage. 


Aver- 
age 

yield 
per 

acre. 


Production. 


Aver- 
age 
farm 

price 
per 

bushel 

Dec.l. 


Farm value 
Dec. 1. 


Chicago cash price per 
bushel, No. 2. 1 


Domestic 

exports, 

including 

eorn.meal, 

fiscal 
year begin- 
ning July 1. 


Per 
cent 


Year. 


December. 


Following 
May. 


of 
crop 

ex- 
port- 




jOW. 


High. 


Low 


High. 


ed. 




Acres. 


Bush. 


Bushels. 
692,071,000 
838, "93, 000 

867,946,000 
768,320,000 
906,527,000 
874,320,000 
780,945,000 
1,094,255,000 


Cents. 


Dollars. 


CIS. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Bushels. 

7,632,860 
4,248,991 

16, 026, 947 
12,493,522 
8,286,665 
2, 140, 487 


P.ct. 
l.S 




















.5 


1866.. 
1867. . 
1868.. 
1869. . 


34,307,000 
32,520,000 
34,887,000 
37,103,000 


25.3 
23.6 
26.0 
23.6 


47.4 
57.0 
46.8 
59.8 


411,451,000 
437,770,000 
424,057,000 
522,551,000 


53 
61 

38 
56 


62 

65 
58 
67 


64 
61 
44 
73 


79 
71 
51 

85 


1.8 
1.6 

.9 
.2 


1870. . 


38,647,000 


28.3 


49.4 


540,520,000 


41 


59 


46 


52 


10, 673, 553 


1.0 


1871.. 
1872. . 
1873. . 
1874.. 
1875.. 


34,091,000 
35,527,000 
39,197,000 
41,037,000 
44,841,000 


29.1 
30.8 
23.8 
20.7 
29.5 


991,898,000 

1, 092, 719, 000 

932,274,000 

850, 148, 000 

1,321,069,000 


43.4 

35.3 
44.2 
58.4 
36.7 


430,356,000 
385, 736, 000 
411,961,000 
496,271,000 
484,675,000 


36 
27 
40 
64 
40. 


39 
28 

49 
76 

47 


38 
34 
49 
53 
41 


43 
39 
59 
67 
45 


35,727,010 
40,154,374 
35,985,834 
30,025,036 
50,910,532 


3.6 
3.7 
3.9 
3.5 
3.9 


1876. . 
1877. . 
1878. . 
1879. . 
1879. . 
1880.. 


49,033,000 
60,369,000 
51,585,000 
53,085,000 
68,369,000 
62,318,000 


26.2 
26.7 
26.9 
29.2 
28.1 
27.6 


1,283,828,000 
1,342,558,000 
1,388,219,000 
1,547,902,000 

1,754,592,000 
1,717,435,000 


34.0 
34.8 
31.7 
37.5 


436,109,000 
467,635,000 
440,281,000 
580,486,000 


40 
41 
30 
39 


43 
49 
32 
431 


43 
35 
33 
32| 


56 
41 
36 
361 


72,652,611 
87, 192, 110 
87,884,892 
99,572,329 


5.7 
6.S 
6.3 

6.4 


39.6 


679,714,000 


35| 


42 


411 


45 






1881.. 
1882. . 
1883.. 
1884.. 
1885.. 


64,262,000 
65,660,000 
68,302,000 
69,684,000 
73,130,000 


18.6 
24.6 
22.7 
25.8 
26.5 


1, 194, 916, 000 
1,617,025,000 
1,551,067,000 
1,795,528,000 
1,936,176,000 


63.6 
48.5 
42.4 
35.7 
32.8 


759,482,000 
783,867,000 
658,051,000 
640, 736, 000 
635,675,000 


581 
49} 

54J 
34J 
36 


631 

61 

63J 

401 

42| 


69 

53J 

521 

44} 

341 


761 

56} 

57 

49 

36J 


44,340,683 
41,655,653 
46,258,606 
52,876,456 
64,829,617 


3.7 
2.6 
3.0 
2.9 
3.3 


1886.. 
1887.. 
1888.. 
1889. . 
1889.. 
1890.. 


75,694,000 
72,393,000 
75,673,000 
78,320,000 
12,088,000 
71,971,000 


22.0 
20.1 
26.3 
27.0 
29.4 
20.7 


1,665,441,000 
1,456,161,000 

1,987,790,000 
2,112,892,000 
2,122,328,000 
1,489,970,000 


36.6 
44.4 
34.1 
28.3 


610,311,000 
646,107,000 
677,562,000 
597,919,000 


35} 
47 
331 
29} 


38 
511 
355 
35 


36J 
54 
331 
32} 


39| 
60 
35| 
35 


41,368,584 

25,360,869 

70,841,673 

103, 418, 709 


2.5 
1.7 
3.6 
4.9 


50.6 


754,433,000 


47} 


53 


55 


691 






1891.. 
1892. . 
1893.. 
1894. . 
1895. . 


76,205,000 
70,627,000 
72,036,000 
62,582,000 
82,076,000 


27.0 
23.1 
22.5 
19.4 
26.2 


2,060,154,000 
1,628,464,000 
1,619,496,000 
1 212,770,000 
2,151,139,000 


40.6 
39.4 
36.5 
45.7 
25.3 


836,439,000 
642,147,000 
591,626,000 
554, 719, 000 
544,986,000 


39| 

40 

341 

44} 

25 


59 

42| 

361 

26| 


40} 
391 

363 
47} 
271 


«100 
441 
381 
551 
291 


76,602,285 
47, 121, 894 
66,489,529 
28,585,405 
101,100,375 


3.7 
2.9 
4.1 

2.4 
4.7 


1896. . 
1897.. 
1898.. 
1899. . 


81,027,000 
80,095,000 
77,722,000 
82,109,000 
94,914,000 
83,321,000 


28.2 
23.8 
24.8 
25.3 
28.1 
25.3 


2,283,875,000 
1,902,968,000 
1, 924, 185, 000 
2, 078, 144, 000 
£' 666 324, 000 
2,105,103,000 


21.5 
26.3 
28.7 
30.3 


491,007,000 
501,073,000 
552,023,000 
629, 210, 000 


22J 
25 
33} 
30 


23| 

271 

38 

311 


23 

32} 
321 
36 


251 
37 
34| 
401 


178,817,417 
212,055,543 
177,255,046 
213, 123, 412 


7.8 
11.1 

9.2 
10.3 


1900.. 


35.7 


751,220,000 


35} 


401 


42j 


581 






1901.. 
1902.. 
1903.. 
1904.. 
1905.. 


91,350,000 
94,044,000 
88,092,000 
92,232,000 
94,011,000 


16.7 
26.8 
25.5 
26.8 

28.8 


1,522,520,000 
2, 523, 648, 000 
2,244,177,000 
2,467,481,000 
2,707,994,000 


60.5 
40.3 
42.5 
44.1 
41.2 


921,556,000 
1,017,017,000 

952, 869, 000 
1,087,461,000 
1,116,697,000 


621 

43} 

41 

43J 

42 


671 
571 
431 
49 
501 


591 

44 

47} 

48 

471 


64| 

46 
50 
641 
50 


28,028,688 
76, 639, 261 
58,222,061 
90,293,483 
119,893,833 


1.8 
3.0 
2.6 
3.7 
4.4 


1906.. 
1907.. 
1908.. 
1909.. 


96,738,000 
99,931,000 
101,788,000 
108,771,000 
98,383,000 
104,035,000 


30.3 
25.9 
26.2 
25.5 
25.9 
27.7 


2,927,416,000 
2, 592, 320, 000 
2,668,651,000 
2,772,376,000 
2,552,190,000 
2,886,260,000 


39.9 
51.6 
60.6 
59.6 


1,166,626,000 

1,336,901,000 
1, 616, 145, 000 
1,652,822,000 


40 
571 
563 
621 


46 
611 
621 
66 


491 
67} 
721 
56 


56 

82 
76 
63 


86,368,228 
55,063,860 
37,665,040 
38, 128, 498 


3.0 
2.1 
1.4 
1.5 


19103. 


48.0 


1,384,817,000 


451 


50 


52} 


55} 






1911.. 
1912. . 


105,825,000 
107,083,000 
105,820,000 


23.9 
29.2 
23.1 


2,531,488,000 
3,124,746,000 
2,446,988,000 


61.8 
48.7 
69.1 


1,565,258,000 
1,520,454,000 
1,692,092,000 


68 

471 

64 


70 
54 
731 


76} 

551 


821 
60 


41,797,291 
50, 780, 143 


1.7 
1.6 


1913.. 


1 









i Contract since 1908. 



2 Coincident with "corner.' 



> Figures adjusted to census basis. 



372 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 
CORN— Continued. 



Table 4. — Acreage production, total farm value, and value per acre of corn, by States, 

1912 and 191.3. 



State. 



Thousands of acres. 



1913 



1912 



Production (thou- 
sands of bushel^). 



1913 



1912 



Total value, basis 
Dec. 1 price (thou- 
sands of dollars). 



Value (dollars) 
per acre, basis 
Dec. 1 price. 



1913 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 



Connecticut... 

New York 

New Jersey. .. 
Pennsylvania, 
Delaware 



Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia. . 
North Carolina. . 
South Carolina.. 



Georgia. 
Florida. . 

Ohio 

Indiana. 
Illinois. . 



Michigan... 
Wisconsin. . 
Minnesota.. 

Iowa 

Missouri 



North Dakota. 
South Dakota.. 

. Nebraska 

Kansas 

Kentucky 



Tennessee. . 
Alabama. . . 
Mississippi . 
Louisiana.. 
Texas 



Oklahoma. . 
Arkansas... 
Montana... 
Wyoming.. 
Colorado... 



New Mexico.. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 



Idaho 

Washington. . 

Oregon 

California 



United States. 



16 
22 
45 
48 
11 

61 

327 

275 

1,463 

197 

670 
1,980 

732 
2,835 
1,975 

4,066 
675 
3, 900 
4,900 
10,450 

1,675 

1,650 
2,400 
9, 950 
7,375 

375 
2,640 
7, 610 
7,320 
3,650 

3,350 
3,200 
3,150 
1,900 
6,800 

4,750 

2,475 

28 

17 
420 

85 
17 
10 
1 

14 
34 
21 
55 



16 
23 

45 
47 
11 

60 

512 

273 

1,449 

195 

670 
1,980 

725 
2, 808 
1,915 

3,910 

655 

4,075 

■ 4,947 

10,658 

1,625 
1,632 
2,266 
10, 047 
7,622 

328 
2, 495 
7,609 
7,575 
3,600 

3,332 
3,150 

3,106 
1,805 
7,300 

5,448 

2, 475 

24 

16 

420 

93 
16 



814 
1,665 
1,944 

402 

2,348 
15,020 
10,862 
57, 057 

6,206 

22, 110 

51,480 
22,692 
55, 282 
38,512 

63,023 
10,125 

146, 250 
176,400 
282, 150 

56,112 

66, 825 

96,000 

338, 300 

129,062 

10,800 
67,320 
114, 150 

23,424 
74,825 

68,675 
55, 360 
63,000 
41,800 
163,200 

52,250 

47, 025 

882 

493 

6,300 

1,572 
476 

340 
34 

448 

!!52 

598 

1,815 



2,446,' 



640 
1,058 
1,800 
2,115 

456 

3,000 
19,763 
10, 374 
61,582 



24, 455 
47, 520 
24,505 
51, 106 
34, 278 

53,958 

8,515 

174,410 

199,364 

426,320 

55,250 

58,262 

78, 177 

432, 021 

243,904 

8,758 
76,347 
182,616 
174, 225 
109,440 



54,180 
56,840 
32,490 
153,300 

101,878 

50,490 

612 

368 

8,736 

2,083 
528 

270 
30 

394 

846 

630 

1,924 



529 

659 

1,349 

1,652 



1,996 
12,166 

8,146 
41,081 

3,662 

14,372 
39, 125 
18,154 
48, 618 
37,357 

57,351 
8,302 

92, 138 
105, 840 
177,754 

37,595 
40,095 
50,880 
202,980 
95,506 

5,616 
37, 699 
74, 198 
18,271 
56,867 

52,880 
49, 270 
48,510 
32,186 
133,824 

37,620 

36,680 

679 

394 

4,599 

1,179 
524 
238 
40 

305 

762 

419 

1,597 



4-80 

794 

1,296 

1,629 

401 

2,310 

13, 834 
7,054 

38, 797 
3,381 

13,450 
33, 739 
15,928 
42,418 
29,136 

45,864 

6,727 

78,484 

83,733 

174, 791 

31,492 

29,714 

' 28,925 

151,207 

112, 196 

3,766 
28,248 
67, 568 
69,690 
60,192 

53,862 
42,802 
40, 356 
22,093 
98, 112 

41,770 

33,828 

428 

236 

4,368 

1,562 

528 

202 

29 

276 

651 

472 

1,635 



33.06 
29.97 
29.97 
34.42 
36.14 

32.72 
23. 08 
29.62 
28.08 
18.58 

21.45 
19.76 
24.80 
17.16 
18.92 

14.10 

12.30 
23.62 
21.60 
17.01 

22.44 
24.30 
21.20 
20.40 
12.95 

14.98 
14.28 
9.75 
2.50 
15.58 

15.78 
15.40 
15.40 
16.94 
19.68 

7.92 
14.82 
24.26 
23.20 
10.95 

13.88 
30.80 
23.80 
40.12 

21.76 

22!40 
19.95 

29.04 



3,124,746 



1,692,092 



1,520,454 



15.99 



Statistics of Com. 

CORN— Continued. 

Table 5. — Yield per acre, and price per bushel of corn, by States. 



373 



Yield (bushels) per acre. 



10-year averages. 



31.0 

37. 

37.3 

34.7 

29.6 

29.8 
33.0 
>.3 
35.7 
23.4 

25.2 
20.1 
28.3 
14.7 
9.4 

11.2 
10.2 
36.1 
32.6 
30.3 

33.1 
33.1 
32.5 
3"4.5 
30.2 



34.5 
34.3 
29.7 

24.2 
13.9 
15.4 
17.2 
21.7 



24.4 
. '29.' 2 



29.3 
34. 



32.2 
32.7 
32.6 
31.6 
30.1 

30.1 
29.8 
30.5 
31.0 
19.3 

24.2 
16. 
23.4 
12.2 
9.4 

10.4 
9.6 

30.8 
28.9 
26. 

28.9 
27.3 

29.9 
30. 6 
27.4 

25.3 

32.7 
38.6 
23. 

20.5 
12.6 
14.3 
16.0 
18.1 



19.8 
26.4 



26.1 

19.9 
20.9 
21.0 
24.4 

23.3 

24. 
23. 
28.0 



24.1 



37.1 

37.2 

38.2 

37. 

31.7 

34.9 
31.4 

33.0 

32. 

22.S 

27.0 
19.1 
24.4 
13.0 
9.9 

11.1 
9.7 
31.4 
31.3 
31.7 

29.0 

30.6 
28.1 
30.9 
27.4 

(20.8 
\20. 1 
24.5 
21.3 
25.7 

22.0 

12. 

15.0 

16.3 

19.0 



25. 
21.2 
18, 

21.4 

20.0 
21.2 



23.9 
18.0 

24.0 
30. 5 



24.1 



35.4 
33.1 
34.5 
36.1 
33.0 

36.8 
31.0 
34.1 
.34.4 
29.1 

32.9 
22.7 
27.5 

14. 
11.0 

11.5 
10.2 
35.6 
34.7 
34.5 

32.7 
33.2 
29.4 
32.3 
•28.6 

23.4 
27.4 
27.4 
22.4 
26.7 

23.0 
13.5 
15.2 

17.5 
19.0 

24.2 
18.7 
23.2 
28.0 
21.2 

26.4 
27.1 

26.9 



28. 5 
23. 
25.8 
31.4 



25.8 



46.0 
46.0 
43.0 
45.5 
40.0 

53.2 
38.3 
36.0 
41.0 
31. 

33.5 

25.5 
26.0 
18.6 
18.5 

14.5 

13.0 

36. 

39.3 

39.1 

32.4 
32. 5 
32.7 
36.3 
33.0 

14.0 

25. 
25.8 
19.0 
29.0 

25.9 
18.0 

20. 5 
23.6 

20.6 

16.0 
24.0 
23.0 
10.0 
19.9 

23.0 
32.5 
30.3 
30.0 

32.0 

28.0 
25.5 
37.5 



27.7 



44.0 
45. 
41.0 
44.0 
45.0 

48.5 
38. 5 
36, 
44.5 



40.0 
46.0 
40.0 
45.0 
41.5 

50.0 

38.6 
38.0 
42.5 



34.0. 34.0 



36.5 
24.0 

25.7! 
18.4! 
18. 2j 

16.0 

14.6 
38.6 
36.0 
33.0 



36.5 

24.0 

33, 

18.2 

17.9 

13, 

13.0 
42, 
40.3 
40.0 



33.0| 34.0 
36.3; 35.7 
33. 7j 34.5 
31.0: 43.0 
26.0, 32.0 






25.0 
22.0 
21.0 
14.5 

2fi. 



18.0 
19.0 
18.5 
9.5 

6.5 
20.8 
26. .5 
15.0 
14.0 

24.7 
33.0 
35.0 
30.5 

30.0 
28.5 
28. 5 
36.0 



23.9 



26.7 

30. 

24.0 

23.0 

30.4 

26.5 

17.2 
18.3 
18.0 
21.0 

18.7 
20.4 
2.5.5 
23. 
20. 

22.4 
33.0 
30.0 
30.0 

32. 
27.3 
31.5 
37.0 



29.2 



Farm price (cents) per bushel. 



10-year averages 
for Dec. 1. 



38.0' 
37.0 
37.0; : 
40.5! 
36.5 

38.5 
28.5 
39.5, 
39.0, 

31.5 

33.0 
26.0; 
31.0 
19.5 
19.5 

15. 5 
15.0 
37.5! 
36.0, 
27.0 

33.5 
40.5 
40.0 
34.0 
17.5 

28.8 
25.5 
15.0 
3.2 
20.5 

20.6 
17.3 
20.0 
22.0 
24.0 

11.0 

19.0 ! 
31.5! 
29.0: 
15.0] 

18.5 
28.0, 
34.0, 
34.0, 

32.0 

2S.0 
28. 5 
33.0 



23. 1 



190, 72 



135' 



40. 5 40. 6 



i Quarterly, 1913. 



34. 5,47. 



63 
60 

■59 
,',2 



58 63 

65 73 

68 77 

76 82 

82 91 

78' 83 

85 80 

46 58 

40 54 



53 65 

52 60 

45 53 

36 53 



58 

40 53 

36 55 

45 63 

53 03 



99 75 

821 75 

so; 72 
83 

95' 8s: 



66! 71 
65! 



7,' 


66 


70 


63 


.is 


64 


63 


63 


51 


54 


.55 


56 


71 


7(1 


6.5 


68 


83 


83 


85 


90 


Sn 


85 


79 


87 


45 


49 


42 


46 


41 


46 


.57 


52 


51 


48 


37 


38 


3,5 


39 


46 


48 


43 


49 


37 


37 


37 


43 


40 


47 


55 


61 


61 


65 


79 


79 


71 


75 


68 


75 


64 


69 


41 


49 


07 


70 


70 


92 


.,1 


50 


50 


46 


7.5 


77 


00 


130 


7.5 


72 


98 




70 


76 


77 


82 


,,i 


I i 


85 


S3 


i.l 


52. 2] 



69 


81 


68 


84 


67 


81 


65 


73 


65 


77 


79 


85 


76 


84 


89 


95 


98 


102 


97 


99 


94 


90 


57 


72 


54 


70 


55 


73 


58 


72 


54 


65 


49 


63 


50 


66 


59 


77 


58 


52 


47 


60 


51 


72 


54 


81 


70 


86 


72 


83 


86 


96 


83 


86 


82 


83 


71 


77 


57 


77 


77 


82 


90 


115 


55 


62 


50 


70 


84 


76 


112 


115 


72 


85 


99 


101 


80 


67 


92 


74 


69 


85 


87 


86 


60.6 


75.4 



1 The Territories. 



374 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

CORN— Continued. 
Table 6. — Wholesale price of corn per bushel. 1899-1913. 





New York. 


Baltimore. 


Cincinnati. 


Chicago. 


Detroit. 


St. Louis. 


San Fran- 
cisco. 


Date. 


No. 2 
mixed. 


Mixed. 1 


No. 2. 


Contract. 2 


No. 3.3 


No. 2. 


No. 1 white 
(per 100 lbs). 




Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High 


1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 


Cts. 

36* 

391 

45} 

57 

49} 

47 4 
50} 

47. 

49i 

60J 

66 
52 
53} 
54$ 


Cts. 
45| 
52} 
721 
73 
68J 

69 

631 

611 

77 

90} 

83 
74 
81} 

87} 


Cts. 
34} 

SI 

43 
46} 

49} 

42 

45| 

47 

59| 

63} 
50 

481 
52 


as. 

43 

48} 

68 

77 
61 

58} 

65 

58 

74} 

83} 

82 
70} 
79 
87 


Cts. 

31} 

32} 

38 

44 

40 

45} 

44} 

42 

43 

54} 

57 
46 
45} 
<47 


Cts. 

38 

47 

71} 

69 

54} 

58} 

59} 

55} 

71 

83} 

78 
69} 

77} 
<87 


Cts. 
30 
30} 
36 
43} 
41 

42} 
42 
39 
' 39} 
56} 

58} 
45} 
45} 
47} 


Cts. 
38} 

49} 
67} 
88 
53 

59} 
64} 
54} 
66} 
82 

77 
68 
76 
83 


Cts. 

32 

32} 

37 

57 

40} 

42 

44} 

43 

43 

53} 

59 
46} 
45} 
48 


Cts. 

38 

45 

70} 

70} 

56} 

60 

59 

55 

69} 

83 

79 
68} 
76 
83} 


Cts. 

29} 

30} 

35 

40} 

39 

41} 
39} 
39 
54} 

58 
44 
43} 
<45 


as. 

36} 
43 

70 

69} 

55 

57 

58} 

54} 

66 

81} 

77 

?? 

<85 


Dolls. 

1.05 

1.00 

1.10 

1.30 

1.17} 

1.25 
1.25 


Dolls 
1.17} 
1.30 

1.75 
1.65 
1.57} 

1.55 
1.55 


1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 


1.25 
1.60 

1.72} 
1.40 
1.31} 
1.50 


1.60 
1.90 

1.95 
1.85 
1.80 
1.97} 


1913. 

January 

February . . 

March 

April 

June 

July.. 
August 


59 

5S} 

57i 

59$ 

63} 

65} 

67 
744 

77J 
75| 

78J 
77 


61 

61} 

61 

64 

66} 

711 

74} 
84 
87} 
80} 

82 
84} 


52} 
535 
53f 
55} 
58} 
61 

64} 


55? 
55j 
55} 
59} 
61} 
65} 

68 


( 
48 
50 
51 
57 
58* 
59 

63} 

69* 

74 

70 

74} 

74} 


54 

54 

58 

63 

61} 

65 

68 

81 

80 

76 

77} 

75 


46} 
49 
50 
54 

55} 

58} 

60 

68} 

71} 

67} 

71 

64 


50} 

51} 

53} 

57 

60 

63 

66} 

78} 

78} 

73 

74} 

73} 


48 

49} 

50 

53} 

56 

58} 

60} 

68} 

73 

71 

69 

64 


50} 
51} 
53 

57 
59} 
62 

67 

77 

78} 

74 

77} 

70 


45 ( 

47} 

49 

54 

56 

57 

61} 

69} 

72 

69 

73} 

65 


') 
51 
50} 
54} 
60 
61 
64 

66 

78}- 

78 

74} 

77 

82 


00 

h 

( 6 ) 

( 5 ) 

1.45 

1.50 

1.51} 

1.56 

1.82 

1.74 

1.72 

1.69 


m 

( 5 ) 
m 
m 

1.55 
1.55 

1.57 

1 85 


September. 






1 87 








1 80 


November . 






1 80 


December. . 






1 73 










Year. 


57i 


87} 


52} 


68 


48 


81 


46} 


78} 


48 


78} 


45 


82 


1.45 1.87 



1 No. 2 grade, 1 

2 No. 2 grade, 1 



) and 1900. 
) to 1908. 



s No. 2 grade, 1899 to 1904. 
* No. 2 mixed. 



6 Nominal. 



Table 7. — Condition of corn crop, United States, on first of months named, 1893-1913. 



Year. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Year. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Year. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 




P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 




P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 




P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


1893.... 


93.2 


87.0 


76.7 


75.1 


1900.... 


89.5 


87.5 


80.6 


78.2 


1907.... 


80.2 


82.8 


80.2 


78.0 


1894.... 


95.0 


69.1 


63.4 


64.2 


1901.... 


81.3 


54.0 


51.7 


52.1 


1908.... 


82.8 


82.5 


79.4 


77.8 


1895.... 


99.3 


102.5 


96.4 


95.5 


1902. . ;. 


87.5 


86.5 


84.3 


79.6 


1909.... 


89.3 


84.4 


74.6 


73.8 


1896.... 


92.4 


96.0 


91.0 


90.5 


1903. . . . 


79.4 


78.7 


80.1 


80.8 


1910.... 


85.4 


79.3 


78.2 


80.3 


1897.... 


82.9 


84.2 


79.3 


77.1 


1904.... 


86.4 


87.3 


84.6 


83.9 


1911.... 


80.1 


69.6 


70.3 


70.4 


1898.... 


90.5 


87.0 


84.1 


82.0 


1905.... 


87 3 


89.0 


89.5 


89.2 


1912.... 


81.5 


80.0 


82.1 


82.2 


1899.... 


86.5 


89.9 


85.2 


82.7 


1906.... 


87.5 


88.0 


90.2 


90.1 


1913.... 


86.9 


75.8 


65.1 


65.3 



Statistics of Corn. 
CORN— Continued. 



375 



Table 



-Farm price of corn per bushel on first of each month, by geographical divisions, 
1912 and 1913. 



Month. 



January. . . 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October. . . 
November 
December. 

Average 



United 

States. 



1913 



Cts. 

48.9 
50.0 
52.2 
53.7 
56. S 
60.0 

63.2 

65.4 
75.4 
75.3 
70.7 
69.1 



1912 



Cts. 
02.2 
64.6 

Ofi.6 
71.1 
79.4 
82.5 

81.1 
79.3 
77.0 
70.2 

58.4 
48.7 



1 68.3 



North 


South 


Atlantic 


Atlantic 


States. 


States. 


1913 


1912 


1913 


1912 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


61.9 


73.3 


74.5 


80.0 


61.5 


73.3 


75.9 


82.3 


63.4 


75.5 


77.2 


84.7 


62.5 


78.3 


79.4 


88.5 


05.4 


83.9 


81.7 


97.7 


67.7 


88.1 


86.0 


102.5 


69.3 


88.6 


86.0 


102.0 


72.8 


86.0 


87.9 


101.2 


81.6 


85.9 


91.3 


98.5 


83.6 


79'. 8 


90.6 


92.8 


78.1 


72.5 


85.8 


82.5 


74.9 


66.1 


84.2 


76.0 


69.6 


78.8 


83.5 


90.3 



N. Central 
States east 
of Miss. E. 



Cts. 
44.0 
46.1 
47.1 
48.3 
51.0 
55.3 

59.0 
61.2 
71.6 

70.7 
04.1 
62.3 



1912 



Cts. 
56.5 
59.3 
01.5 
00.0 
74.5 
70.0 

75.4 
72.6 
73.0 
07.9 
53.2 
43.6 



53. 7 63. 9 



N. Central 
States west 
of Miss. R. 



Cts. 
39.0 
41.5 
42.5 
44.2 
48.3 
52.4 

55.1 
58.1 
70.7 
70.4 
66. 4 
62.3 



51.5 



1912 



Cts. 
55.3 
57.8 
58.0 
03.4 
71.4 
73.3 

71.3 
69.8 
09.1 
62.1 
50.1 
38.6 



59.7 



South 
Central 
States. 



1913 



Cts. 
01.8 
62.2 
65.7 
67.0 
68. 8 
72 1. 

74.0 
74.8 
82.4 
83.4 
80.8 
79.1 



1912 



as. 

72.5 
74.5 
78.1 
82.8 
91.9 
97.4 

90.1 
95.0 
87.3 
75.7 
66.6 
60.8 



73. 1 76. 8 



Far West- 
ern States. 



Cts. 
58.4 
61.1 
65.6 
65.5 
62.4 
67.9 

68.0 
67.2 
79.0 
81.5 
78.9 
77.2 



8.3 



Cts. 

82.6 

79.2 

87.7 

88.4 

85.2 

94.9 

100.0 
91.9 
85.8 
66.3 
83.6 
03.3 



83.2 



Table 9. — International trade in corn, including corn meal, calendar years 1910-1912. 

[The item maicena or maizena is included as ''Com and corn meal."] 

General Note.— Substantially the international trade of the world. It should not be expected that 
the world export and import totals for any year will agree. Among sources of disagreement are these: 
(1) Different periods of time covered in the " year" of the various countries; (2) imports received in year 
subsequent to year of export; (3) want of uniformity in classification of goods among countries; (4) differ- 
ent practices and varying degrees of failure in recording countries of origin and ultimate destination; 
(5) different practices of recording reexported goods; (6) opposite methods of treating free ports; (7) cleri- 
cal errors, which, it may be assumed, are not infrequent. 

The exports given are domestic exports, and the imports given are imports for consumption as far as it is 
feasible and consistent so to express the facts. While there are some inevitable omissions, on the other 
hand, there are some duplications because of reshipments that do not appear as such in official reports. 
For the United Kingdom import figures refer to imports for consumption, when available, otherwise total 
imports less exports of "foreign and colonial merchandise." Figures for the United States include Alaska, 
Porto Rico, and Hawaii. 

EXPORTS. 

[000 omitted.] 



Country. 



Argentina 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

British South Africa 

Bulgaria 

Netherlands 

Roumania 



Bush. 
104, 727 
1,069 
7. 582 
6,517 
4,823 
5,101 

23, 419 



Bush. 

4,928 

156 

8,846 
3,892 

13,980 
5,939 

61,233 



Bush. 

190,353 

38 

10,999 

3,756 

U3,980 

13,557 

l 61, 233 



Country. 



Russia 

Servia 

United States.. 

Uruguay 

Other countries 

Total 



1910 



Bush. 

17, 686 
6,695 

44, 072 

192 

5,600 



227,543 



Bush. 
52, 759 

4,627 

63, 533 

19 

5,076 



224, 988 



Bush. 
30,255 
i 4, 627 
32, 649 
20 
2 5,456 



366,923 



IMPORTS. 



Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

British South Africa 

Canada 

Cuba 

Denmark 

Egypt 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Mexico 



2,494 


7,886 


29,108 


25,036 


24, 814 


32,021 


69 


29 


114 


10, 767 


16,440 


9,331 


3,002 


2,388 


12,388 


7,217 


11,085 


13,809 


83 


227 


110 


15, 355 


19, 742 


23,951 


22,563 


29,267 


44,973 


15, 756 


15, 118 


21,283 


8,907 


9,050 


1,548 



Netherlands 

Norway 

Portugal 

Russia 

Spain 

Sweden , 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 
Other countries.. 

Total 



21,512 


25,743 


789 


1,019 


518 


418 


181 


339 


7,526 


5,685 


277 


460 


3,605 


4,059 


73, 487 


77, 449 


1,773 


3,258 


220,917 


254,476 



38, 262 

1,471 

952 

182 

'6,851 

1460 

4,342 

88, 100 

25,895 



325,217 



1 Year preceding. 



2 Preliminary. 



376 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

WHEAT. 
Table 10. — Wheat crop of countries named, 1911-1913. 





Area. 




Production. 






1911 


1912 


1913 


1911 


1912 


1913 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Acres. 
49,543,000 


Acres. 
45,814,000 


A cres. 
50,184,000 


Bushels. 
621,338,000 


Bushels. 
730, 267, 000 


Bushels. 
763,380,000 






Canada: 
New Brunswick 


14,000 

968,000 

3, 095, 000 

5, 256, 000 

1,640,000 

128,000 


13,000 

855,000 

2,839,000 

5,582,000 

1,590,000 

118,000 


13,000 

850,000 

2,804,000 

5,720,000 

1,512,000 

117,000 


283,000 

19,787,000 

62,689,000 

109,075,000 

36,602,000 

2, 488, 000 


236,000 

17,421,000 

63,017,000 

106,960,000 

34,303,000 

2,222,000 


269,000 
19,851,000 




53,331,000 




121,559,000 




34, 372, 000 


Other 


2,335,000 






Total Canada 


11,101,000 


10,997,000 


11,016,000 


230,924,000 


224,159,000 


231,717,000 




(') 


0) 


0) 


12,000,000 


12,000,000 


10,000,000 






Total 








864,262,000 


966,426,000 


1,005,097,000 












SOUTH AMERICA. 


15,452,000 
968,000 
637,000 


17,042,000 

1,093,000 

799,000 


17,096,000 
(') 
816,000 


145,981,000 

18,184,000 
6,009,000 


166,190,000 

22,468,000 

8,757,000 


198,414,000 


Chile 


21,000,000 


Uruguay 


5,461,000 






Total 








170,174,000 


197,415,000 


224, 875, 000 












EUROPE. 

Austria-Hungary : 


3,003,000 

8,354,000 

808,000 

218,000 


3,114,000 

8,748,000 

833,000 

247,000 


2,998,000 

7,700,000 

837,000 

320, 000 


58,865,000 

174,889,000 

15,188,000 

2,941,000 


69,712,000 

173,328,000 

11,314,000 

2,993,000 


60,123,000 


Bosnia-Herzegovina. . 


151,348,000 
16, 899, 000 
3,837,000 


Total Austria- 


12,383,000 


12,942,000 




251,883,000 


257,347,000 


232,207,000 






Belgium 


399,000 

2,764,000 

2 100,000 

(') 

15,897,000 

4,878,000 

(') 

11,741,000 

(') 

142,000 

2 12,000 

1,211,000 

4,769,000 


397.000 

2, 769, 000 

134, 000 

(') 

16,238,000 

4,759,000 

(') 

11,751,000 

(') 

143,000 
(') 
(>) 
5,114,000 


0) 

n 

c) 

16,169,000 
4,878,000 

(') 

11,842,000 

(') 

140,000 
(') 
P) 
4,011,000 


15,745,000 

48,295,000 

4,466,000 

125,000 

315,126,000 

149,411,000 

8,000,000 

192,395,000 

200,000 

5,511,000 

271,000 

11,850,000 

93,724,000 


15,348,000 

45,000,000 

3,604,000 

130,000 

336,284,000 

160,224,000 

7,000,000 

165,720,000 

200,000 

5,604,000 

332,000 

7,500,000 

88,924,000 


15, 042, 000 




45,000,000 


Denmark 


4,463,000 


Finland 


130,000 


Trance 


321,571,000 




171,075,000 




7,000,000 


Italy 


214,405,000 


Montenegro 


200,000 


Netherlands... 


4,773,000 


Norway 


325,000 


Portugal 


5,500,000 


Roumania ■. 


83,236,000 






Russia: 


52,557,000 
1,255,000 
9,908,000 


49,581,000 
1,248,000 
9,839,000 




346,372,000 
24,129,000 
76,537,000 


472, 390, 000 
24, 626, 000 
126,746,000 






















Total Russia 
(European) 


63,720,000 


60,668,000 


3 74,512,000 


447,038,000 


623,762,000 


8 962,587,000 




955,000 
9,706,000 
251,000 
260,000 
(') 


956,000 

9,625,000 

260,000 

(') 

(») 


573,000 
9,644,000 

8 


15,312,000 

148,495,000 

7,945,000 

3,524,000 

20,000,000 


16,351,000 
109,783,000 
7,832,000 
3,178,000 
18,000,000 


8,524,000 


Spain 


112,401,000 


Sweden 


7,800,000 


Switzerland 


3,500,000 


Turkey (European) 


18,000,000 


United Kingdom: 


1,804,000 
38,000 
64,000 
45,000 


1,822,000 
41,000 
62,000 
45,000 


1,664,000 
38,000 
60,000 
34,000 


60,729,000 
1,118,000 
2,786,000 
1,656,000 


54,004,000 
1,123,000 
2,471,000 
1,564,000 


53,731,000 


Wales. . 


1,075,000 




2,335,000 




1,295,000 






Total United 
Kingdom 


1,951,000 


1,970,000 


1,796,000 


66,289,000 


59,162,000 


58,436,000 


Total 


! 






1,805,605,000 


1,931,285,000 ! 


2,276,175,000 




' 











1 No data. 



2 Census of 1907. 



s Includes 10 governments of Asiatic Russia. 



Statistics of Wheat. 

WHEAT— Continued. 
Table 10. — Wheat crop of countries named, 1911-1913 — Continued. 



377 



Country. 


1911 


Area. 






Production. 




1912 


1913 


1911 


1912 


1913 


ASIA. 

British India, including 
such native states as 


A crcs. 

30,565,000 

(') 


Acres. 
31,141,000 

0) 


Acres. 

29,509,000 

(') 


Bushels. 
375 62!), 000 
2,394,000 


Bushels. 
370,515,000 
2,071,000 


Bushels. 

356,388,000 




2,100,000 






Japanese Empire: 


1,223.000 
13,000 


1,216,000 
0) 


1,226,000 
(■) 


25,645,000 
138,000 


26,514,000 
140,000 


27,000,000 




140,000 






Total Japanese 








25,783,000 


26,654,000 


-27.140,000 














(') 


0) 


( l ) 


16,000,000 


16,000,000 


16,000,000 


Russia: 
Central Asia (4 gov- 
ernments of) 

Siberia (4 govern- 


3,616,000 

5,8SS,000 

11,000 


3,804,000 

6,254,000 

10,000 




19,830,000 

41,783,000 

102,000 


36,977,000 

59,198,000 

105, 000 








Transcaucasia (1 gov- 












Total Russia 


9,515,000 


10,068,000 


( 2 ) 


61,715,000 


96,280,000 


( 2 ) 


Turkey (Asia Minor 


(') 


(') 


(') 


35,000,000 


35,000,000 


35,000,000 















516,521,000 


546,521,000 


438,028,000 


AFRICA. 


3,554,000 

1,285,000 

1,401,000 

(') 


3,614,000 

1,332,000 

1,263,000 

(') 


3,448,000 

1,331,000 

1,235,000 

(>) 


35,874,000 

38,046,000 

8,635,000 

6,034,000 


27,172,000 

30,903,000 

4,225,000 

3 6,034,000 


36,848,000 




30,900,000 


Tunis..- 


5,589.000 


Union of South Africa. . . 


8 6,034,000 










88,589,000 


6S,334,000 


79,371,000 


AUSTRALASIA. 

Australia: 


107,000 
2,129,000 
2,398,000 
2,105,000 

582,000 
52,000 


43,000 

2,381,000 

2,164,000 

2,191,000 

612,000 

37,000 


125,000 
2,231.000 
2,085.000 
2,080,000 

793.000 
25,000 


1,055.000 
28,793,000 
35,910,000 
25,112,000 

6,083,000 
1,156,000 


294,000 

25,879,000 

21,550,000 

20,994,000 

4,496,000 

681,000 


2,038.000 


New South Wales 


33,499,000 
27,050,000 


South Australia 


22,174,000 

9,457,000 

650,000 


Total Australia 


7,373,000 


7,428,000 


7,339,000 


98,109,000 


73,894.000 


94,868.000 




322,000 


215,000 


190,000 


8,535,000 


8,000,000 


5,886,000 


Total Australasia. . 


7,695,000 


7,643,000 


7,529,000 


106,644,000 


81,894,000 


100,754,000 










3,551,795,000 


3,791,875,000 


4,124,900,000 













i No data. » Included under total Russia (European). » Census figures of 1911 repeated. 

Note —The above figures for European and Asiatic Russia include 72 governments only ; the area and 
productionin the whole Empire in 1911 were 80,086,000 acres and 563,485,000 bushels. 



378 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

WHEAT— Continued. 
Table 11. — Total production of wheat in countries named in Table 10, 1891-1918. 



Year. 


Production. 


Year. 


Production. 


Year. 


Production. 


Year. 


Production. 


1891 
1892 
1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 


Bushels. 
2,432,322,000 
2,481,805,000 
2,559,174,000 
2,660,557,000 
2,593,312,000 
2,506,320,000 


1897 .... 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 


Bushels. 
2,236,268,000 
2,948,305,000 
2,783,885,000 
2,640,751,000 
2,955,975,000 
3,090,116,000 


1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 


Bushels. 
3, 189, 813, 000 
3,163,542,000 
3,327,084,000 
3,434,354,000 
3,133,965,000 
3,182,105,000 


1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 


Bushels. 
3,581,519,000 
3, 575, 055, 000 
3,551,795,000 
3,791,875,000 
4, 124, 900, 000 



Table 12. — Average yield of wheat in countries named, bushels per acre, 1890-1913. 



■ Year. 


United 
States. 


Russia 
(Euro- 
pean).! 


Ger- 
many.! 


Austria. 1 


Hungary 
proper.! 


France. 8 


United 
King- 
dom.* 


Average : 

1890-1899 


13.2 
14.1 


8.9 
9.7 


24.5 
28.9 


16.2 
18.0 




18.6 
20.5 


31.2 


1900-1909 


17.5 


33.1 






1904 


12.5 
14.5 
15.5 
14.0 
14.0 
15.4 
13.9 
12.5 
15.9 
15.2 


11.5 
10.0 
7.7 
8.0 
8.8 
12.5 
11.2 
7.0 
10.3 
»12.9 


29.5 
28.5 
30.3 
29.6 
29.7 
30.5 
29.6 
30.6 
33.6 
35.1 


19.5 
19.6 
20.3 
18.0 
21.0 
19.9 
19.2 
19.6 
22.3 
19.9 


16.3 
18.7 
22.5 
14.9 
17.5 
14.1 
19.8 
20.9 
19.8 
19.2 


18.5 
20.9 
20.2 
23.2 
19.6 
22.0 
15.9 
19.8 
21.0 
19.9 


27.8 


1905 


33.9 


1906 


34.8 


1907 


35.1 


1908 


33.4 


1909 


35.0 


1910 


31.4 


1911 


34.0 


1912 


30.0 


1913 


32.6 






Average (1904-1913) 


14.3 


10.0 


30.7 


19.9 


18.4 


20.1 


32.8 



' Bushels of 60 pounds. » Winchester bushels. 'Includes 10 governments of Asiatic Russia. 



Statistics vf Wheat. 



379 



WHEAT— Continued. 

Table 13. — Acreage, production, value, and exports of wheat in the United States, 

1849-191S. 

Note.— Figures in italics are census returns; figures in roman are estimates of the Department of Agri- 
culture. Estimates of acres are obtained by applying estimated percentages of increase or decrease to 
the published numbers of the preceding year, except that a revised base is used for applying percentage 
estimates whenever new census data are available. 





Acreage 
harvested. 


Aver- 
age 

yield 
per 

acre. 


Production. 


Aver- 
age 
farm 
price 
per 
bushel 
Deal 


Farm value 
December 1. 


Chicago cash price per 
bushel, No. 1 northern. 


Domestic 
exports, in. 

eluding 
flour, fiscal 

year 

beginning 

July 1. 


Per 

cent 

of 


Year. 


December. 


Following 
May. 


crop 
ex- 
port- 




Low. 


High 


Low. 


High 


ed. 


1849. . . 


Acres. 


Bush 


Bushels. 
100,486,000 
17S, 105,000 

152,000,000 
212,441,000 
224,037,000 
260,147,000 

m,7J t 6,000 
235,885,000 


Cents. 


Dollars. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Bushels. 

7,636,901 

17,S1S,1SS 

12,646,941 
26,323,014 
29,717,201 
53,900,780 


P.ct. 


1869... 




















1866... 
1867... 
1868... 
1869... 


15,424,000 
18,322,000 

18,460,000 
19,181,000 


9.9 
11.6 
12.1 
13.6 


152.7 
145.2 
108.5 
76.5 


232,110,000 
308,387,000 
243, 033, 000 
199,025,000 


129 
126 
80 
63 


145 
140 

88 
76 


185 
134 

87 
79 


211 
161 

96 
92 


8.3 
12.4 
13.3 

20.7 


1870... 


18,993,000 


12.4 


94.4 


222,767,000 


91 


98 


113 


120 


52,574,111 


22.3 


1871... 
1872. . . 
1873... 
1874... 
1875... 


19,944,000 
20,858,000 
22,172,000 
24,967,000 
26,382,000 


11.6 
12.0 
12.7 
12.3 
11.1 


230,722,000 
249,997,000 
281,255,000 
308,103,000 
292,136,000 


114.5 
111.4 

106.9 
86.3 
89.5 


264,076,000 

278,522,000 
300,670,000 
265, 881, 000 
261,397,000 


107 

97 
96 

78 
82 


111 
108 
106 
83 
91 


120 
112 
105 

78 
89 


143 
122 
114 
94 
100 


38,995,755 
52,014,715 
91,510,398 
72,912,817 
74,750,682 


16.9 
20.8 
32.5 
23.7 
25.6 


1876... 

1877... 
1878... 
1879... 
1879. . . 


27,627,000 
26,278,000 
32,109,000 
32,546,000 
SS, 430,000 
37,987,000 


10.5 
13.9 
13.1 
13.8 
IS. 9 
13.1 


289,356,000 
364,194,000 

420,122,000 
448,757,000 
459,483,000 
498,550,000 


97.0 
105.7 

77.6 
110.8 


280,743,000 
385,089,000 
325,814,000 
497,030,000 


104 

103 

81 

122 


117 
108 
84 
133* 


130 

98 

91 
112J 


172 
113 
102 
119 


57,043,936 
92,141,626 
150,502,506 
180,304,181 


19.7 
25.3 
35.8 
40.2 


1880... 


95.1 


474,202,000 


93} 


109} 


101 


112f 


186,321,514 


37.4 


1881... 

1882... 
1883... 
1884... 
1885... 


37,709,000 
37,067,000 
36,456,000 
39,476,000 
34,189,000 


10.2 
13.6 
11.6 
13.0 
10.4 


383,280,000 
504,185,000 
421,086,000 
512,765,000 
357,112,000 


119.2 

88.4 
91.1 

64.5 
77.1 


456,880,000 
445,602,000 
383,649,000 
330,862,000 
275,320,000 


124| 
91} 
94| 
69} 
82§ 


129 

94} 
991 
76| 
89 


123 

108 
86 
85f 
721 


140 
U3| 
94} 

90} 
79 


121,892,389 
147,811,316 
111,534,182 
132,570,366 
94,565,793 


31.3 
29.3 
26.5 
25.9 
26.5 


1886... 

1887... 
1888... 
1889... 
1889... 


36,806,000 
37,642,000 
37,336,000 
38,124,000 
SS, 680, 000 
36,087,000 


12.4 
12.1 
11.1 
12.9 
13.9 
11.1 


457,218,000 
456,329,000 
415,868,000 
490,560,000 
468,374,000 
399,262,000 


68.7 
68.1 
92.6 
69.8 


314,226,000 
310,613,000 

385,248,000 
342,492,000 


75* 
75J 
96g 
76} 


79J 

79} 

105} 

80} 


80} 

77i 
89} 


88} 
891 
951 
100 


153,804,969 
119,625,344 
88,600,743 
109,430,467 


33.6 
26.2 
21.3 
22.3 


1890... 


83.8 


334,774,000 


87J 


92} 


98J 


108J 


106,181,316 


26.6 


1891... 
1892... 
1893... 
1894. . . 
1895... 


39,917,000 
38,554,000 
34,629,000 
34,882,000 
34,047,000 


15.3 
13.4 
11.4 
13.2 
13.7 


611,781,000 

515,947,000 
396,132,000 
460,267,000 
467,103,000 


83.9 

62.4 
53.8 
49.1 
50.9 


513,473,000 
322,112,000 
213,171,000 
225,902,000 
237,939,000 


89| 
69i 
59} 
52} 
53} 


93J 
73 

64J 
634 

64} 


80 

681 

52} 

60} 

571 


85} 
76} 
60} 

85} 
67g 


225,665,811 
191,912,635 
164,283,129 
144,812,718 
126,443,968 


36.9 
37.2 
41.5 
31.5 
27.1 


1896... 
1897... 
1898... 
1899... 
1899... 


34,619,000 
39,465,000 
44,055,000 
44,593,000 

S2,m,ooo 

42,495,000 


12.4 
13.4 
15.3 
12.3 

12.5 
12.3 


427,684,000 
530,149,000 
675,149,000 
547,304,000 
668,534,000 
522,230,000 


72.6 
80.8 
58.2 
68.4 


310,598,000 

428,547,000 
392,770,000 
319,545,000 


74f 
92 
62} 
64 


93J 
109 
70 

691 


68} 
117 
68| 
63| 


97J 
185 
791 
671 


145,124,972 
217,306,005 
222,618,420 

186,096,762 


33.9 
41.0 
33.0 
34.0 


1900... 


61.9 


323,515,000 


69i 


74| 


70 


75J 


215,990,073 


41.4 


1901... 
1902... 
1903... 
1904... 
1905... 


49,896,000 
46,202,000 
49,465,000 
44,075,000 
47,854,000 


15.0 
14.5 
12.9 
12.5 
14.5 


748,460,000 

670,063,000 
637,822,000 
552,400,000 
692,979,000 


62.4 
63.0 

69.5 
92.4 
74.8 


467,360,000 
422,224,000 
443,025,000 
510,490,000 
518,373,000 


73 

71? 
77} 
115 
82i 


791 
77} 
87 
122 
90 


72| 
74} 
87} 
891 
80} 


761 
80| 
1011 
113} 

87J 


234,772,516 

202,905,598 
120,727,613 
44,112,910 
97,609,007 


31.4 
30.3 
18.9 
8.0 
14.1 


1906... 
1907... 
1908... 
1909... 
1909... 


47,306,000 
45,211,000 
47,557,000 
46,723,000 
44,261,000 
45,681,000 


15.5 
14 
14.0 
15.8 
IS. 4 
13.9 


735,261,000 
634,087,000 
664,602,000 
737,189,000 
683,366,000 
635,121,000 


66.7 
87.4 
92.8 
99.0 


490,333,000 
554,437,000 
616,826,000 
730,046,000 


172| 
U04} 
106} 
106 


175 
1109 
112 
119} 


84 
1103 
1261 
100 


106 
Ull} 
137 
119} 


146,700,425 
163,043,669 
114,268,468 
87,364,318 


20.0 
25.7 
17.2 
12.8 


19102.. 


88.3 


561,051,000 


104 


110 


98 


106 


69,311,760 


10.9 


1911... 
1912. . . 
1913... 


49,543,000 
45,814,000 
50,184,000 


12.5 
15.9 
15.2 


621,338,000 
730,267,000 
763,380,000 


87.4 
76.0 
79.9 


543,063,000 
555,280,000 
610,122,000 


105 

85 
89} 


110 

90| 
93 


115 

901 


122 
96 


79,689,404 
142,879,596 


12.8 
19.6 













i No. 2, red winter. 



' Figures adjusted to census basis 



380 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



WHEAT— Continued. 

Table 14. — Acreage, production, and farm value December 1 of winter and spring wheat, 
by States, in 191S, and United States totals, 1890-1913. . 





Y/inter wheat. 


Spring wheat. 


State and 
year. 


Acreage. 


Aver- 
age 

yield 
per 

acre. 


Produc- 
tion. 


Aver- 
age 
farm 
price 
Dec.l. 


Farm 
value 
Dec.l. 


Acreage. 


Aver- 
age 

yield 
per 
acre. 


Produc- 
tion. 


Aver- 
age 
farm 
price 
Dec.l. 


Farm 
value 
Dec. 1. 




Acres. 


Bu. 


Bushels. 


Cts. 


Dollars. 


Acres. 
3,000 
1,000 


Bu. 

25.5 
24.5 


Bushels. 

76,000 
24,000 


Cts. 
101 
1C0 


Dollars. 
7/, 000 














24,000 


N.Y 

N.J 


340,000 

80,000 

1,286,000 

113,000 
610,000 

780,000 
235,000 
605,000 

79,000 

140,000 

1,950,000 

2,150,000 

2,240,000 

835,000 

87,000 

50; 000 

450,000 

2,315,000 


20.0 
17.6 
17.0 

14.5 
13.3 
13.6 
13.0 
11.7 

12.3 
12.2 
18.0 
18.5 
18.7 

15.3 
20.1 
16.2 
23.4 
17.1 


6,800,000 

1,408,000 

21,862,000 

1,638,000 
8,113,000 
10,608,000 
3,055,000 
7,078,000 

972,000 

1,708,000 

35,100,000 

39,775,000 

41,888,000 

12,776,000 

1,749,000 

810,000 

10,530,000 

39,586,000 


93 
96 
91 

88 
89 
96 
100 
106 

130 

120 
90 
88 
86 

98 
82 
76 
76 
84 


6,324.000 

l,352i000 

19,894,000 

1,441,000 
7,221,000 
10,184,000 
3,055,000 
7,503,000 

1,264,000 
2,050,000 
31,590,000 

35,002,000 
36,024,000 

11,371,000 

1,434,000 

616,000 

8,003,000 

33,252,000 






















Del 

Md 












Va 

W.Va 

N. C 

S.C 

Ga 
































Ohio 






















Mich 

Wis 

Minn 

Iowa.. 

Mo 












103,000 

4,150,000 

345,000 


18.6 
16.2 
17.0 


1,916,000 

67,230,000 
5,865,000 


82 
76 
76 


1,571,000 
51,095,000 
4,457,000 




7,510,000 

3,675,000 

350,000 

55,000 


10.5 
9.0 
12.0 

8.5 


78,855,000 
33,075,000 
4,200,000 

468,000 


73 

71 
71 
79 


57,564,000 


S. Dak 

Nebr 

Kans 


100,000 
3,125,000 
6,655,000 

725,000 

700,000 

32,000 

1,000 

780,000 

1,750,000 

101,000 

480,000 
40,000 

200,000 
35,000 

29,000 

200,000 

16,000 

310,000 

1,200,000 

575,000 
300,000 


9.0 
18.6 
13.0 
13.6 

12.0 
11.7 
14.0 
17.5 
10.0 
13.0 
25.6 
25.0 
21.1 
18.6 

32.0 
23.0 
23.0 
27.4 
27.0 

21.4 
14.0 


900,000 

58,125,000 

86,515,000 

9,860,000 

8,400,000 

374,000 

14,000 

13,650,000 

17,500,000 

1,313,000 

12,288,000 

1,000,000 

4,220,000 

651,000 

928,000 

4,600,000 

368,000 

8,494,000 

32,400,000 

12,305,000 

4,200,000 


71 
71 

79 
96 

98 
115 
95 

94 
82 

90 
66 

72 
78 
97 

110 
73 
82 
63 
73 

75 
95 


639,000 

41,269,000 

68,347,000 

9,466,000 

8,232,000 

430,000 

13,000 

12,831,000 

14,350,000 

1,182,000 
8,110,000 

720,000 
3,292,000 

631,000 

1,021,000 

3,358,000 

302,000 

5,351,000 

23,652,000 

9,229.000 
3,990,000 


23,483,000 

2,982,000 

370,000 


*-y 

Tenn 

Ala. 

Miss 

Tex 

Okla 

Ark 

Mont 

Wyo 

Colo 

N. Mex 

Ariz 

Utah 

Nev 

Idaho 

Wash 

Oreg. 

Cal.. 






























































390,000 
50,000 

260,000 
30,000 


21.5 
25.0 
21.0 
19.0 


8,385,000 

1,250,000 

5,460,000 

570,000 


66 

72 
78 
97 


5,534,000 
900,000 

4,259,000 
553,000 


65,000 

23,000 

200,000 

1,100,000 

175,000 


28.0 
31.0 
28.0 
19.0 

19.5 


1,820,000 

713,000 

5,600,000 

20,900,000 

3,412,000 


73 
82 
63 
73 

75 


1,329,000 

585,000 

3,528,000 

15,257,000 

2,559,000 


U. S 


31,699,000 


16.5 


523, 561, 000 


82.9 


433,995,000 


18,485,000 


13.0 


239,819,000 


73.4 


176,127,000 


1912 

1911 

1910 

1909' 

1908 

1907 

1906 

1905 

1904 

1903 

1902 

1901 

1900 

1899 

1898 

1897 

1895 

1894 

1893 

1892 


26,571,000 
29,162,000 
27,329,000 
27,017,000 
30,349,000 
28,132,000 
29,600,000 
29,864,000 

26,866,000 
32,511,000 
28,581,000 
30,240,000 
26,236,000 

25,358,000 
25,745,000 
22,926,000 
22,794,000 
22, 609, 000 

23,519,000 
23,118,000 
26,209,000 


15.1 
14.8 
15.9 
15.5 
14.4 
14.6 
16.7 
14.3 

12.4 
12.3 
14.4 
15.2 
13.3 

11.5 

14.9 
14.1 
11.8 
11.6 

14.0 
12.0 
13.7 
14.7 
10.9 


399,919,000 
430,656,000 
434,142,000 
117,781,000 
437,908,000 
409,442,000 
492,888,000 
428,462,000 

332,935,000 
399,867,000 
411,789,000 
458,835,000 
350,025,000 

291,706,000 
382,492,000 
323,616,000 
267,934,000 
261,242,000 

329,290,000 
278,469,000 
359,416,000 
405,116,000 
255,374,000 


80.9 
88.0 
88.1 
102.4 
93.7 
88.2 
68.3 
78.2 

97.8 
71.6 
64.8 
66.1 
63.3 

63. C 

62.2 
85.1 

77.0 
57.8 

49. S 
66.3 
65.1 

88. C 
87.5 


323,572,000 
379,151,000 
382,318,000 
427,872,000 
410,330,000 
361,217,000 
336,435,000 
|334,987,000 

325,611,000 
286,243,000 
'266,727,000 
,303,227,000 

221,668,000 

183,767,000 
237,736,000 
275,323,000 
206,270,000 
150,944,000 

164,022,000 
156,720,000 
234,037,000 
356,415,000 
223,362,000 


19,243,000 
20,381,000 
18,352,000 
17,2^3,000 
17,208,000 
17,079,000 
17,706,000 
17,990,000 

17,209,000 
16,954,000 
17,621,000 
19,656,000 
16,259,000 

19,235,000 
18,310,000 
16,539,000 
11,825,000 
11,438,000 

11,364,000 
11,511,000 
12,345,000 
12,393,000 
12,567,000 


17.2 
9.4 
11.0 
15.4 
13.2 
13.2 
13.7 
14.7 

12.8 
14.0 
14.7 
14.7 
10.6 

13.3 

16.0 
12.5 
13.5 
18.0 

11.5 
10.2 
12.7 
16.7 
11.4 


330,348,000 

190,682,000 
200,979,000 
m5, 569, 000 
226,694,000 
224,645,000 
242,373,000 
264,517,000 

219,464,000 

237,955,000 
258,274,000 
289,626,000 
172,204,000 

255,598,000 
232,657,000 
206,533,000 
159,750,000 
205,861,000 

130,977,000 
117,662,000 
156,531,000 
206,665,000 
143,890,000 


70.1 
86.0 
88.9 
92.6 
91.1 
86.0 
63.5 
69.3 

84.2 
65.9 
60.2 
56.7 
59.1 

53.1 
53.0 

74.2 
65.3 
42.3 

47.2 
48.0 
56.3 
76.0 
77.4 


231,708,000 
163,912,000 
178,733,000 
245,787,000 
206,496,000 
193,220,000 
153,898,000 
183,386,000 

184,879,000 
156,782,000 
155,497,000 
164,133,000 
101,847,000 

135,778,000 
155,034,000 
153,224,000 
104,328,000 
86,995,000 

61,880,000 
56,451,000 
88,075,000 


1891 

1890 


27,524,000 
°3, 520, 000 


157,058,000 
111,411.000 



i Census acreage and production. 



Statistics of Wheat. 
WHEAT— Continued. 



381 



Table 15. — Acreage, -production, total farm value, and value per acre of wheat, by States, 

1912 and 1913. 



Thousands of acres. 



1!I13 



Production (thou- 
sands of bushels). 



1913 



1012 



Total value, basis 
Dec. 1 price 
(thousands of 
dollars). 



1913 



1912 



Value (dollars) per 
acre, basis Dec. 1 
price. 



1913 



Maine 

Vermont 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska . 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Texas 

. Oklahoma 

Arkansas 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah. 

Nevada 

Idaho 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 

United States.. 



3 
1 

310 

80 

1.286 

113 
610 

780 
235 
605 

79 

140 

1,950 

2.150 

2,240 

835 
190 

4,200 
795 

2,315 

7,510 

3,775 
3,475 
6,710 

725 

700 

32 

1 

780 

1,750 

101 

870 
90 
460 

65 
29 

2G5 
39 

510 

2, 300 
750 
300 



3 

1 

335 

79 

1,240 

111 

741 
233 



79 

132 

1,220 

1.260 

1,183 

700 
188 

4,325 
650 

1,900 

7,990 
3,675 
3,123 
5,956 



674 

30 

8 

735 

1,570 

94 
803 

76 
453 

59 
23 
236 
39 

510 

2.285 
842 
370 



76 

24 

6,800 

1,408 

21,862 

1,638 
8,113 
10,608 
3.055 
7,078 

972 

1,708 

35. 100 

39.775 

41,888 

12,776 
3, 665 
68,040 
16,395 
39, 586 

78,855 
33,975 
62,325 
86,983 
9,860 

8,400 

374 

14 

13.650 

17,500 

1.313 

20.673 

2.2o0 



1,221 

928 

6, 420 

1,081 

14,094 
53,300 
15,717 
4,200 



70 

25 

5,360 

1,462 

22,320 

1,942 

8,985 
8,596 
3,378 
5,322 

727 

1,228 

9,760 

10.080 

9.819 

7,000 
3,564 

67.038 
12,850 
23,750 

143,820 
52, 185 

55,052 

92,290 

6,860 

7,077 

318 

96 

11,025 

20,096 

940 

19.346 
2,181 
10,968 

1,232 

707 

6.059 

1,137 

14,566 

53,728 

21,018 

6, 290 



24 

6,324 

1.352 

19,894 

1,441 
7,221 
10, 184 
3,055 
7,503 

1,264 

2,050 

31,590 

35,002 

36,024 

11,371 
3,005 
51,711 
12, 460 
33,252 

57,564 
24, 122 
44,251 
68,717 
9,466 

8,232 

430 

13 

12,831 

14,350 

1,182 

13,644 

1,620 

7,551 

1,184 
1,021 

4,687 



8,879 
38,909 

11,788 
3.990 



50, 184 



45,814 



763,380 



730.267 



610,122 



72 

24 

5,306 

1,433 

21,204 

1,864 
8,536 
8,682 
3,412 
5,907 

865 
1,498 
9,565 
9,374 
8,641 

6,720 

2.958 
48,(i3S 
10,023 
21,375 

99,236 

36, 008 
37.985 
68,295 
6,791 

7,077 

359 

93 

10,253 

15,072 

884 

12,381 

1,745 

8,006 

1,109 

778 

4,544 

1,137 

9,613 
36,535 
15, 132 

5,850 



24, 50 
18. 60 
16.90 
15.47 

12.76 
11.84 
13.06 
13.00 
12.40 

15.99 
14.64 
16.20 
16.28 
16.08 

13.62 
15.83 
12.31 
15.66 
14.36 

7.66 
6.39 
12.71 
11.27 
13.06 

11.76 
13.46 

13.30 
16.45 
8.20 

11.70 
15.71 
18.00 
16.38 

18.24 
35.20 
17.67 
22.71 

17.39 
16.94 
15.75 
13.30 



24.20 
24.50 
15.84 
18.13 
17.10 

16.80 
14.25 
11.72 
14.64 
9.88 

10.95 
11.35 

7.84 
7.44 
7.30 

9.60 
15.77 
11.32 
15.44 
11.25 

12.42 
9.80 
12.14 
11.47 
9.90 

10.50 
11.98 
11.64 

13.95 



9.40 
15.42 

22.96 
17.67 

18.81 
33.77 
19.28 
29.20 

18.88 
15.98 
18.00 
15.81 



555,280 



12.16 



12.12 



382 Yearbook of the Department of A griculture. 

WHEAT— Continued. 
Table 16. — Yield per acre and price per bushel of wheat, by States. 





Yield (bushels) per acre. 


Farm price (cents) per bushel. 




10-year averages. 










10-year averages 
for Dec. 1 - 








Quarterly, 1913. 


. State. 




















o 


_; 


cj 






OS 


OS 


OS 


OS 










OS 


CT) 


OS 


OS 


OS 


OS 


OS 












^ 


X 


as 


O 












OO 


a 


o 


















00 


OO 


OO 


OS 












































































l 


i 


6 


o 


3 


d 


CO 


| 


<± 


1 

o 


o 


d 

OS 


d 


d 




0> 

a 


a 


d 
4J 




oo 


00 


00 




OS 


Os 


OS 


OS 


OO 


oo 


oo 


os 




102 
103 


n 

110 
99 






3 




« 










** 


^ 




^ 




152 
139 


128 
117 


96 
91 


100 
98 


103 

98 


^ 




w 


Me 


14.0 

16.6 


13.6 

16.9 


18.3 
20.6 


24.0 
21.9 


29.7 
29.3 


21.0 
27.8 


23.5 
25.0 


25.5 
24.5 


101 


Vt 


95 


100 


107 


100 


N.Y 


14.8 


14..7 


17.2 


17.4 


23.7 


19.5 


16.0 


20.0 


126 


102 


82 


90 


96 


95 


99 


101 


102 


89 


93 


N.J 


14.3 


12.8 


15.0 


16.8 


18.5 


17.4 


18.5 


17.6 


131 


104 


82 


89 


98 


96 


98 


103 


101 


95 


96 


Pa 


13.8 


12.6 


15.3 


16.5 


17.8 


13.5 


18.0 


17.0 


123 


99 


77 


87 


92 


92 


95 


100 


101 


89 


91 


Del 


12.2 


11.6 


14.0 


16.0 


17.0 


16.7 


17.5 


14.5 


128 


100 


77 


86 


90 


90 


96 


100 


103 


88 


88 


Md 


11.7 


12.3 


15.1 


16.0 


17.4 


15.5 


15.0 


13.3 


125 


98 


78 


86 


92 


91 


95 


101 


100 


88 


89 


Va 


8.5 


8.0 


9.9 


10.6 


12.8 


12.0 


11.6 


13.6 


115 


97 


76 


90 


97 


9b 


101 


106 


107 


93 


96 


W. Va 


10.7 


10.0 


11.0 


11.2 


12.5 


11.5 


14.5 


13.0 


111 


94 


78 


92 


102 


102 


101 


102 


104 


95 


100 


N.C 


7.4 


6.0 


7.0 


8.2 


11.4 


10.6 


8.9 


11.7 


119 


106 


84 


101 


110 


102 


111 


111 


118 


97 


106 


S.C 


6.9 


5.7 


6.7 


8.1 


11.0 


11.4 


9.2 


12.3 


163 


119 


98 


114 


126 


123 


119 


115 


129 


117 


130 


Ga 


7.5 


6.0 


7.3 


8.3 


10.5 


12.0 


9.3 


12.2 


136 


115 


95 


110 


130 


114 


122 


121 


121 


120 


120 


Ohio 


14.0 


13.5 


14.7 


14.9 


16.2 


16.0 


8.0 


18.0 


108 


91 


71 


86 


90 


91 


98 


102 


101 


86 


90 


Ind 


13.0 


13.1 


13.3 


14.2 


15.6 


14.7 


8.0 


18.5 


100 


87 


69 


84 


87 


89 


93 


98 


97 


83 


88 


Ill 


13.0 


13.1 


12.8 


15.5 


15.0 


16.0 


8.3 


18.7 


92 


84 


67 


81 


88 


89 


88 


94 


91 


84 


86 


Mich 


14.7 


15.3 


14.7 


14.5 


18.0 


18.0 


10.0 


15.3 


109 


88 


72 


84 


89 


88 


96 


101 


100 


85 


89 


Wis 


13.1 


12.0 


14.2 


16.6 


19.3 


15.9 


19.0 


19.3 


87 


83 


66 


79 


92 


90 


83 


82 


85 


84 


82 


Minn 


14.3 


12.6 


14.4 


13.0 


16.0 


10.1 


15.5 


16.2 


77 


75 


62 


76 


94 


92 


73 


79 


82 


79 


76 


Iowa 


11.0 


10.7 


14.3 


14.6 


21.0 


16.4 


19.8 


20.6 


73 


73 


61 


72 


85 


88 


78 


79 


80 


78 


76 


Mo 


12.2 


11.8 


11.4 


13.4 


13.8 


15.7 


12.5 


17.1 


92 


80 


64 


78 


87 


88 


90 


95 


92 


81 


84 


N. Dak.... 


}.... 


13.0 


/13.1 
\10.7 


12.1 


5.0 


8.0 


18.0 


10.5 


}- 


64 


/56 
t 55 


72 


90 


89 


69 


74 


78 


76 


73 


S.Dak 


12.1 


12.8 


4.0 


14.2 


9.0 


71 


89 


91 


69 


75 


78 


74 


71 


Nebr 


12.5 


11.0 


12.1 


17.5 


16.2 


13.4 


17.6 


17.9 


67 


64 


55 


67 


80 


87 


69 


73 


76 


72 


71 


Kans 


14.3 


13.8 


12.3 


14.0 


14.1 


10.7 


15.5 


13.0 


86 


69 


57 


71 


84 


91 


74 


77 


79 


75 


79 


Ky 


10.4 


9.4 


11.6 


11.5 


12.8 


12.7 


10.0 


13.6 


98 


89 


71 


87 


93 


92 


99 


101 


102 


92 


96 


Tenn 


7.8 


6.6 


9.4 


9.6 


11.7 


11.5 


10.5 


12.0 


101 


91 


74 


90 


98 


96 


100 


107 


104 


95 


98 


Ala 


7.8 


6.0 


8.1 


9.6 


12.0 


11.5 


10.6 


11.7 


124 


112 


92 


102 


113 


120 


113 


118 


123 


104 


115 


Miss 


9.0 


5.6 


8.5 


10.0 


14.0 


12.0 


12.0 


14.0 


140 


114 


86 


94 


116 


100 


97 




100 


92 


95 


Texas 


13.8 


10.1 


11.6 


10.8 


15.0 


9.4 


15.0 


17.5 


126 


95 


74 


89 


98 


100 


93 


"93 


88 


84 


94 


Okla 


9.4 


7.5 


13.8 
8.9 


12.8 
9.5 


16.3 
13.9 


8.0 
10.5 


12.8 
10.0 


10.0 
13.0 






58 
72 


73 
85 


87 
94 


92 
90 


75 
94 


80 

90 


79 
92 


75 
82 


82 


Ark 


113 


99 


90 


Mont 




17.5 


24.3 


26.3 


22.0 


28.7 


24.1 


23.8 




87 


67 


73 


86 


77 


64 


66 


65 


66 


66 


Wyo 

Colo 




17.4 


21.5 


24.5 


25.0 


26.0 


28.7 


25.0 




88 


68 


80 


95 


94 


80 


91 


79 


70 


72 


U9.1 


19.4 


20.4 


25.1 


22.3 


18.9 


24.2 


21.0 


1102 


86 


63 


75 


82 


84 


73 


73 


74 


73 


78 


N. Mex 




13.6 


17.5 


21.2 


20.0 


22.9 


20.9 


18.8 




97 


76 


88 


100 


100 


90 


87 


88 


77 


97 


Ariz 




13.8 


18.5 


23.1 


22.3 


29.6 


30.7 


32.0 




94 


78 


106 


120 


95 


110 


118 


118 


108 


110 


Utah 




17.2 


20.7 


24.7 


22.1 


22.3 


25.7 


24.2 




75 


62 


75 


84 


70 


75 


76 


77 


66 


73 


Nev 


21.1 


17.5 


20.9 


28.0 


26.5 


28.3 


29.2 


27.7 


"isi 


96 


78 


93 


109 


95 


100 


101 


96 


90 


82 


Idaho 




17.0 


21.8 


24.2 


22.6 


30.7 


28.6 


27.6 




86 


61 


69 


72 


66 


66 


68 


72 


65 


63 


Wash 


. 


16.9 


19.4 


23.1 


16.9 


22.7 


23.5 


23.2 




73 


58 


69 


78 


71 


68 


77 


81 


69 


73 


Oreg 


18.7 


16.4 


17.8 


19.5 


22.1 


21.0 


25.0 


21.0 


"89 


74 


63 


72 


84 


75 


72 


80 


81 


75 


75 


Cal 


13.3 


12.5 


12.3 
13.2 


12.6 


18.0 


18.0 


17.0 


14.0 


118 


83 


71 


84 


94 


88 


93 


90 


100 


92 


95 


U.S 


12.3 


12.0 


14.1 


13.9 


12.5 


15.9 


15.2 


99.4 


83.5 


65.4 


77.0 


88.3 


87.4 


76.0 


80.6 


S2.7 


77.1 


79.9 



1 The Territories. 



Statistics of Wheat. 
WHEAT— Continued. 



383 



Table 17. — Condition of wheat crop on first of months named, and yield per acre, United 

States, 1890-1914. 





Winter wheat. 


Spring wheat. 


Year. 


Decem- 
ber of 








When 


Yield 








When 


Yield 




pre- 


April. 


May. 


June. 


har- 


per 


June. 


July. 


August. 


har- 


per 




vious 








vested. 


acre. 








vested. 


acre. 




year. 
























P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


Bu. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


Bu. 




95.3 


81.0 


80.0 


78.1 


76.2 


10.9 


91.3 


94.4 


83.2 


79.7 


11.4 


1891 


98.4 


96.9 


97.9 


96.6 


96.2 


14.7 


92.6 


94.1 


95.5 


97.2 


16.7 


1892 


85.3 


81.2 


84.0 


88.3 


89.6 


13.7 


92.3 


90.9 


87.3 


81.2 


12.7 


1893 


87.4 


77.4 


75.4 


75.5 


77.7 


12.0 


86.4 


74.1 


67.0 


68.9 


10.2 


1894 


91.5 


86.7 


81.4 


83.2 


83.9 


14.0 


88.0 


68.4 


67.1 


69.9 


11.5 


1895 


89.0 


81.4 


82.9 


71.1 


65.8 


11.6 


97.8 


102.2 


95.9 


94.9 


18.0 


1896 


81.4 


77.1 


82.7 


77.9 


75.6 


11.8 


99.9 


93.3 


78.9 


73.8 


13.5 


1897 


99.5 


81.4 


80.2 


78.5 


81.2 


14.1 


89.6 


91.2 


86.7 


80.8 


12.5 


1898 




sa 7 

77.9 


86.5 
76.2 


90.8 
67.3 


85.7 
65.6 


14.9 
11.5 


100.9 
91.4 


95.0 
91.7 


96.5 
83.6 


91.7 

77.2 


16.0 


1899 


92.6 


13.3 


1900 


97.1 


82.1 


88.9 


82.7 


80.8 


13.3 


87.3 


55.2 


56.4 


56.1 


10.6 


1901 


97.1 


91.7 


94.1 


87.8 


88.3 


15.2 


92.0 


95.6 


80.3 


78.4 


14.7 


1902 


86.7 


78.7 


76.4 


76.1 


77.0 


14.4 


95.4 


92.4 


89.7 


87.2 


14.7 


1903 


99.7 


97.3 


92.6 


82.2 


78.8 


12.3 


95.9 


82.5 


77.1 


78.1 


14.0 


1904 


86.6 


76.5 


76.5 


77.7 


78.7 


12.4 


93.4 


93.7 


87.5 


66.2 


12.8 


1905 


82.9 


91.6 


92.5 


85.5 


82.7 


14.3 


93.7 


91.0 


89.2 


87.3 


14.7 


1906 


94.1 


89.1 


90.9 


82.7 


85.6 


16.7 


93.4 


91.4 


86.9 


83.4 


13.7 


1907 


94.1 


89.9 


82.9 


77.4 


78.3 


14.6 


88.7 


87.2 


79.4 


77.1 


13.2 


1908 


91.1 


91.3 


89.0 


86.0 


80.6 


14.4 


95.0 


89.4 


80.7 


77.6 


13.2 


1909 


85.3 


82.2 


83.5 


80.7 


82.4 


15.8 


95.2 


92.7 


91.6 


88.6 


15.8 


1910 


95.8 


80.8 


82.1 


80.0 


81.5 


15.9 


92.8 


61.6 


61.0 


63.1 


11.0 


1911 


82.5 


83.3 


86.1 


80.4 


76.8 


14.8 


94.6 


73.8 


59.8 


56.7 


9.4 


1912 


86.6 


80.6 


79.7 


74.3 


73.3 


15.1 


95.8 


89.3 


90.4 


90.8 


17.2 


1913 


93.2 


91.6 


91.9 


83.5 


81.6 


16.5 


93.5 


73.8 


74.1 


75.3 


13.0 


1914 . 


97.2 


95.6 







































Table 18. — Per cent of winter wheat area sown which was abandoned {not harvested). 



Year. 


Per cent. 


Year. 


Per cent. 


Year. 


Per cent. 


1899 


13.5 
11.8 

6.7 
15.2 

2.8 


1904 


15.4 
4.6 
5.5 

11.2 

4.2 


1909 


7.5 


1900 


1905 


1910 


13.7 


1901 


1906 


1911 


10.7 


1902. 


1907 


1912 


20.1 


1903. 


1908 


1913 


4.5 











384 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

WHEAT— Continued. 



Table 19. — Farm price of wheat per bushel, on first of each month, by geographical 

divisions, 1912 and 1913. 





United 


North 


South 


N. Central 


N. Central 


South 


Far West- 




Atlantic 


Atlantic 


States east 


States west 


Central 






States. 


States. 


of Miss. B. 


of Miss. E. 


States. 






Month. 




























1913 


1912 


1913 


1912 


1913 


1912 


1913 


1912 


1913 


1912 


1913 


1912 


1913 


1912 




as. 


as. 


as. 


as. 


as. 


as. 


as. 


as. 


Cts. 


as. 


as. 


as. 


as. 


as. 


January 


76.2 


88.0 


97.7 


93.4 


103.3 


98.8 


94.5 


90.4 


72.4 


90.1 


88.4 


96.1 


68.6 


74.5 




79.9 


90.4 


99.9 


95.8 


106.1 


101.0 


97.9 


93.0 


76.2 


93.1 


88.5 


96.7 


73.9 


83.3 


March 


80.6 


90.7 


100.4 


95.5 


105.3 


101.7 


97.0 


93.2 


76.6 


92.0 


90.6 


99.1 


75.9 


78.8 


April 


79.1 


92.5 


100.9 


98.2 


106.7 


104.7 


94.7 


95.3 


73.9 


93.9 


89.7 


99.4 


77.5 


79.7 




80.9 


99.7 


99.9 


103.4 


106.5 


112.8 


96.3 


105.9 


76.8 


99.1 


89.2 


105.1 


77.2 


88.3 


June 


82.7 


102.8 


101.2 


110.7 


107.4 


117.6 


95.9 


109.1 


79.4 


101.0 


88.7 


109.2 


78.3 


92.3 


July 


81.4 


99.0 


100.2 


111.0 


102.0 


114.4 


92.1 


105.5 


78.7 


99.0 


82.5 


100.3 


77.8 


84.9 


August 


77.1 


89.7 


89.7 


101.0 


92.8 


103.1 


82.9 


96.0 


75.5 


87.9 


78.7 


91.5 


74.2 


80.2 


September . 


77.1 


85.8 


89.4 


96.9 


93.7 


102.9 


84.4 


96.3 


75.8 


82.6 


82.9 


91.6 


70.8 


72.8 


October 


77.9 


83.4 


90.6 


95.2 


95.5 


103.0 


86.6 


95.3 


76.1 


78.4 


88.9 


91.6 


71.3 


71.8 




77.0 


83.8 


91.6 


96.0 


97.4 


104.8 


85.9 


95.6 


74.8 


78.8 


88.8 


94.0 


70.1 


71.0 


December. . 


79.9 


76.0 


91.7 


95.9 


98.6 


101.9 


87.8 


92.6 


75.6 


72.0 


91.0 


87.3 


72.7 


70.5 


Average.. 


78.4 


87.3 


93.7 


97.2 


98.4 


104.1 


88.5 


96.3 


75.7 


85.1 


84.3 


94.0 


71.9 


74.2 



Table 20. — Wholesale price of wheat per bushel, 1899-1913. 





New York. 


Baltimore. 


Chicago. 


Detroit. 


St. Louis: 


Minneapo- 
lis. 


San Fran- 
cisco. 


Date. 


No. 


2 red 


Southern, 


No. 1 north- 




No. 


2 red 


No. 1 north- 


No. 1 Cali- 
fornia (per 
100 lbs.). 




winter. 


No. 2 red. 


ern spring. 1 




winter. 


ern. 2 




Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 




as. 


as. 


as. 


Cts. 


as. 


as. 


Os. 


Cts. 


as. 


Os. 


Os. 


as. 


Dolls . 


Bolls. 


1899 


724 
72? 


87* 


681 


811 


64 


794 


67} 


80} 


68 


818 


60 


rn 


0.96} 


1.18} 


1900 


961 


70 


90 


6I4 

63} 


87} 


66} 


91* 


66} 


86} 


62 


884 


.90 


1.07 


1901 


72| 


89| 


69} 


85} 


794 


664 


904 


61} 


881 


604 


77} 


.95 


1.06? 


1902 


73J 


94} 


66} 


87* 
88} 


674 
70} 


95 


684 


931 


63 


924 


66* 

73§ 


80* 


1.05 


1.45 


1903 


78} 


99J 


764 


93 


74} 


94 


69} 


94 


100 


1.32} 


1.55 


1904 


921 


126} 


82 


1184 


81} 


122 


92 


123 


89} 


121 


84} 


1244 


1.23} 


1.50 


1905 


84? 


125} 


73 


1194 


824 


124 


80 


124 


82 


120 


75} 


1244 


1.35 


1.55 


1906 

1907 


77 
80 


97 
116} 


68 

74 


91 
111} 




87} 
122 


72 


934 
1064 


68} 
744 


99} 
109J 


698 
76} 


119} 






79 


75 


I.224" 


1.80* 
1.77J 


1908 


95} 


115 


89 


106? 


102 


124 


89} 


107 


89 


110 


98} 


125 


1.55 


1909 


106} 


150} 


991 


160 


103 


140 


104} 


157 


102 


166 


97} 


1444 


1.65 


2.15 


1910 


94} 


131 


88} 


128 


100 


129} 


91 


127 


92 


135 


991 


129} 


1.40 


2.05 


1911 


90i 


105} 


87 


100} 


93 


117 


83} 


100} 


85 


108 


911 


1124 


1.35 


1.55 


1912 


98} 


127 


944 


1164 


85 


122 


95} 


120 


924 


125} 


80} 


1181 


1.40 


1.90 


1913. 
January 


107 


110 


105} 


1094 


884 


93 


110} 


116} 


103 


115 


82} 


898 


1.55 


1.72} 


February.. 


108 


111 




1074 


904 


94 


107} 


113} 


100 


113 


854 
82J 
85} 


88J 
87| 
91} 


1.67} 


1.75 




108 
110 


1104 

1144 






87} 
90 


924 
954 


1024 
107} 


109} 
112 


97 
104 


112 
112} 


1.70 
1.75 


1.77} 


April 

May 


107 


107} 


1.82} 


111 


114 




108} 


90} 


96 


105} 


HO} 


95 


112 


88} 


94 


1.75 


1.82} 


June 


107 


1114 




105 


91} 


96 


' 1034 


108} 


93 


107 


90} 


95 


1.70 


1.80 


July 


95* 


107 


89} 


93} 


881 


95 


88 


101 


83 


90 


87 


93} 


1.55 


1.72} 


August 


94 


961 


894 


93 


898 


94} 


874 


91} 


84} 


92} 


85} 


904 
908 


1.55 


1.60 


September . 


96 


98 


91 


94} 


88 


95} 


92 


951 


90 


96 


83 


1.55 


1.624 


October 


95 


98 


90} 


921 


85 


904 


91 


95 


87} 


97 


80} 


868 


1.60 


1.62} 


November . 


97 


1001 


91* 


93} 


88 


91} 


94 


96} 


894 


95} 


82} 


86 


1.574 


1.65 


December. . 


99 


1004 


90 


964 


894 


93 


974 


1024 


90 


97} 


83J 


87} 


1.574 


1.624 


Year. 


94 


114 


89} 


1094 


85 


96 


874 


116} 


83 


115 


80} 


95 


1.55 


1.82} 



1 No grade, 1899 to 1901. 



» No. 2 northern, 1899 and 1900. 



Statistics of Wheat. 

WHEAT— Continued . 
Table 21. — Wholesale price of wheat flour per barrel, 1899-1913. 



385 





Chicago. 


Cincinnati. 


New York. 


St. Louis. 


Date. 


Winter patents. 


Spring patents. 


Winter family. 


Spring patents. 


Winter patents. 




Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


1899 


$3.40 
3.40 
3.30 
3.40 
3.40 

4.00 
3.85 
3.20 
3.10 
4.00 

4.65 
4.00 
3.60 
3.75 


$4.00 

4.40 
3.90 
4.00 
4.20 

5.50 
5.20 
4.10 
5.10 
5.10 

6.75 
5.80 
5.40 
5.45 


$3.20 
3.00 
3.25 
3.20 
3.30 

4.00 
3.75 
3.55 
2.70 
4.90 

5.35 
6.00 
5.10 
4.00 


S3. 90 
4.30 
3.80 
3.90 
4.60 

6.00 
5.70 
4.15 
5.75 
5.75 

7.00 
7.00 
6.55 
5.60 


$2.35 
2.35 
2.20 
2.70 
2.65 

3.25 
3.10 
2.70 
2.70 
3.25 

3.95 
3.10 
2.60 
3.40 


$2.75 
3.50 
3.25 
3.35 
3.55 

4.70 
4.70 
3.60 
4.30 
4.10 

5.85 
5.10 
3.70 
4.50 


$3.40 
3.25 
3.30 
3.50 
3.55 

4.30 
4.25 
3.75 
3.80 
4.85 

4.80 
4.80 
4.45 
4.25 


$4.25 
5.00. 
4.25 
4.25 
5.00 

6.60 
6.35 
4.80 
6.00 
5.90 

6.85 
6.35 
5.75 
6.00 


$3.35 
3.35 
3.30 
3.10 
3.35 

4.25 
4.05 
3.35 
3.50 
4.35 

4.60 
4.35 
3.90 
4.20 


$4.00 


1900 


4.25 


1901 


4.10 


1902 


4.25 


1903 


4.40 


1904 


5.75 


1905 


5.60 


1906 


4.60 


1907 


5.00 


1908 


5.10 


1909 


7.00 


1910 


6.20 


1911 


5.25 


1912 


5.85 






1913. 


4.75 
4.60 
4.45 
4.50 
4.45 
4.30 

3.90 
3.90 
3.90 
4.10 
4.15 
4.15 


4.90 
5.10 
4.80 
4.75 
4.65 
4.65 

4.35 
4.10 
4.25 
4.26 
4.30 
4.30 


4.10 
4.25 
4.10 
4.10 
4.25 
4.30 

4.30 
4.15 
4.30 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 


5.10 
5.10 
5.10 
5.30 
5.50 
5.60 

5.50 
5.40 
5.30 
5.30 
5.15 
5.15 


4.00 
3.75' 
3.60 
3.60 
3.25 
3.25 

3.20 
2.90. 
2.90 
2.90 
3.20 
3.20 


4.15 
4.15 

4.00 
3.85 
3.85 
3.50 

3.50 
3.50 
3.25 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 


4.50 
4.45 
4.40 
4.55 
4.70 
4.70 

4.65 
4.65 
4.50 
4.40 
4.45 
4.40 


4.75 
4.70 
4.70 
4.90 
5.00 
5.00 

5.00 

4.85 
4.85 
4.65 
4.65 
^.65 


4.65 
4.60 
4.30 
4.40 
4.35 
4.30 

3.75 
3.70 
3.85 
3.80 
4.00 
4.00 


5.15 




5.15 




5.00 




4.80 




4.75 




4.60 


July 


4.55 




4.00 


September 


4.10 
4.10 


November 


4.15 
4.20 






Year 


3.90 


4.90 


4.00 


5.60 


2.90 


4.15 


4.40 


5.00 


3.70 


5.15 



Table 22. — International trade in wheat and wheat flour, calendar years 1910-1912. 

[''Temporary" imports into Italy of wheat, to he used for manufacturing products for export, aresub- 
tracted from the total imports as given in the official Italian returns. In the trade returns of Chile the 
item trigo mote (prepared corn) which might easily be confused with trigo (wheat) is omitted. See " Gen- 
eral note, " p. 375.] 

EXPORTS. 

[000 omitted.] 



Country. 


Wheat. 


Wheat flour. 


Wheat and wheat flour. 1 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1910 


1911 


1912 




Bushels. 
69,209 
47, 762 
28 
22,898 
40,481 

8,688 
46,426 

2,247 
10,339 
58,300 

67,659 

225,458 

2,669 

24,257 

15,942 


Bushels. 
83,993 
55, 148 
15 
22,723 
52,557 

11,122 
60,474 
509 
11,390 
46,171 

53,586 

144, 779 

3,366 

32,669 

18,815 


Bushels. 
96,600 
32,604 
56 
16,576 
65,598 

! 11, 122 

84,958 

2,411 

11,853 

51,444 

» 53, 586 
96,868 
a 3, 366 
61,655 

a 13, 251 


Barrels. 

1,298 

1,428 

146 

718 

449 

581 
3,189 

129 
2,137 

267 

455 
1,257 

114 
8,370 
2,899 


Barrels. 

1,333 

1,816 

122 

750 

581 

756 

3,542 

69 

1,820 

191 

730 

1,355 

80 

11,258 

2,945 


Barrels. 

1,480 

1,739 

167 

732 

714 

S756 

4,303 

74 

1,924 

157 

730 

807 

280 

10,622 

3 3, 199 


Bushels. 
75,051 
54,188 
684 
26,129 
42, 499 

11,304 
60, 777 
2,826 
19,957 
59,504 

69, 708 

231,113 

3,181 

61,923 

28,984 


Bushels. 
89,991 
63,319 
566 
26,099 
55, 171 

14,524 
76,414 
821 
19,581 
47,028 

56,872 
150,875 
3,727 
83,330 
32,065 


Bushels. 
103,260 




40,428 


Austria-Hungary . . . 


806 
19,870 




68,812 
» 14, 524 




104,320 


Chile 


2,743 




20,510 


Netherlands 


52, 152 

2 56, 872 




100,498 




2 3,727 


Other countries 


109,451 
8 27,653 


Total 


642, 363 


597,317 


601,948 


23, 437 


27,348 


27,484 


747, 828 


720, 383 


725,626 







' Flour is reduced to terms of grain, where included in these 3 columns, by assuming 1 barrel of flour to 
be the product of 4? bushels of wheat. 
' Year preceding. 
3 Preliminary. 



27306"— tbk 1913- 



-25 



386 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 
WHEAT— Continued. 



Table 22. — International trade in wheat and wheat flour, calendar years 1910-1912- 

Continued. 

IMPORTS. 
[000 omitted.] 



Country. 



Belgium 

Brazil 

British South Africa 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Italy 

Japan 

Netherlands 

Portugal 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom . . . 
Other countries 

Total 



Wheat. 



1910 1911 1912 



Bushels. 

75, 219 

l 9, 528 

3,517 

2,824 

23,327 

86,117 
7,660 

45, 260 
1,818 

71,027 

3,024 
5,933 
6,810 

14,661 
195,965 

25,929 



578, 619 



Bushels. 
82, 192 
12,241 
2,919 
3,060 
78,995 

91,430 
7,934 

43, 300 
2,019 
58,570 

439 

4,927 

6,333 

16,142 

182, 352 

20, 305 



613, 158 



Bushels. 
71, 167 
14,010 
1,886 
5,885 
26,131 

84,415 
5,901 

58,407 

2,276 

65,788 

2,382 

1,543 

6,333 

17,843 

203, 322 

* 13,271 



580,560 



Wheat flour. 



1910 1911 1912 



Barrels. 

29 

U,646 

757 
549 
141 

167 

9 

14 

203 

2,204 



573 
5,615 
9,198 



21, 195 



Barrels. 
47 
1,786 
722 
599 
155 

172 

14 

18 

200 

2,242 



1 

79 

515 

5,682 

11,732 



23,964 



Barrels. 
21 

2, 133 
588 
580 
126 

179 
16 
34 

191 
2,051 



1 

79 

494 

5,742 

212,299 



24,534 



Wheat and wheat flour. 



1910 1911 1912 



Bushels. 
75,351 
116,933 
6,924 
5,295 
23, 960 



7,702 
45,322 

2,733 
80,946 

3,024 

5,937 

7,210 

17,241 

221,232 

67,317 



673, 995 



Bushels. 
82,405 
20, 277 
6,170 
5,756 
79,695 

92,204 
7,999 

43, 383 
2,921 

68,657 

439 

4,930 
6,689 

18,460 
207, 919 

73,093 



720,997 



Bushels. 
71,261 
23,609 
4,531 
8,496 
26, 698 

85,218 
5,974 

58, 561 
3, 135 

75,018 

2,382 

1,547 

6,689 

20,066 

229,160 

* 68, 620 



690,965 



• Data for 1909. * Preliminary. 

OATS. 
Table 23. — Oat crop of countries named, 1911-1913. 



Country. 


Area. 


Production. 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1911 


1912 


1913 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Acres. 
37,763,000 


Acres. 
37,917,000 


Acres. 
38,399,000 


Bushels. 
922,298,000 


Bushels. 
1,418,337,000 


Bushels. 
1,121,768,000 






Canada: 


208,000 
1,430,000 
2,806,000 
1,308,000 
2,333,000 
1,221,000 

325,000 


195,000 
1,296,000 
2,785,000 
1,348,000 
2,556,000 
1,461,000 

325,000 


195,000 
1,303,000 
2,814,000 
1,398,000 
2,755,000 
1,639,000 

330,000 


5,986,000 
37,500,000 
84,860,000 
60,037,000 
107,594,000 
59,034,000 
10, 168, 000 


5,607,000 
33,516,000 
97,053,000 
57,154,000 
117,537,000 
67, 630, 000 
13, 132, 000 


5,946,000 

39,025,000 




105,159,000 




56,759,000 




114,112,000 




71,542,000 


Other 


12,126,000 








9,631,000 


9,966,000 


10,434,000 


365, 179, 000 


391,629,000 


404,669,000 




(') 


(') 


(') 


17,000 


17,000 


17,000 






Total 








1,287,494,000 


1,809,983,000 


1,526,454,000 












SOUTH AMERICA. 


1,980,000 
58,000 
29,000 


2,548,000 
69,000 
86,000 


2,946,000 


47,192,000 

1,861,000 

590,000 


69,169,000 
3,380,000 
1,825,000 


115,879,000 


Chile 


4,000,000 




872,000 






Total. .. 








49,643,000 


74,374,000 


120,751,000 













i No official statistics. 



Statistics of Oats. 

OATS— Continued. 
Table 23.— Oat crop of countries named, 1911-1913— Continued. 



387 



Country. 


Area. 


Production. 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1911 1912 


1913 


EUROPE. 

Austria-Hungary : 


Acres. 

4,641,000 

2,653,000 

247,000 

229,000 


Acres. 

4,613,000 

2,473,000 

239,000 

203,000 


Acres. 
4,707,000 
2,884,000 
256,000 

299,000 


Bushels. 

135,143,000 

89,656,000 

5,554,000 

5,405,000 


Bushels. 

146,376,000 

76,768,000 

3,311,000 

4,766,000 


Bushels. 

160,091,000 

99,807,000 

6,163,000 

5,981,000 


Hungary proper 

Bosnia- Herzegovina. . . 


Total Austria^ 


7,770,000 


7,528,000 


8,146,000 


235,758,000 


231,221,000 


272,042,000 




639,000 

447,000 

2 966,000 

(') 

9,863,000 

10,694,000 

1,270,000 

342,000 

2 264,000 

992,000 


648,000 
(') 
1,059,000 

(') 

9,840,000 

10,841,000 

1,254,000 

341,000 

943,000 


M 

(') 

(') 

9,881,000 

10,967,000 

1,251,000 

342,000 

(') 

1,290,000 


43,249,000 

10,421,000 

41,188,000 

22,642,000 

303,328,000 

530,764,000 

40,973,000 

17,724,000 

8,593,000 

26,222,000 


38,000,000 
11,500,000 
42,395,000 
26,618,000 
313, 656, 000 
586,987,000 
28,306,000 
16,317,000 
11,607,000 
20,775,000 


41,000,000 
12,000,000 
43,300,000 
27,219,000 
322,131,000 












669,231,000 
43, 469, 000 


Italy 




20, 000, 000 




11,734,000 
35,138,000 






Russia: 


38,398,000 
2,894,000 
1,311,000 


37,270,000 
2,832,000 
1,117,000 




690,753,000 
78,465,000 
23,681,000 


862,783,000 
80,807,000 
29,677,000 






















Total R u s s i a 


42,603,000 


41,219,000 


"47,512,000 


792,899,000 


973,267,000 


'1,135,748,000 




259,000 
1,268,000 
1,952,000 


262,000 
1,279,000 


272,000 
1,351,000 


5, 050, 000 
33,858,000 
63,462,000 


5,477,000 
23, 035, 000 
75,900,000 


5,512,000 




25, 333, 000 




76,000,000 






United Kingdom: 


1,841,000 
206,000 
964,000 

1,040,000 


1,866,000 
207,000 
956,000 

1,046,000 


1,772,000 
202,000 
938,000 

1,049,000 


74,119,000 

7,087,000 

36, 751, 000 

59,207,000 


68,431,000 

7,040,000 

37,928,000 

66,867,000 


70,387,000 
6,981,000 






37,148,000 
66,610,000 








Total United 


4,051,000 


4,075,000 


3,961,000 


177,164,000 


180,266,000 


181,126,000 


Total 








2,353,295,000 


2,585,327,000 


2,920,983,000 












ASIA. 


(') 


(') 


(') 


466,000 


419,000 


500,000 






Russia : 


1,024,000 

3,953,000 

2,000 


860,000 

3,893,000 

2,000 




12,197,000 

53,272,000 

37,000 


17,591,000 

76,664,000 

65,000 






















Total Russia 


4,979,000 


4,755,000 


(<) 


65,506,000 


94,323,000 1 («) 


Total 








65,972,000 


94,742,000 














AFRICA. 


434,000 
148,000 
<?) 


476,000 
124,000 
(>) 


539,000 
136,000 


11,520,000 
4,650,000 
9,661,000 


12,351,000 

2,067,000 

6 9,661,000 


17,973,000 




4, 206, 000 


Union of South Africa... 


5 9,661,000 


Total 








25,831,000 


24,079,000 


31,840,000 













i No official statistics. 

2 Area in 1907 (census). 

3 Includes 10 governments of Asiatic Russia. 



4 Included in European Russia. 
» Census figures of 1911 repeated. 



388 Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

OATS— Continued. 
Table 23. — Oat crop of countries named, 1911-1913 — Continued. 



Country. 


Area. 


Production. 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1911 


1912 


1913 


AUSTRALASIA. 

Australia: 


Acres. 
2,000 
78,000 
393,000 
78,000 
62,000 
64,000 


Acres. 

1,000 

71,000 

302,000 

108,000 

. 84,000 

51,000 


Acres. 
4,000 
85,000 
439,000 
156,000 
128,000 
(') 


Bushels. 

52,000 

1,756,000 

10,005,000 

1, 172, 000 

801,000 

2, 128, 000 


Bushels. 

6,000 
1,191,000 
4,730,000 
1,392,000 
992,000 
1,552,000 


Bushels. 
85,000 
1,725,000 
8,586,000 
1,726,000 
2,175,000 
2,328,000 


New South Wales 


South Australia 




Total Australia 


677,000 


617,000 


874,000 


15,914,000 


9,863,000 


16,625,000 




303,000 


404,000 


387,000 


10, 412, 000 


10,438,000 


14,013,000 




Total Australasia. 


980,000 


1,021,000 


1,261,000 


26,326,000 


20,301,000 


30,638,000 










3,808,561,000 


4,608,806,000 


4,631,166,000 












1 No official statistics. 
Table 24. — Total production of oats in countries named in Table 2S y 1895-1913. 



Year. | Production. 


Year. 


Production. 


Year. 


Production. 


Year. | Production. 


1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 


Bushels. 
3,008,154,000 
2,847,115,000 
2,633,971,000 
2,903,974,000 
3,256,256,000 


1900.... 
1901.... 
1902.... 
1903.... 
1904.... 


Bushels. 

3,166,002,000 ; 
2,862,615,000 1 
3,626,303.000 
3,378,034,000 
3,611,302,000 1 


1905.... 
1906.... 
1907.... 
1908.... 
1909.... 


Bushels. 
3,510,167,000 

3,544,961,000 
3,603,896,000 
3,591,012,000 
4,312,882,000 


1910.... 
1911.... 
1912.... 
1913.... 


Bushels. 
4,182,410,000 
3,808,561,000 
4,608,806,000 
4,631,166,000 



Table 25. — Average yield of oats in countries named, bushels per acre, 1890-1913. 



Year. 


United 

States. 


Russia 
(Euro- 
pean).' 


Ger- 
many.' 


Austria. 1 


Hungary j _ 2 
proper.' ! Jranoe - 


United 
King- 
dom. 2 


Average (1890-1899) 


26.1 


17.8 


40.0 


25.3 




29.8 










Average (1900-1909) 


29.3 


20.0 


50.7 


29.8 


30. 7 | 31. 6 








1904 


32.1 
34.0 
31.2 
23.7 
25.0 
28.6 
31.6 
24.4 
37.4 
29.2 


25.7 
20.2 
15.1 
19.7- 
20.1 
25.7 
22.5 
18.6 
23.6 
= 24.6 


46.2 
43.6 
55.7 
58.3 
50.2 
59.0 
51.3 
49.6 
54.1 
61.1 


24.3 
27.7 
34.1 
35.7 
32.0 
37.4 
31.5 
33.7 
36.2 
39.3 


25.6 
31.0 
34.2 
30.0 
26.8 
33.8 
26.8 
33.8 
31.1 
33.7 


27.2 
28.6 
27.0 
31.8 
29.6 
34.1 
29.8 
30.8 
31.9 
32.6 




1905 




1906 




1907 




1908 


43.5 


1909 


1910 


44 3 


1911 




1912 


41.7 


1913 








Average (1904-1913) 


29.7 


21.6 


52.9 


33.2 


30.7 


30.3 


43.7 



i Bushels of 32 pounds. 



s Winchester bushels. 



• Includes 10 governments of Asiatic Russia. 



Statistics of Oats. 



389 



OATS— Continued. 

Table 26. — Acreage, production, value, exports, etc., of oats, United States, 1849-1913. 

Note.— Figures in italics are census returns; figures in roman are estimates of the Department of Agri- 
culture. Estimates of acres are obtained by applying estimated percentages of increase or decrease to 
the published numbers of the preceding year, except that a revised base is used for applying percentage 
estimates whenever new census data are available. 















Chicago cash price per 














Av- 






bushel 


No. 2 


l 


Domestic 


Imports 




Acreage. 


Av- 
erage 
yield 

per 
acre. 


Produc- 
tion. 


erage 
farm 
price 
per 
bushel 


Farm 
value. 
Dec. 1. 










exports, 
including 
oatmeal, 

fiscal 
year be- 
ginning 
July 1.2 


during 


Year. 


December. 


Following 
May. 


fiscal 
year 
begin- 
ning 










Dec. 1. 












July l.» 














Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 






Acres. 


Bush. 


Bushels. 


Cts. 


Dollars. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Bushels. 


Bushels. 


1849 






146,684,000 
172,643,000 


















1S59 






















1866.... 


8,864,000 


30.2 


268,141,000 


35.1 


94,058,000 


36 


43 


59 


78 


825,895 


778,198 


1867 


10,746,000 
9,666,000 


25.9 
26.4 


278,698,000 
254,961,000 


44.5 
41.7 


123,903,000 

106,356,000 


52 
43 


57J 
49J 




* 


122,554 
481,871 


780,798 


1868.... 


56} 


621 


326,659 


1869 


9,461,000 


30.5 


288,334,000 


38.0 


109,522,000 


40 


44| 


461 


531 


121,517 


2,266,785 


W9 






282,107,000 
247,277,000 


















1870.... 


8,792,000 


28.1 


39.0 


96, 444, 000 


m 


41 


47J 


51 


147,572 


599,514 


1871 


8,366,000 


30.6 


255,743,000 


36.2 


92,591,000 


30} 


33 


34} 


421 


262,975 


535,250 


1872.... 


9,001,000 


30.2 


271,747,000 


29.9 


81,304,000 


231 


25} 


30 


34 


714,072 


225,555 


1873 


9,752,000 


27.7 


270,340,000 


34.6 


93,474,000 


34 


40J 


44 


481 


812,873 


191,802 


1874.... 


10,897,000 


22.1 


240,369,000 


47.1 


113,134,000 


51} 


54J 


571 


641 


604,770 


1,500,040 


1875.--- 


11,915,000 


29.7 


354,318,000 


32.0 


113,441,000 


29* 


301 


28} 


311 


1,466,228 


121,547 


1876 


13,359,000 


24.0 


320,884,000 


32.4 


103,845,000 


311 


341 


37} 


45} 


2,854,128 


41,597 


1877.... 


12,826,000 


31.7 


406,394,000 


28.4 


115,546,000 


24J 


27 


23 


27 


3,715,479 


21,391 


1878 


13,176,000 


31.4 


413,579,000 


24.6 


101,752,000 


19} 


20} 


24} 


301 


5,452,136 


13,395 


1879. - - - 


12,684,000 


28.7 


363,761,000 


33.1 


120,533,000 


32} 


36} 


291 


341 


766,366 


489,576 


1879 


16,146,000 
16,188,000 


26.3 


407,869,000 


















1880.... 


25.8 


417,885,000 


36.0 


150,244,000 


29} 


331 


36} 


391 


402,904 


64,412 


1881.... 


16,832,000 


24.7 


416,481,000 


46.4 


193,199,000 


43j 


46} 


48} 
38} 


56} 


625,690 


1,850,983 


1882 


18,495,000 


26.4 


488,251,000 


37.5 


182,978,000 


34| 


411 


42} 


461,496 


815,017 


1883 


20,325,000 


28.1 


571,302,000 


32.7 


187,040,000 


29} 


36} 


30} 


34} 


3,274,622 


121,069 


1884.... 


21,301,000 


27.4 


583,628,000 


27.7 


161,528,000 


221 


25J 


341 


37 


6,203,104 


94,310 


1885 


22,784,000 


27.6 


629,409,000 


28.5 


179,632,000 


27 


29 


it 


29} 


7,311,306 


149,480 


1886.... 


23,658,000 


26.4 


624,134,000 


29.8 


186,138,000 


25| 


271 


271 


1,374,635 


139,575 


1887 


25,921,000 


25.4 


659,618,000 


30.4 


200,700,000 


28| 


301 


321 


38 


573,080 


123,817 


1888...- 


26,998,000 


26.0 


701,735,000 


27.8 


195,424,000 


25 


26? 


21} 


23} 


1,191,471 


131,501 


1889 


27,462,000 


27.4 


751,515,000 


22.9 


171,781,000 


20 


21 


24} 


30 


15,107,238 


153,232 


1889 


28,321,000 

26,431,000 


28. 6 


809,261,000 
523,621,000 


















1890 


19.8 


42.4 


222,048,000 


39| 


431 


45} 


54 


1,382,836 


41,848 


1891 


25,582,000 


28.9 


738,394,000 


31.5 


232,312,000 


31J 


33} 


28} 


331 


10,586,644 


47,782 


1892 


27,064,000 


24.4 


661,035,000 


31.7 


209,254,000 


25§ 


311 


28} 


32} 


2,700,793 


49,433 


1893 


27,273,000 


23.4 


638,855,000 


29.4 


187,576,000 


271 


291 


321 


36 


6,290,228 


31, 759 


1894. . . . 


27,024,000 


24.5 


662,037,000 


32.4 


214,817,000 


28} 


29} 


271 


30} 


1,708,824 


330,318 


1895.... 


27,878,1)00 


29.6 


824,444,000 


19.9 


163,655,000 


16| 


171 


18 


19} 


15,156,618 


66,602 


1896 


27,566,000 


25.7 


707,346,000 


18.7 


132,485,000 


161 


18} 


161 


18} 


37,725,083 


131,204 


1897 


25,730,000 


27.2 


698,768,000 


21.2 


147,975,000 


21 


231 


26 


32 


73,880,307 


25,093 


1898.... 


25,777,000 


28.4 


730,907,000 


25.5 


186,405,000 


26 


27} 


24 


27} 


33,534,362 


28,098 


1899 


26,341,000 


30.2 


796,178,000 


24.9 


198,168,000 


22J 


23 


21} 


23} 


45,048,857 


54,576 


1899 


29,640,000 
27,365,000 


31. 9 


943,389,000 
809,126,000 


















1900 


29.6 


25.8 


208,669,000 


21 J 


22} 


27J 


31 


42,268,931 


32,107 


1901 


28,541,000 


25.8 


736,809,000 


39.9 


293,659,000 


42 


«} 


41 


491 


13,277,612 


38,978 


1902 


28,653,000 


34.5 


987,843,000 


30.7 


303,585,000 


29} 


32 


33} 


38} 


8,381,805 


150,065 


1903 


27,638,000 


28.4 


784,094,000 


34.1 


267,662,000 


34i 


38 


39} 


44} 


1,960,740 


183,983 


1904 


27,843,000 


32.1 


894,596,000 


31.3 


279,900,000 


281 


32 


28} 


32 


8,394,692 


55,699 


1905.... 


28,047,000 


34.0 


953,216,000 


29.1 


277,048,000 


29i 


32} 


321 


34} 


48,434,541 


40,025 


1906 


30,959,000 


31.2 


964,905,000 


31.7 


306,293,000 


33 


35} 


44* 


481 


6,386,334 


91,289 


1907 


31,837,000 


23.7 


754,443,000 


44.3 


334,568,000 


461 


501 


52} 
56} 
36| 


561 


2,518,855 


383,418 


1908 


32,344,000 


25.0 


807,156,000 


47.2 


381,171,000 


48} 


50! 


621 


2,333,817 


6,691,700 


1909 


33,204,000 


30.3 


1,007,353,000 


40.5 


408,174,000 


40 


45 


43} 


2,548,726 


1,034,511 


1909 


S5, 169,000 
37,548,000 


28.6 


1,007,129,000 
1,186,341,000 


















1910«... 


31.6 


34.4 


408,388,000 


31 


321 


311 


36 


3,845,850 


107,318 


1911 


37,763,000 


24.4 


922,298,000 


45.0 


414,663,000 


46i 


478 


501 


58 


2,677,749 


2,622,357 


1912 


37,917,000 


37.4 


1,418,337,000 


31.9 


452,469,000 


31 


31} 


351 


43 


36,455,474 


723,899 


1913 


38,399,000 


29.2 


1,121,768,000 


39.2 


439,596,000 


37} 


40J 





















i Quotations are for contract since 1906. » Oatmeal not included 1867 to 1882, inclusive, and 1909. 

* Oatmeal not included 1866 to 1882, inclusive. * Figures adjusted to census basis. 



390 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 
OATS— Continued. 



Table 27. —Acreage, production, total farm value, and value per acre of oats, by States, 

1912 and 1913. 



State. 



Maine 

New Hampshire . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 



Connecticut... 

New York 

New Jersey... 
Pennsylvania . 
Delaware 



Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia. . . 
North Carolina. . 
South Carolina.. 



Georgia . 
Florida . , 
Ohio.... 
Indiana. 
Illinois.. 



Michigan. . . 
Wisconsin. 
Minnesota. 

Iowa 

Missouri... 



North Dakota. 
South Dakota. . 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

Kentucky 



Tennessee. . 
Alabama. . . 
Mississippi. 
Louisiana.. 
Texas 



Oklahoma. 
Arkansas . . 
Montana... 
Wyoming. . 
Colorado... 



New Mexico. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 



Idaho 

Washington. 

Oregon 

California 



Thousands of acres. 



United States . 



1913 



140 
12 
79 



11 
1,275 

70 

1,154 

4 

45 
195 
115 
230 
360 

420 

50 

1,800 

1,700 

4,375 

1,500 

2,275 
2,980 
4,880 
1,250 

2,250 
1,590 
2,250 
1,760 
160 

300 
325 
140 
45 
1,000 

1,030 
240 
500 
220 
305 

50 

7 

90 

11 

325 
300 
360 
210 



133 
12 

77 



11 

1,192 

67 

1,099 

4 

45 
175 
111 
204 
324 



43 
2,120 
1,990 
4,220 

1,485 
2,272 
2,948 
4,928 
1,125 

2,300 

1,550 

2,275 

1,720 

150 

258 
260 
113 
34 
865 



175 
476 
205 
290 

53 

6 

91 

10 



284 
359 
200 



Production (thousands 
of bushels). 



1913 



37,917 



5,600 
420 

3,081 
315 

52 

308 

42,712 

2,030 

35, 774 

122 

1,260 
4,192 

2,760 
4,485 
8,460 

9,240 
900 

54,360 
36,380 
104, 125 

45,000 

83,038 

112,644 

168,360 

26,500 

57,825 
42, 135 
59, 625 
34,320 
3,168 

6,300 

6,662 

2,800 

990 

32,500 

18,540 
6,360 

21,750 
8,360 

10,675 

1,500 
301 

4,140 
473 

15,112 

14,250 
15,228 
6,636 



1912 



1,121,768 



4,602 
468 

3,311 
272 

57 

338 

36, 714 

1,849 

36, 377 

122 

1,350 

3,885 
3,108 
3,794 
6,966 

7,571 

740 

93,280 

79,799 

182, 726 

51, 826 

84, 746 

122, 932 

217, 818 

37,125 

95,220 
52,390 
55, 510 
55,040 
4,035 

5,599 

5,200 

1,966 

707 

31,140 

23,494 
3,482 

22, 848 
8,569 

12,412 

1,839 
268 

4,222 
400 

17,017 
13,689 
13,714 
7,800 



Value, basis Dec. 1 

price (thousands 

of dollars). 



1913 



3,080 
235 

1,602 
170 
26 



20,075 

954 

16,456 

62 

605 
2,180 
1,408 
2,736 
6,007 

6,283 

630 

21,744 

13, 824 

39,568 

17,550 
30, 724 
36,046 
57,242 
11,925 

17,348 
14, 326 
22,658 
15,444 
1,647 

3,339 

4,597 

1,764 

564 

16,575 

8,343 

3,371 
6,960 
3,344 
4,697 

900 
150 

1,656 
307 

4,836 
5,700 
5,787 
3,982 



1,418,337 439,596 



1912 



2,347 
225 

1,589 
128 



166 
15,420 

814 

14,915 

55 

608 
2,020 
1,461 
2,352 
4,598 

4,921 
518 

30, 782 
23,940 
54,818 

17,103 
27,119 
31,962 
58,811 
12,994 

20,948 
13,098 
16,653 
19,264 
1,775 

2,632 

3,224 

1,180 

361 

13,390 

7,988 
1,741 
7,997 
3,171 
4,717 



188 
2,069 



5,956 
5,476 
5,623 
4,290 



Value (dollars) 
per acre, basis 
Dec. 1 price. 



1913 



22.00 
19.60 
20.28 
18.90 
13.00 

15.40 
15.74 
13.63 
14.26 
15.56 

13.44 
11.18 
12.24 
11.90 
16.68 

14.96 
12.60 
12.08 
8.13 

9.04 

11.70 
13.50 
12.10 
11.73 
9.54 

7.71 
9.01 

10.07 
8.78 

10.30 

11.13 
14.14 

12.60 
12.54 
16.58 

8.10 
14.04 
13.92 

15.20 
15.40 

18.00 
21.50 
18.40 
27.95 

14.88 
19.00 
16.07 

18.96 



452, 469 



11.45 



1912 



17.65 
18.72 
20.64 
15.98 
12.87 

15.04 
12.94 
12.14 
13.57 
13.72 

13.50 
11.54 
13.16 
11.53 
14.19 

13.52 
12.04 
14.52 
12.03 
12.99 

11.52 
11.94 
10.84 
11.93 
11.55 

9.11 

8.45 

7.32 

11.20 

11.84 

10.20 
12.40 
10.44 
10.61 
15.48 

8.53 

9.95 

16.80 

15.47 

16.26 

15.62 
31.29 
22.74 
20.80 

17.12 
19.28 
15.66 
21.45 



11.93 



Statistics of Oats. 

OATS— Continued. 

Table 28. — Yield per acre and price per bushel of oats, by States. 



391 



State. 



Yield (bushels) per acre. 



10-year averages. 



Farm price (cents) per bushel. 



10-year averages 
for Dee. 1. 



Quarterly, 1913. 



Me.... 
N. H. 
Vt.... 
Mass... 
B.I. 

Conn.. 
N.Y.. 
N. J... 
Pa.... 
Del... 

Md.... 
Va.... 
W.Va. 
N.C. 

S.C.. 



Ga.... 
Fla.... 
Ohio. . 
Ind... 
Ill 

Mich.. 
Wis... 
Minn.. 
Iowa. . 
Mo.... 



N. Dak. 
S. Dak.. 
Nehr.... 

Kans 

Ky 



Term. 
Ala. . . 
Miss.. 
La.... 
Tex. . . 



Okla.... 

Ark 

Mont 

Wyo 

Colo 

N. Mex. 

Ariz 

Utah.... 
Nev 



Idaho... 
Wash... 

Oreg 

Cal 

U.S.. 



26.0 
36.0 
35.4 
31.9 
30.7 

29.9 

32.9 
28.8 
30.8 
21.5 

19.8 
15.1 
23.6 
14.4 

12.0 

12.9 
13.4 
29.5 
26.1 
30.1 

32.4 
34.6 
34.0 
34.4 
27.6 

32.2 
31.7 
22.2 

18.4 
14.2 
15.0 
16.8 

28.7 



28.2 
32.3 
33.1 
29.9 
28.0 

28.1 
28.6 
26.8 
28.1 
21.0 

20.1 
11.8 
17>7 
9.5 
10.5 



10.2 
30.7 
27.2 
34.2 

32.3 

30.4 
33.4 
32.2 
26.1 

30.7 

28.5 
28.0 
18.2 

13.6 
10.7 
11.2 
12.7 

23.8 



34.7 

34.0 
36.1 
32.8 
29.0 

27.2 

27.8 

26.3 

26. 

20.9 

20.9 
14.0 

20.7 
12.0 
12.6 

12.5 
11.1 

29.7 
27.3 
29.6 

28.7 
32.8 
31.0 
31.2 
21.9 

(26.7 

123.6 
24.4 
22.4 
19.4 

15.2 
13.1 

13.5 
15.4 

24.4 



23.3 
i 32.4 



16.7 
33.6 
29.7 
30.8 



22.3 



31.5 



29.6 



34.3 
32.1 



26.2 
29.8 

31.3 
36.4 

28.2 
26.2 



32.4 



35. 

30.2 

28.1 

28.8 



37.0 
32.3 
36.0 
33.1 
29.4 

31.9 
31.3 
28.0 
29.3 
25.4 

25.1 
17.6 
22.1 
14.8 
17.1 

15.3 
13.5 
33.2 
29.0 
31.2 

31.6 
33.3 
31.7 
29.5 
23.4 

29.7 
31.6 
26.4 
24.4 
20.9 

19.4 
15.6 
16.7 
16.9 
27.8 

29.4 
20.0 
43.3 
35.9 
35.3 

29.9 
33.3 
40.2 
38.6 

41.7 
46.3 
30.0 
31.2 



42.4 
42.8 
41.5 
35.5 
35.0 

36.8 
34.5 
37.1 
35.2 
33.8 

30.0 
22.0 
25.2 
18.2 
21.0 

18.2 
16.2 
37.2 
35.4 
38.0 

34.0 

29.8 
28.7 
37. 
33.6 

7.0 
23.0 
28.0 
33.3 
25.0 

23.0 

18.5 
19.2 
21.5 
35.0 

36.5 

27. 

38.0 

32.0 

39.1 

27.4 
40.1 
43.0 
44.7 

38.5 
42.8 

34.5 
37.0 



38.5 
33.8 
35.0 
35.0 
29.0 

35.1 
29.5 

28.5 
28.3 
30.0 

27.0 
20.0 
22.0 
16.5 
20.4 

21.5 
13.5 
32.1 

28.7 



28.6 
29.8 
22.8 
25.5 
14.8 

23.5 

7.4 
13.9 
15.0 
18.4 

19.5 
19.2 
18.4 
21.0 

25.1 

9.0 
20.0 
49.8 
34.5 
35.0 



42.0 
44.7 
45.0 

44.0 
51.7 
34.7 
34.0 



34.6 
39.0 
43.0 
34.0 



30.7 
30.8 
27.6 
33.1 
30.5 

30.0 
22.2 
28.0 
18.6 
21.5 

20.8 
17.2 
44.0 
40.1 



34.9 
37.3 
41.7 
44.2 
33.0 

41.4 

33.8 
24.4 
32.0 



21.7 

20.0 
17.4 
20. 
36.0 

25.1 
19.9 
48.0 
41.8 
42.8 

34.7 
44.7 
46.4 

40.0 

48.9 
48.2 
38.2 
39.0 



40.0 
35.0 
39.0 
35.0 
26.0 

28.0 
33.5 
29.0 
31.0 
30.5 

28.0 
21.5 
24.0 
19.5 
23.5 

22.0 
18.0 
30.2 
21.4 



30.0 
36.5 
37.8 
34.5 
21.2 

25.7 
26.5 
26.5 
19.5 
19.8 

21.0 

20.5 
20.0 
22.0 
32.5 

18.0 
26.5 
43.5 
38.0 
35.0 

30.0 
43.0 
46.0 
43.0 

46.5 
47.5 
42.3 
31.6 



}- 
23 

25 

37 



90 



22 



8.4 



26.5 



26.2 



29.5 



31.6 



24.4 



37.4 



9.2 



42 



i The Territories. 



392 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 
OATS— Continued. 



Table 29. — Farm price of oats per bushel on first of each month, by geographical divisions, 

1912 and 1913. 



Month. 


United 

States. 


North 
Atlantic 
States. 


South 
Atlantic 
States. 


N. Central 
States east 
of Miss. R. 


N. Central 
States west 
of Miss. R. 


South 
Central 
States. 


Far West- 
ern States. 




1913 


1912 


1913 


1912 


1913 


1912 


1913 


1912 


1915 


1912 


1913 


1912 


1913 


1912 


January 

February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November . 
December. . 


Cts. 
32.2 
32.4 
33.1 
33.1 
34.2 
36.0 

37.7 
37.6 
39.3 
39.6 
37.9 
39.2 


Cts. 
45.1 
47.5 
49.8 
52.0 
56.0 
55.3 

52.5 
44.3 
35.0 
33.6 
33.6 
31.9 


Cts. 
41.8 
41.8 
42.2 
43.0 
45.0 
46.0 

47.1 
47.2 
47.3 
47.8 
45.8 
47.4 


Cts. 
51.5 
53.2 
56.4 
58.8 
63.1 
65.2 

64.2 
60.7 
48.6 
43.4 
42.4 
42.4 


Cts. 
58.9 
61.8 
60.0 
60.4 
58.7 
60.0 

58.3 
58.2 
60.2 
61.2 
62.2 
63.4 


Cts. 
64.7 
67.5 
68.2 
69.1 
73.2 
72.9 

71.3 
69.3 
64.9 
63.8 
62.6 
60.0 


Cts. 
31.6 
31.6 
32.0 
31.8 
32.6 
35.0 

37.1 
37.2 
38.5 
39.4 
37.6 
38.2 


Cts. 
44.2 
46.2 
48.8 
50.8 
55.0 
54.0 

51.0 
41.6 
32.1 
31.4 
31.4 
31.2 


Cts. 
27.9 
27.9 
29.0 
28.9 
30.5 
32.2 

34.7 
34 3 
36.6 
36.3 
34.4 
34.9 


Cts. 
41.6 
44.3 
46.0 
48.7 
52.2 
50.1 

48.2 
37.8 
28.3 
27.9 
28.1 
27.3 


as. 

43.5 
44.2 
46.2 
45.5 
46.0 
45.8 

42.3 
42.2 
47.0 
49.9 
49.7 
52.0 


Cts. 
55.5 
62.5 
65.7 
66.7 
68.4 
69.6 

55.0 
46.7 
45.7 
45.5 
45.9 
42.7 


Cts. 
38.6 
39.8 
39.3 
40.3 
40,4 
42.6 

43.2 
43.1 
41.7 
40.8 
40.1 
38.9 


Cts. 

44.5 

44.6 

47.5 

49.9 

55.5 

58.4 

56.4 
54.6 
43.5 
3a 1 
39.4 
39.4 


Average. . 


36.8 


41.6 


45.5 


52.0 


60.2 


67.1 


35.9 


40.2 


33.2 


36.3 


45.7 


50.9 


40.3 


43.5 



Table 30. — Condition of oat crop, United States, on first of months named, 1893-1913. 











is . 










S . 










& . 








+» 


■"I! 








+3 


•"■■S 








4i 


•§■£ 


Year. 


i 

a 


3 


3 

< 




Year. 


1 


3 

l-s 


i 

< 




Year. 


§ 

*-> 


3 


1 


Si 




P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 




P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P ct. 




P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


P.ct. 


1893 


88.9 


88.8 


78.3 


74.9 


1900.... 


91.7 


85.5 


85.0 


82.9 


1907.... 


81.6 


81.0 


75.6 


65.5 


1894 


87.0 


77.7 


76.5 


77.8 


1901.... 


85.3 


83.7 


73.6 


72.1 


1908.... 


92.9 


85.7 


76.8 


69.7 


1895 


84.3 


83.2 


84.5 


86.0 


1902.... 


90.6 


92.1 


89.4 


87.2 


1909.... 


8S.7 


88.3 


85.5 


83.8 


1896 


98.8 


96.3 


77.3 


74.0 


1903.... 


85.5 


84.3 


79.5 


75.7 


1910.... 


91.0 


82.2 


81.5 


83.3 


1897 


89.0 


87.5 


86.0 


84.6 


1904.... 


89.2 


89.8 


86.6 


85.6 


1911.... 


85.7 


68.8 


65.7 


64.5 


1898 


98.0 


92.8 


84.2 


79.0 


1905.... 


92.9 


92.1 


90.8 


90.3 


1912.... 


91.1 


89.2 


90.3 


92.3 


1899 


88.7 


90.0 


90.8 


87.2 


1906.... 


85.9 


84.0 


82.8 


81.9 


1913.... 


87.0 


76.3 


73.8 


74.0 



Statistics of Oats. 

OATS— Continued. 

Table 31. — Wholesale price of oats per bushel, 1899-1913. 



393 





New York. 


Baltimore. 


Cincin- 
nati. 


Chicago. 


Milwau- 
kee. 


Duluth. 


Detroit. 


San Fran- 
cisco. 


Date. 


No. 2 
mixed. 1 


No. 2 
mixed. 1 


No. 2 
mixed. 


Contract. 2 


No. 3 
white. 


No 


.3.5 


No. 3 
white. 1 


No. 1 white 
(per 100 lbs.). 




Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low: High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 


Low. 


High. 




Cts 


Cts. 


Cts 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Cts. 


Dolls. 


Dolls. 


1899.... 


25} 
24} 


351 


24} 


35 


21* 


31} 


19* 


28} 


22} 


31} 


m 

22} 


30} 


23} 


33 


1.22} 


1.45 


1900.... 


29* 


24 


29} 


21 


28 


21 


26} 


24 


29 


28 


24 


29} 


1.22} 


1.40 


1901.... 


28} 


52 T 


28 


53 


25 


50} 


231 


48} 


25* 


48} 


25} 


46} 


28 


60} 


1.02} 


1.55 


1902 


32 


65 


29 


60 


27 


57 


25 


56 


30} 


58 


2/* 


*'t 


34} 


61 


1.15 


1.50 


1903.... 


38 


441 


34} 


44 


31} 


43} 


311 


45 


33} 


41 


31 


40 


35} 


45 


1.17} 


1.37} 


1904.... 


34* 


551 


33 


48 


31 


44* 
35} 


28} 


46 


28* 


45 


27} 


43 


31} 


48} 


1.25 


1.60 


1905.... 


29 


37} 


27} 


37 


35 


25 


42} 


27} 


35} 


25} 


32} 


26} 


37 


1.37} 


1.80 




34 
38} 


45 
63 


33} 
39* 


45} 
59} 


30 
37 


43 
55* 


28} 
33} 


29 
32} 


43 
56 


28} 
33* 






43} 
58 






1907.... 


53 


37 


1.30 


1.85 


1908.... 


51 


61} 


50} 


62 


47 


60 


46 


60} 


45 


62} 


45} 


57 


47 


64 




1.75 


1909.... 


39} 


62 


38* 


62} 


35* 


62 


36} 
29} 


62} 


35} 


62} 


33 


58} 


36} 


64} 


1.55 


2.25 


1910.... 


47 


52 


35* 


53 


31* 


52 


49 


30* 


49} 


29 


4/} 


34 


51 


1.42} 


1.75 


1911.... 


35* 


55 


35* 


54} 


31 


51} 


28* 


m 


29} 


49 


28* 


461 
56? 


32 


51 


1.35 




1912.... 


38} 


64 


37} 


66} 


32 


61 


30} 


58} 


30} 


59} 


28* 


33} 


63} 


1.47} 


2.12} 


1913. 


( 
38 


39 


39 


40} 


34 


36 


32 


33} 


32} 


34 


29} 


31* 


35 


36} 


1.43} 


1.52} 


Feb.... 


371 


39} 


38* 


40 


33* 


37 


32$ 


34} 


33} 


35} 


30 


32} 
30} 


34} 


37} 


1.46} 


1.50 


Mar.... 


36} 


38 


38* 


40 


33} 


35} 


31* 


331 


31} 


35} 


27} 
28} 
32} 


34} 


36 


1.47} 


1.53} 


Apr 

llay.... 


37J 
41? 


40 
46} 


40 
42* 


43 

46} 


35 
34} 


37} 
40* 


34 
35} 


35} 
43 


33 
34} 


36 
42 


33} 
39 


36} 

38} 


39 
43 


1.50 
1.60 


1.62} 
1.67} 


June... 


46 


48 


441 


47 


39 


43} 


38} 


43} 


38} 


42} 


3V4 


*H 


41 


44} 






July.... 
Aug.... 
Sept... 
Oct... 


44 


48 


45 


45} 


39 


44 


37} 


4 H 


38* 


42 


35} 


39} 


42 


44 


1.50 


1.57} 


47 


49 


46 


46} 


40* 


43* 


39* 


42} 


41 


41} 


38* 


41} 


42 


45} 


1.47} 


1.52} 


4ft* 


50 


4ft 


47* 


41 


47 


40* 


43* 


40 


44 


37} 


42} 


43 


45} 
44} 


1.46} 




44J 

46 

461 

361 


48 




46} 


39 


44 


36§ 


41 


37* • 


41* 
41} 
42 


33} 


3/} 


40} 


1.371 






47} 
47} 






41 
41 


43 

42} 


37} 
37J 


39} 

40} 


38 
37} 


85jf 
36 


36} 
38} 


42 
41 


43 
44 


1.40 
1.40 


1.45 


Dec.... 




45} 


1.45 


Year... 


50 


38} 


47} 


33} 


47 


31f 


43| 


31} 


42} 


27} 


42} 


34} 


45} 


1.37} 


1.67} 



1 No. 2 white since 1911. 

» No. 2 grade, 1899-1906. . „. , mr 

» No. 2 grade from 1899 to 1904 and 1906; "no grade" TO 1905. 

« No. 2 white, 1899-1906; standard since 1911. 

6 Quotations to May are for No. 3 whit*. 



394 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 

BARLEY. 
Table 32. — Barley crop of countries named, 1911-1913. 



Country. 


Area. 


Production. 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1911 


1912 


1913 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Acres. 
7,627,000 


Acres. 
7,530,000 


Acres. 
7,499,000 


Bushels. 
160,240,000 


Bushels. 
223,824,000 


Bushels. 
178,189,000 






Canada: 


3,000 
100,000 
520,000 
448,000 
274, 000 
164,000 
13,000 


3,000 
94,000 
512,000 
481,000 
292,000 
187,000 
13,000 


2,000 
89,000 
485,000 
496,000 
332,000 
197,000 
12,000 


79,000 
2,271,000 
13, 722, 000 
14,949,000 
8,661,000 
4,356,000 
377,000 


74,000 
2,226,000 
15,093,000 
15,826,000 
9,575,000 
6,179,000 
405, 000 


74,000 
2,263,000 




14,589,000 




14,305,000 




10,421,000 
6,334,000 


Other 


333,000 








1,522,000 


1,582,000 


1,613,000 


44,415,000 


49,378,000 


48,319,000 




(') 


(') 


(') 


6,500,000 


6,500,000 


7,000,000 






Total 








211,155,000 


279,702,000 


233,508,000 












EUROPE. 

Austria-Hungary : 


2,710,000 

2,736,000 

158,000 

180,000 


2,634,000 

2,603,000 

156,000 

220,000 


2,699,000 

2,887,000 

158,000 

263,000 


69,383,000 
73,596,000 
2,640,000 
2,970,000 


74,145,000 

70,140,000 
1,978,000 
2,857,000 


75,923,000 
79,826,000 
2,956,000 
3,904,000 


Bosnia-Herzegovina. . . 


Total Austria-Hun- 


5,784,000 


5,613,000 


6,007,000 


148,589,000 


149,120,000 


162,609,000 






83,000 

621,000 

8 578,000 

(') 

1,908,000 

3,917,000 

612,000 

69,000 

a 89, 000 

1,253,000 


84,000 
(') 
597,000 

(') 
1,877,000 
3,928,000 
604,000 

66,000 

(') 
1,235,000 


84,000 

0) 
(') 

1,890,000 
4,087,000 


4,445,000 
12, 390, 000 
21,016,000 

6,631,000 
47,631,000 
145, 132, 000 

in_882. nnn 


4,316,000 
10,000,000 
22,872,000 
6,759,000 
49,079,000 
159,924,000 
8,403,000 
3,364,000 
3,086,000 
21,295,000 


4,142,000 




10,000,000 




23,000,000 
6,368,000 

48,370,000 
188,709,000 

10,803,000 
3,296,000 
3,202,000 


Finland 






Italy 








1,390,000 


2,550,000 
26,157,000 




27,339,000 






Russia: 


23,013,000 
1,240,000 
3,836,000 


23,057,000 
1,256,000 
3,807,000 


(') 
0) 
(') • 


320,959,000 
27,938,000 
55,296,000 


354,685,000 
29,321,000 
71,952,000 


8 

c) 


Poland 

Northern Caucasia. . . . 


Total Russia (Eu- 
ropean) 2 


28,089,000 


28,120,000 


«31,197,000 


404,193,000 


455,958,000 


4 574,118,000 




255,000 

3,567,000 

446,000 


257,000 
3,298,000 
(') 


149,000 
3, 869, 000 
(') 


4,609,000 
86,792,000 
13,725,000 


4,777,000 
59,994,000 
13,660,000 


2,866,000 
68,772,000 






14,000,000 




United Kingdom: 


1,337,000 
87,000 
174,000 
158,000 


1,365,000 
92,000 
192,000 
165,000 


1,470,000 
90,000 
198,000 
173,000 


43,378,000 

2, 729, 000 
6, 489, 000 
7,099,000 


42,897,000 
2,839,000 
7,117,000 
7,259,000 


49,337,000 
2,788,000 
7,598,000 
8,004,000 










Total United King- 


1,756,000 


1,814,000 


1,931,000 


59,695,000 


60,112,000 


67,727,000 




Total 








997,853,000 


1,032,719,000 


1,215,321,000 










ASIA. 


7,840,000 
(') 


(') 
(') 




(') 
2,229,000 


(') 
2,049,000 


(') 
2,100,000 






Japanese Empire: 


3,173,000 
3,000 


3,132,000 
(') 


3,296,000 
(') 


86,468,000 
46,000 


90,559,000 
45,000 


101 073 000 




46,000 




Total Japanese Em- 




| 


86,514,000 


90,604,000 


101,119,000 






1 



i No official statistics. 
' Area in 1907 (census). 



• Exclusive of winter barley. 

« Includes 10 governments of Asiatic Russia. 



Statistics of Barley. 

BARLEY— Continued. 
Table 32. — Barley crop of countries named, 1911-1913 — Continued. 



395 



Country. 


Area. 


Production. 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1911 


1912 


1913 


Russia: 


Acres. 
420,000 
451,000 
2,000 


Acres. 
375,000 
436,000 
2,000 


Acres. 


Bushels. 
5,694,000 
4,300,000 
27,000 


Bushels. 
5,578,000 
6,585,000 
30,000 


Bushels. 




















Total Russia (As- 


873,000 


813,000 


(?) 


10,021,000 


12,193,000 


( 2 ) 




Total 








98,764,000 


104,846,000 


103,219,000 












AFRICA. 


3,320,000 
1,193,000 

( 3 ) 


3,430,000 

1,119,000 

( 3 ) 


3,152,000 
1,117,000 

( 3 ) 


47,588,000 
13,319,000 
1,359,000 


32,887,000 

3,070,000 

* 1,359,000 


50,031,000 


Tunis 


7,266,000 


Union of South Africa. .. 


* 1,359,000 


Total 








62,266,000 


37,316,000 


58,656,0C0 












AUSTRALASIA. 

Australia: 


«,000 
7,000 
53,000 
34,000 
3,000 
5,000 


2,000 
11,000 
53,000 
41,000 
4,000 
6,000 


9,000 
17,000 
72,000 
69,000 

6,000 
(') 


86,000 
85,000 
1,383,000 
562,000 
35,000 
147,000 


16,000 
133,000 

1,057,000 
725,000 
38,000 
153,000 


151,000 


New South Wales 


349,000 

1,800,000 


South Australia 

Western Australia 


1,360,000 
96,000 
274,000 








108,000 


117,000 




2,298,000 


2,122,000 


4,030,000 








34,000 


32,000 


37,000 


950,000 


1,296,000 


1,420,000 








142,000 


149,000 




3,248,000 


3,418,000 


5,450,000 














1,373,286,000 


1,458,001,000 


1,616,154,000 













1 Exclusive of winter barley. 

2 Included in European Russia. 



3 No official statistics. 

* Census figures of 1911 repeated. 



Table 33.— Total 


production of barley in countries named in Table 32, 


1895-1913. 


Year. 


Production. 


Year. 


Production. 


Year. 


Production. 


Year. 


Production. 


1895 
1896 
1897,, . 
1898 
1899 


Bushels. 

915,504,000 

932, 100, 000 
. 864,605,000 
1,030,581,000 

965,720,000 


1900.... 
1901.... 
1902.... 
1903.... 
1904.... 


Bushels. 

959,622,000 
1,072,195,000 
1,229,132,000 
1,235,786,000 
1,175,784,000 


1905.... 
1906.... 
1907.... 
1908.... 
1909.... 


Bushels. 
1,180,053,000 
1,296,579,000 
1,271,237,000 

1,274,897,000 
1,458,263,000 


1910.... 
1911.... 

1912 

1913.... 


Bushels. 
1,388,734,000 
1,373,286,000 
, 1,458,001,000 
1,616,154,000 



Table 34. — Average yield of barley in countries named, bushels per acre, 1890-1913. 



Year. 


United 

States. 


Russia 
(Euro- 
pean) .i 


Ger- 
many. 1 


Austria. 1 


Hungary 
proper.' 


France. 5 


United 
King- 
dom. 2 


Average: 

1890-1899 


23.4 
25.5 


13.3 
14.3 


29.4 
35.3 


21.1 
26.3 




22.6 
23.6 


39.8 


1900-1909 


23.4 


35.0 






1904 


27.2 
26.8 
28.3 
23.8 
25.1 
22.5 
22.5 
21.0 
29.7 
23.8 


14.4 
14.3 
13.0 
14.2 
14.2 
17.9 
16.3 
14.4 
16.2 
U8.4 


33.7 
33.3 
35.2 
38.2 
34.9 
39.5 
34.4 
37.0 
40.7 
41.3 


22.8 
24.0 
26.1 
27.3 
25.2 
28.4 
24.9 
27.5 
29.7 
29.7 


19.7 
24.5 
26.8 
23.1 
21.3 
25.1 
19.7 
26.9 
26.9 
26.5 


22.0 
23.4 
20.8 
24.4 
22.6 
25.4 
23.5 
25.0 
26.1 
25.6 


32.3 


1905 


35.9 


1906 


36.1 


1907. r 


36.8 


1908 


34.9 


1909 


38.9 


1910 


34.3 


1911 




1912 


33.1 


1913 


35.1 






Averaje (1904-1913) 


25.1 


15.3 


36.8 


26.6 


24.0 


23.9 


35.1 



i Bushels of 48 pounds. ' Winchester bushels. " Includes 10 governments of Asiatic Russia. 



396 



Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. 



BARLEY— Continued . 
Table 35. — Acreage, production, value, exports, etc., of barley, United States, 1849-1913. 

Note. — Figures ia it ilics are census returns: figures in roman are estimates of the Department of Agricul- 
ture. Estimates of acres are obtained by applying estimated percentages of increase or decrease to the 
published numbers of the preceding year, except that a revised base is used for applying percentage esti- 
mates whenever new census data are available. 



Acreage. 



Acres. 



Bush 



493,000 
1,131,000 

937,000 
1,026,000 



1,109,000 
1,114,000 
1,397,000 
1,387,000 
1,581,000 

1,790,000 
1,767,000 
1,669,000 
1,790,000 
1,681,000 
1,998,000 

1,843,000 
1,968,000 
2,272,000 
2,379,000 
2,609,000 

2,729,000 
2,653,000 
2,902,000 
2,996,000 
3,221,000 
$,281,000 

3,135,000 
3,353,000 
3,400,000 
3,220,000 
3,171,000 

3,300,000 
2,951,000 
2,719,000 
2,583,000 
2,878,000 
4, ',70,000 

2,894,000 
4,296,000 
4,661,000 
4,993,000 
5, 146, 000 

5,096,000 
6,324,000 
6,448,000 
6,646,000 
7,011,000 
7,698,000 

7,743,000 
7,627,000 
7,530,000 
7,499,000 



Av- 
erage 
yield 

per 
acre. 



22.9 
22.7 
24.4 
27.9 



23. 

24.0 

19.2 

23.1 

20.6 

20.6 
21.9 
21.4 
23.6 

24.0 

24.5 
20.9 
21.5 
21.1 
23.5 

21.4 
22.4 
19.6 
21.3 
24.3 
2> t .S 

21.4 

25.9 
23.6 
21 
19.4 

26.4 
23.6 
24.5 
21.6 

25. 5 



20.4 
25.6 
29.0 
26.4 
27.2 

26 
28.3 
23 
25.1 

24.3 

n.B 

22.5 
21.0 
29.7 
23. 



Produc- 
tion. 



Bushels. 
6,107,000 

- --1,000 

,284,000 
727,000 
,896,000 
,652,000 
,761,000 



67,